Next Article in Journal
Optimally Distributed Kalman Filtering with Data-Driven Communication
Next Article in Special Issue
Detection of Glyphosate in Drinking Water: A Fast and Direct Detection Method without Sample Pretreatment
Previous Article in Journal
Robust Sliding Mode Control of PMSM Based on Rapid Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator and Disturbance Observer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Antibiotics and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity with Screen-Printed Electrodes
Review

Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with “Green” Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements

Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 157 71, Greece
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041032
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes)
This work reviews the field of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with “green” metals for electrochemical stripping analysis of toxic elements. Electrochemical stripping analysis has been established as a useful trace analysis technique offering many advantages compared to competing optical techniques. Although mercury has been the preferred electrode material for stripping analysis, the toxicity of mercury and the associated legal requirements in its use and disposal have prompted research towards the development of “green” metals as alternative electrode materials. When combined with the screen-printing technology, such environment-friendly metals can lead to disposable sensors for trace metal analysis with excellent operational characteristics. This review focuses on SPEs modified with Au, Bi, Sb, and Sn for stripping analysis of toxic elements. Different modification approaches (electroplating, bulk modification, use of metal precursors, microengineering techniques) are considered and representative applications are described. A developing related field, namely biosensing based on stripping analysis of metallic nanoprobe labels, is also briefly mentioned. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen-printed electrodes; “green” metals; stripping analysis; toxic elements; bismuth; antimony; tin; gold screen-printed electrodes; “green” metals; stripping analysis; toxic elements; bismuth; antimony; tin; gold
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Economou, A. Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with “Green” Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements. Sensors 2018, 18, 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041032

AMA Style

Economou A. Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with “Green” Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements. Sensors. 2018; 18(4):1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Economou, Anastasios. 2018. "Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with “Green” Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements" Sensors 18, no. 4: 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041032

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop