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Sensors, Volume 18, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Development and Hybrid Position/Force Control of a Dual-Drive Macro-Fiber-Composite Microgripper
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041301
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on the development, implementation and hybrid control of a new micro-fiber-composite microgripper with synchronous position and force control capabilities. In particular, the micro-fiber-composite actuator was composed of rectangular piezoelectric fibers covered by interdigitated electrodes and embedded in structural epoxy. Thus,
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on the development, implementation and hybrid control of a new micro-fiber-composite microgripper with synchronous position and force control capabilities. In particular, the micro-fiber-composite actuator was composed of rectangular piezoelectric fibers covered by interdigitated electrodes and embedded in structural epoxy. Thus, the micro-fiber-composite microgripper had a larger displacement-volume ratio (i.e., the ratio of the output displacement to the volume of the microgripper) than that of a traditional piezoelectric one. Moreover, to regulate both the gripper position and the gripping force simultaneously, a hybrid position/force control scheme using fuzzy sliding mode control and the proportional-integral controller was developed. In particular, the fuzzy sliding mode control was used to achieve the precision position control under the influence of the system disturbances and uncertainties, and the proportional-integral controller was used to guarantee the force control accuracy of the microgripper. A series of experimental investigations was performed to verify the feasibility of the developed microgripper and the control scheme. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the designed microgripper and hybrid control scheme. The developed microgripper was capable of precision and multiscale micromanipulation tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Piezoelectric Transducers and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Wind Gust Measurement Techniques—From Traditional Anemometry to New Possibilities
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041300
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds) maximum of the fluctuating
[...] Read more.
Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds) maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years. Although the response characteristics of anemometer systems are good enough today, the traditional measurement techniques at weather stations based on cup and sonic anemometers are limited to heights and regions where the supporting structures can reach. Therefore, existing measurements are mainly concentrated over densely-populated land areas, whereas from remote locations, such as the marine Arctic, wind gust information is available only from sparse coastal locations. Recent developments of wind gust measurement techniques based on turbulence measurements from research aircraft and from Doppler lidar can potentially provide new information from heights and locations unreachable by traditional measurement techniques. Moreover, fast-developing measurement methods based on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) may add to better coverage of wind gust measurements in the future. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and the current status of anemometry from the perspective of wind gusts. Furthermore, a discussion on the potential future directions of wind gust measurement techniques is provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Detection in Urban Areas from GF-3
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041299
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid and accurate detection of urban water is critical for urban management, river detection, and flood disaster assessment. This study is devoted to detecting water by GaoFen-3 (GF-3) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images with high spatial resolution. There have been no effective
[...] Read more.
The rapid and accurate detection of urban water is critical for urban management, river detection, and flood disaster assessment. This study is devoted to detecting water by GaoFen-3 (GF-3) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images with high spatial resolution. There have been no effective solutions that discriminate water and building shadows using a single SAR image in previous research. Inspired by the principle that every shadow has a corresponding building nearby, a new method is proposed in this study, whereby building shadows are removed depending on the correspondence of buildings and their shadows. The proposed method is demonstrated effective and efficient by experimental results on six GF-3 SAR images. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the water detection results indicate that the proposed method increases the Probability of Detection (PD) to 98.36% and decreases the Probability of False Alarm (PFA) to 1.91% compared with the thresholding method, where, at the same PFA level, the maximum PD of the thresholding method is 72.62% in all testing samples. The proposed method is capable of removing building shadows and detecting water with high precision in urban areas, which presents the great potential of high-spatial-resolution GF-3 images in terms of water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue First Experiences with Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Sensor)
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Open AccessArticle Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041298
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the
[...] Read more.
Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44%) was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fault Detection)
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Open AccessArticle A Refined Crop Drought Monitoring Method Based on the Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041297
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI) models based on the red-near infrared spectral space are established for the first time through the analysis of the spectral characteristics of GF-1 wide field view (WFV) data, with a high spatial resolution of 16
[...] Read more.
In this study, modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI) models based on the red-near infrared spectral space are established for the first time through the analysis of the spectral characteristics of GF-1 wide field view (WFV) data, with a high spatial resolution of 16 m and the highest frequency as high as once every 4 days. GF-1 data was from the Chinese-made, new-generation high-resolution GF-1 remote sensing satellites. Soil-type spatial data are introduced for simulating soil lines in different soil types for reducing errors of using same soil line. Multiple vegetation indices are employed to analyze the response to the MPDI models. Relative soil moisture content (RSMC) and precipitation data acquired at selected stations are used to optimize the drought models, and the best one is the Two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2)-based MPDI model. The crop area that was statistically significantly affected by drought from a local governmental department, and used for validation. High correlations and small differences in drought-affected crop area was detected between the field observation data from the local governmental department and the EVI2-based MPDI results. The percentage of bias is between −21.8% and 14.7% in five sub-areas, with an accuracy above 95% when evaluating the performance via the data for the whole study region. Generally the proposed EVI2-based MPDI for GF-1 WFV data has great potential for reliably monitoring crop drought at a relatively high frequency and spatial scale. Currently there is almost no drought model based on GF-1 data, a full exploitation of the advantages of GF-1 satellite data and further improvement of the capacity to observe ground surface objects can provide high temporal and spatial resolution data source for refined monitoring of crop droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Distinguishing Computer-Generated Graphics from Natural Images Based on Sensor Pattern Noise and Deep Learning
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041296
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Computer-generated graphics (CGs) are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs) with the naked eye. In this
[...] Read more.
Computer-generated graphics (CGs) are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs) with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN) and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs) are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1) the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2) the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Classification and Discrimination of Different Fungal Diseases of Three Infection Levels on Peaches Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging Analysis
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041295
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Peaches are susceptible to infection from several postharvest diseases. In order to control disease and avoid potential health risks, it is important to identify suitable treatments for each disease type. In this study, the spectral and imaging information from hyperspectral reflectance (400~1000 nm)
[...] Read more.
Peaches are susceptible to infection from several postharvest diseases. In order to control disease and avoid potential health risks, it is important to identify suitable treatments for each disease type. In this study, the spectral and imaging information from hyperspectral reflectance (400~1000 nm) was used to evaluate and classify three kinds of common peach disease. To reduce the large dimensionality of the hyperspectral imaging, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyse each wavelength image as a whole, and the first principal component was selected to extract the imaging features. A total of 54 parameters were extracted as imaging features for one sample. Three decayed stages (slight, moderate and severe decayed peaches) were considered for classification by deep belief network (DBN) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) in this study. The results showed that the DBN model has better classification results than the classification accuracy of the PLSDA model. The DBN model based on integrated information (494 features) showed the highest classification results for the three diseases, with accuracies of 82.5%, 92.5%, and 100% for slightly-decayed, moderately-decayed and severely-decayed samples, respectively. The successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to select the optimal features from the integrated information; then, six optimal features were selected from a total of 494 features to establish the simple model. The SPA-PLSDA model showed better results which were more feasible for industrial application. The results showed that the hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique is feasible for detecting different kinds of diseased peaches, especially at the moderately- and severely-decayed levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing and Imaging, from UV to THz Range)
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Open AccessArticle A Single LiDAR-Based Feature Fusion Indoor Localization Algorithm
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041294
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
In past years, there has been significant progress in the field of indoor robot localization. To precisely recover the position, the robots usually relies on multiple on-board sensors. Nevertheless, this affects the overall system cost and increases computation. In this research work, we
[...] Read more.
In past years, there has been significant progress in the field of indoor robot localization. To precisely recover the position, the robots usually relies on multiple on-board sensors. Nevertheless, this affects the overall system cost and increases computation. In this research work, we considered a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) device as the only sensor for detecting surroundings and propose an efficient indoor localization algorithm. To attenuate the computation effort and preserve localization robustness, a weighted parallel iterative closed point (WP-ICP) with interpolation is presented. As compared to the traditional ICP, the point cloud is first processed to extract corners and line features before applying point registration. Later, points labeled as corners are only matched with the corner candidates. Similarly, points labeled as lines are only matched with the lines candidates. Moreover, their ICP confidence levels are also fused in the algorithm, which make the pose estimation less sensitive to environment uncertainties. The proposed WP-ICP architecture reduces the probability of mismatch and thereby reduces the ICP iterations. Finally, based on given well-constructed indoor layouts, experiment comparisons are carried out under both clean and perturbed environments. It is shown that the proposed method is effective in significantly reducing computation effort and is simultaneously able to preserve localization precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Sensor Related Papers from ICI2017)
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Open AccessArticle Path Diversity Improved Opportunistic Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041293
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The packets carried along a pre-defined route in underwater sensor networks are very vulnerble. Node mobility or intermittent channel availability easily leads to unreachable routing. Opportunistic routing has been proven to be a promising paradigm to design routing protocols for underwater sensor networks.
[...] Read more.
The packets carried along a pre-defined route in underwater sensor networks are very vulnerble. Node mobility or intermittent channel availability easily leads to unreachable routing. Opportunistic routing has been proven to be a promising paradigm to design routing protocols for underwater sensor networks. It takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium to combat packet losses and selects potential paths on the fly. Finding an appropriate forwarding candidate set is a key issue in opportunistic routing. Many existing solutions ignore the impact of candidates location distribution on packet forwarding. In this paper, a path diversity improved candidate selection strategy is applied in opportunistic routing to improve packet forwarding efficiency. It not only maximizes the packet forwarding advancements but also takes the candidate’s location distribution into account. Based on this strategy, we propose two effective routing protocols: position improved candidates selection (PICS) and position random candidates selection (PRCS). PICS employs two-hop neighbor information to make routing decisions. PRCS only uses one-hop neighbor information. Simulation results show that both PICS and PRCS can significantly improve network performance when compared with the previous solutions, in terms of packet delivery ratio, average energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Color Feature-Based Object Tracking through Particle Swarm Optimization with Improved Inertia Weight
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041292
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a particle swarm tracking algorithm with improved inertia weight based on color features. The weighted color histogram is used as the target feature to reduce the contribution of target edge pixels in the target feature, which makes the algorithm insensitive
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a particle swarm tracking algorithm with improved inertia weight based on color features. The weighted color histogram is used as the target feature to reduce the contribution of target edge pixels in the target feature, which makes the algorithm insensitive to the target non-rigid deformation, scale variation, and rotation. Meanwhile, the influence of partial obstruction on the description of target features is reduced. The particle swarm optimization algorithm can complete the multi-peak search, which can cope well with the object occlusion tracking problem. This means that the target is located precisely where the similarity function appears multi-peak. When the particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to the object tracking, the inertia weight adjustment mechanism has some limitations. This paper presents an improved method. The concept of particle maturity is introduced to improve the inertia weight adjustment mechanism, which could adjust the inertia weight in time according to the different states of each particle in each generation. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance in a wide range of scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle On the Energy Efficiency of On-Off Keying Transmitters with Two Distinct Types of Batteries
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041291
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
As nodes in wireless sensor networks are usually powered by nonrenewable batteries, energy efficient design becomes critical. This paper considers a battery-powered transmitter using on-off keying (OOK) modulation and studies its energy efficiency in terms of the battery’s energy consumption for per bit
[...] Read more.
As nodes in wireless sensor networks are usually powered by nonrenewable batteries, energy efficient design becomes critical. This paper considers a battery-powered transmitter using on-off keying (OOK) modulation and studies its energy efficiency in terms of the battery’s energy consumption for per bit transmission (BECPB). In particular, the transmitter may use one of two distinct types of batteries with battery utilization factor (BUF) depending on discharge current. The first has an instantaneous discharge current (IDC)-based BUF, while the second has a mean discharge current (MDC)-based BUF. For each type of battery, a closed-form BECPB expression is derived under a Rayleigh channel when a prescribed symbol error rate (SER) is guaranteed. Then theoretical analysis is made to study the impact of battery characteristic parameter γ , communication distance d and bandwidth B on the BECPB. Finally, the analysis is corroborated by numerical experimental results, which reveal that: the BECPB for each type of battery increases with γ and d; the BECPB for the two batteries first decreases and then increases with B, and there exists the optimal bandwidth corresponding to the minimum BECPB; the battery with IDC-based BUF corresponds to a larger BECPB. When γ and d are large, the BECPB for each type of battery is significantly higher than that for the ideal battery whose BUF is aways 1. For instance, when γ = 0.015 , d = 90 m and B = 10 kHz, the BECPB for IDC-based and MDC-based battery is nearly 60% amd 25% higher than that of the ideal battery, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proximity-Induced Artefacts in Magnetic Imaging with Nitrogen-Vacancy Ensembles in Diamond
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041290
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic imaging with ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond is a recently developed technique that allows for quantitative vector field mapping. Here we uncover a source of artefacts in the measured magnetic field in situations where the magnetic sample is placed in
[...] Read more.
Magnetic imaging with ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond is a recently developed technique that allows for quantitative vector field mapping. Here we uncover a source of artefacts in the measured magnetic field in situations where the magnetic sample is placed in close proximity (a few tens of nm) to the NV sensing layer. Using magnetic nanoparticles as a test sample, we find that the measured field deviates significantly from the calculated field, in shape, amplitude and even in sign. By modelling the full measurement process, we show that these discrepancies are caused by the limited measurement range of NV sensors combined with the finite spatial resolution of the optical readout. We numerically investigate the role of the stand-off distance to identify an artefact-free regime, and discuss an application to ultrathin materials. This work provides a guide to predict and mitigate proximity-induced artefacts that can arise in NV-based wide-field magnetic imaging, and also demonstrates that the sensitivity of these artefacts to the sample can make them a useful tool for magnetic characterisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle Microplate Chemiluminescent Assay for DNA Detection Using Apoperoxidase-Oligonucleotide as Capture Conjugate and HRP-Streptavidin Signaling System
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041289
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
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A covalent conjugate of horseradish apoperoxidase and amino-containing oligonucleotide was synthesized for the first time. Using the obtained conjugate as a capture reagent chemiluminescent microtiter plate-based assay for detection of 35-mer fragment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (proof-of-concept analyte) was developed. To
[...] Read more.
A covalent conjugate of horseradish apoperoxidase and amino-containing oligonucleotide was synthesized for the first time. Using the obtained conjugate as a capture reagent chemiluminescent microtiter plate-based assay for detection of 35-mer fragment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (proof-of-concept analyte) was developed. To detect the target DNA, a signaling system consisted of biotinylated reporter oligonucleotide and HRP-streptavidin conjugate was used. The high sensitivity of the assay was due to the enhanced chemiluminescence reaction, where 3-(10′-phenothiazinyl)propane-1-sulfonate/N-morpholinopyridine pair was used as an enhancer. Under the optimized conditions the limit of detection and a working range of the assay were 3 pM and 6–100 pM, respectively. The assay sensitivity was 1.6 × 105 RLU/pM of target. The coefficient of variation (CV) for determination of HBV DNA within the working range was lower than 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nucleic Acid Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Evolutionary Design of Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition in Sensor-Rich Environments
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041288
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a
[...] Read more.
Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks) to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset. Instead of manually choosing a suitable topology, we will let an evolutionary algorithm design the optimal topology in order to maximize the classification F1 score. After that, we will also explore the performance of committees of the models resulting from the evolutionary process. Results analysis indicates that the proposed model was able to perform activity recognition within a heterogeneous sensor network environment, achieving very high accuracies when tested with new sensor data. Based on all conducted experiments, the proposed neuroevolutionary system has proved to be able to systematically find a classification model which is capable of outperforming previous results reported in the state-of-the-art, showing that this approach is useful and improves upon previously manually-designed architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensors Networks in Activity Detection and Context Awareness)
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Open AccessArticle How to Stop Disagreeing and Start Cooperatingin the Presence of Asymmetric Packet Loss
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041287
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
We consider the design of a disagreement correction protocol in multi-vehicle systems. Vehicles broadcast in real-time vital information such as position, direction, speed, acceleration, intention, etc. This information is then used to identify the risks and adapt their trajectory to maintain the highest
[...] Read more.
We consider the design of a disagreement correction protocol in multi-vehicle systems. Vehicles broadcast in real-time vital information such as position, direction, speed, acceleration, intention, etc. This information is then used to identify the risks and adapt their trajectory to maintain the highest performance without compromising the safety. To minimize the risk due to the use of inconsistent information, all cooperating vehicles must agree whether to use the exchanged information to operate in a cooperative mode or use the only local information to operate in an autonomous mode. However, since wireless communications are prone to failures, it is impossible to deterministically reach an agreement. Therefore, any protocol will exhibit necessary disagreement periods. In this paper, we investigate whether vehicles can still cooperate despite communication failures even in the scenario where communication is suddenly not available. We present a deterministic protocol that allows all participants to either operate a cooperative mode when vehicles can exchange all the information in a timely manner or operate in autonomous mode when messages are lost. We show formally that the disagreement time is bounded by the time that the communication channel requires to deliver messages and validate our protocol using NS-3 simulations. We explain how the proposed solution can be used in vehicular platooning to attain high performance and still guarantee high safety standards despite communication failures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dependable Monitoring in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear Blind Compensation for Array Signal Processing Application
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041286
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Recently, nonlinear blind compensation technique has attracted growing attention in array signal processing application. However, due to the nonlinear distortion stemming from array receiver which consists of multi-channel radio frequency (RF) front-ends, it is too difficult to estimate the parameters of array signal
[...] Read more.
Recently, nonlinear blind compensation technique has attracted growing attention in array signal processing application. However, due to the nonlinear distortion stemming from array receiver which consists of multi-channel radio frequency (RF) front-ends, it is too difficult to estimate the parameters of array signal accurately. A novel nonlinear blind compensation algorithm aims at the nonlinearity mitigation of array receiver and its spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) improvement, which will be more precise to estimate the parameters of target signals such as their two-dimensional directions of arrival (2-D DOAs). Herein, the suggested method is designed as follows: the nonlinear model parameters of any channel of RF front-end are extracted to synchronously compensate the nonlinear distortion of the entire receiver. Furthermore, a verification experiment on the array signal from a uniform circular array (UCA) is adopted to testify the validity of our approach. The real-world experimental results show that the SFDR of the receiver is enhanced, leading to a significant improvement of the 2-D DOAs estimation performance for weak target signals. And these results demonstrate that our nonlinear blind compensation algorithm is effective to estimate the parameters of weak array signal in concomitance with strong jammers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Processing for Wireless Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Geriatric Helper: An mHealth Application to Support Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041285
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary diagnosis approach that considers several dimensions of fragility in older adults to develop an individualized plan to improve their overall health. Despite the evidence of its positive impact, CGA is still applied by a reduced
[...] Read more.
The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary diagnosis approach that considers several dimensions of fragility in older adults to develop an individualized plan to improve their overall health. Despite the evidence of its positive impact, CGA is still applied by a reduced number of professionals in geriatric care in many countries, mostly using a paper-based approach. In this context, we collaborate with clinicians to bring CGA to the attention of more healthcare professionals and to enable its easier application in clinical settings by proposing a mobile application, Geriatric Helper, to act as a pocket guide that is easy to update remotely with up-to-date information, and that acts as a tool for conducting CGA. This approach reduces the time spent on retrieving the scales documentation, the overhead of calculating the results, and works as a source of information for non-specialists. Geriatric Helper is a tool for the health professionals developed considering an iterative, User-Centred Design approach, with extensive contributions from a broad set of users including domain experts, resulting in a highly usable and accepted system. Geriatric Helper is currently being tested in Portuguese healthcare units allowing for any clinician to apply the otherwise experts-limited geriatric assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detecting Inspection Objects of Power Line from Cable Inspection Robot LiDAR Data
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041284
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Power lines are extending to complex environments (e.g., lakes and forests), and the distribution of power lines in a tower is becoming complicated (e.g., multi-loop and multi-bundle). Additionally, power line inspection is becoming heavier and more difficult. Advanced LiDAR technology is increasingly being
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Power lines are extending to complex environments (e.g., lakes and forests), and the distribution of power lines in a tower is becoming complicated (e.g., multi-loop and multi-bundle). Additionally, power line inspection is becoming heavier and more difficult. Advanced LiDAR technology is increasingly being used to solve these difficulties. Based on precise cable inspection robot (CIR) LiDAR data and the distinctive position and orientation system (POS) data, we propose a novel methodology to detect inspection objects surrounding power lines. The proposed method mainly includes four steps: firstly, the original point cloud is divided into single-span data as a processing unit; secondly, the optimal elevation threshold is constructed to remove ground points without the existing filtering algorithm, improving data processing efficiency and extraction accuracy; thirdly, a single power line and its surrounding data can be respectively extracted by a structured partition based on a POS data (SPPD) algorithm from “layer” to “block” according to power line distribution; finally, a partition recognition method is proposed based on the distribution characteristics of inspection objects, highlighting the feature information and improving the recognition effect. The local neighborhood statistics and the 3D region growing method are used to recognize different inspection objects surrounding power lines in a partition. Three datasets were collected by two CIR LIDAR systems in our study. The experimental results demonstrate that an average 90.6% accuracy and average 98.2% precision at the point cloud level can be achieved. The successful extraction indicates that the proposed method is feasible and promising. Our study can be used to obtain precise dimensions of fittings for modeling, as well as automatic detection and location of security risks, so as to improve the intelligence level of power line inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Target Recognition of High Resolution SAR/ISAR Images)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Comparison of Protein Adsorption and Conformational Changes on Dielectric-Coated Nanoplasmonic Sensing Arrays
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041283
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Nanoplasmonic sensors are a popular, surface-sensitive measurement tool to investigate biomacromolecular interactions at solid-liquid interfaces, opening the door to a wide range of applications. In addition to high surface sensitivity, nanoplasmonic sensors have versatile surface chemistry options as plasmonic metal nanoparticles can be
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Nanoplasmonic sensors are a popular, surface-sensitive measurement tool to investigate biomacromolecular interactions at solid-liquid interfaces, opening the door to a wide range of applications. In addition to high surface sensitivity, nanoplasmonic sensors have versatile surface chemistry options as plasmonic metal nanoparticles can be coated with thin dielectric layers. Within this scope, nanoplasmonic sensors have demonstrated promise for tracking protein adsorption and substrate-induced conformational changes on oxide film-coated arrays, although existing studies have been limited to single substrates. Herein, we investigated human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto silica- and titania-coated arrays of plasmonic gold nanodisks by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) measurements and established an analytical framework to compare responses across multiple substrates with different sensitivities. While similar responses were recorded on the two substrates for HSA adsorption under physiologically-relevant ionic strength conditions, distinct substrate-specific behavior was observed at lower ionic strength conditions. With decreasing ionic strength, larger measurement responses occurred for HSA adsorption onto silica surfaces, whereas HSA adsorption onto titania surfaces occurred independently of ionic strength condition. Complementary quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) measurements were also performed, and the trend in adsorption behavior was similar. Of note, the magnitudes of the ionic strength-dependent LSPR and QCM-D measurement responses varied, and are discussed with respect to the measurement principle and surface sensitivity of each technique. Taken together, our findings demonstrate how the high surface sensitivity of nanoplasmonic sensors can be applied to quantitatively characterize protein adsorption across multiple surfaces, and outline broadly-applicable measurement strategies for biointerfacial science applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing for Interfacial Science)
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Open AccessArticle A Low Power IoT Sensor Node Architecture for Waste Management Within Smart Cities Context
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041282
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the realization of an Internet of Things (IoT) architecture to optimize waste management in the context of Smart Cities. In particular, a novel typology of sensor node based on the use of low cost and low power components is
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This paper focuses on the realization of an Internet of Things (IoT) architecture to optimize waste management in the context of Smart Cities. In particular, a novel typology of sensor node based on the use of low cost and low power components is described. This node is provided with a single-chip microcontroller, a sensor able to measure the filling level of trash bins using ultrasounds and a data transmission module based on the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) technology. Together with the node, a minimal network architecture was designed, based on a LoRa gateway, with the purpose of testing the IoT node performances. Especially, the paper analyzes in detail the node architecture, focusing on the energy saving technologies and policies, with the purpose of extending the batteries lifetime by reducing power consumption, through hardware and software optimization. Tests on sensor and radio module effectiveness are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Pedestrian Navigation Based on Course Angle Error Estimation Using Cascaded Kalman Filters
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041281
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
An enhanced pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based navigation algorithm, which uses two cascaded Kalman filters (TCKF) for the estimation of course angle and navigation errors, is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), waist-mounted magnetic sensors, and a zero
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An enhanced pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based navigation algorithm, which uses two cascaded Kalman filters (TCKF) for the estimation of course angle and navigation errors, is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), waist-mounted magnetic sensors, and a zero velocity update (ZUPT) based inertial navigation technique with TCKF. The first stage filter estimates the course angle error of a human, which is closely related to the heading error of the IMU. In order to obtain the course measurements, the filter uses magnetic sensors and a position-trace based course angle. For preventing magnetic disturbance from contaminating the estimation, the magnetic sensors are attached to the waistband. Because the course angle error is mainly due to the heading error of the IMU, and the characteristic error of the heading angle is highly dependent on that of the course angle, the estimated course angle error is used as a measurement for estimating the heading error in the second stage filter. At the second stage, an inertial navigation system-extended Kalman filter-ZUPT (INS-EKF-ZUPT) method is adopted. As the heading error is estimated directly by using course-angle error measurements, the estimation accuracy for the heading and yaw gyro bias can be enhanced, compared with the ZUPT-only case, which eventually enhances the position accuracy more efficiently. The performance enhancements are verified via experiments, and the way-point position error for the proposed method is compared with those for the ZUPT-only case and with other cases that use ZUPT and various types of magnetic heading measurements. The results show that the position errors are reduced by a maximum of 90% compared with the conventional ZUPT based PDR algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems 2018)
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Open AccessArticle OFDM with Index Modulation for Asynchronous mMTC Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041280
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
One of the critical missions for next-generation wireless communication systems is to fulfill the high demand for massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC). In mMTC systems, a sporadic transmission is performed between machine users and base station (BS). Lack of coordination between the users and
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One of the critical missions for next-generation wireless communication systems is to fulfill the high demand for massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC). In mMTC systems, a sporadic transmission is performed between machine users and base station (BS). Lack of coordination between the users and BS in time destroys orthogonality between the subcarriers, and causes inter-carrier interference (ICI). Therefore, providing services to asynchronous massive machine users is a major challenge for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). In this study, OFDM with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is proposed as an eligible solution to alleviate ICI caused by asynchronous transmission in uncoordinated mMTC networks. In OFDM-IM, data transmission is performed not only by modulated subcarriers but also by the indices of active subcarriers. Unlike classical OFDM, fractional subcarrier activation leads to less ICI in OFDM-IM technology. A novel subcarrier mapping scheme (SMS) named as Inner Subcarrier Activation is proposed to further alleviate adjacent user interference in asynchronous OFDM-IM-based systems. ISA reduces inter-user interference since it gives more activation priority to inner subcarriers compared with the existing SMS-s. The superiority of the proposed SMS is shown through both theoretical analysis and computer-based simulations in comparison to existing mapping schemes for asynchronous systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Wearable Gait Phase Detection System Based on Force Myography Techniques
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041279
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement
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(1) Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement in gait analysis applications; (2) Methods: In this study, the feasibility of using a force myography-based technique for a wearable gait phase detection system is explored. In this regard, a force myography band is developed and tested with nine participants walking on a treadmill. The collected force myography data are first examined sample-by-sample and classified into four phases using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The gait phase events are then detected from these classified samples using a set of supervisory rules; (3) Results: The results show that the force myography band can correctly detect more than 99.9% of gait phases with zero insertions and only four deletions over 12,965 gait phase segments. The average temporal error of gait phase detection is 55.2 ms, which translates into 2.1% error with respect to the corresponding labelled stride duration; (4) Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of force myography techniques as viable solutions in developing wearable gait phase detection systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Data Decomposition Techniques with Multi-Scale Permutation Entropy Calculations for Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041278
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the local mean decomposition (LMD) integrated with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE), also known as LMD-MPE, to investigate the rolling element bearing (REB) fault diagnosis from measured vibration signals. First, the LMD decomposed the vibration data or acceleration measurement into separate
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This paper presents the local mean decomposition (LMD) integrated with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE), also known as LMD-MPE, to investigate the rolling element bearing (REB) fault diagnosis from measured vibration signals. First, the LMD decomposed the vibration data or acceleration measurement into separate product functions that are composed of both amplitude and frequency modulation. MPE then calculated the statistical permutation entropy from the product functions to extract the nonlinear features to assess and classify the condition of the healthy and damaged REB system. The comparative experimental results of the conventional LMD-based multi-scale entropy and MPE were presented to verify the authenticity of the proposed technique. The study found that LMD-MPE’s integrated approach provides reliable, damage-sensitive features when analyzing the bearing condition. The results of REB experimental datasets show that the proposed approach yields more vigorous outcomes than existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fault Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041277
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on
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This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX). However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synchronized High-Speed Vision Sensor Network for Expansion of Field of View
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041276
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
We propose a 500-frames-per-second high-speed vision (HSV) sensor network that acquires frames at a timing that is precisely synchronized across the network. Multiple vision sensor nodes, individually comprising a camera and a PC, are connected via Ethernet for data transmission and for clock
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We propose a 500-frames-per-second high-speed vision (HSV) sensor network that acquires frames at a timing that is precisely synchronized across the network. Multiple vision sensor nodes, individually comprising a camera and a PC, are connected via Ethernet for data transmission and for clock synchronization. A network of synchronized HSV sensors provides a significantly expanded field-of-view compared with that of each individual HSV sensor. In the proposed system, the shutter of each camera is controlled based on the clock of the PC locally provided inside the node, and the shutters are globally synchronized using the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over the network. A theoretical analysis and experiment results indicate that the shutter trigger skew among the nodes is a few tens of microseconds at most, which is significantly smaller than the frame interval of 1000-fps-class high-speed cameras. Experimental results obtained with the proposed system comprising four nodes demonstrated the ability to capture the propagation of a small displacement along a large-scale structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Task Elderly Gait of Prospective Fallers and Non-Fallers: A Wearable-Sensor Based Analysis
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041275
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wearable sensors could facilitate point of care, clinically feasible assessments of dynamic stability and associated fall risk through an assessment of single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) walking. This study investigated gait changes between ST and DT walking and between older adult prospective fallers
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Wearable sensors could facilitate point of care, clinically feasible assessments of dynamic stability and associated fall risk through an assessment of single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) walking. This study investigated gait changes between ST and DT walking and between older adult prospective fallers and non-fallers. The results were compared to a study based on retrospective fall occurrence. Seventy-five individuals (75.2 ± 6.6 years; 47 non-fallers, 28 fallers; 6 month prospective fall occurrence) walked 7.62 m under ST and DT conditions while wearing pressure-sensing insoles and accelerometers at the head, pelvis, and on both shanks. DT-induced gait changes included changes in temporal measures, centre of pressure (CoP) path stance deviations and coefficient of variation, acceleration descriptive statistics, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) first quartile, ratio of even to odd harmonics, and maximum Lyapunov exponent. Compared to non-fallers, prospective fallers had significantly lower DT anterior–posterior CoP path stance coefficient of variation, DT head anterior–posterior FFT first quartile, ST left shank medial–lateral FFT first quartile, and ST right shank superior maximum acceleration. DT-induced gait changes were consistent regardless of faller status or when the fall occurred (retrospective or prospective). Gait differences between fallers and non-fallers were dependent on retrospective or prospective faller identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point of Care Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Shrinking-Circle Methods for Source Localization Based on TDoA Measurements
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041274
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Time difference of arrival (TDoA) measurement is a promising approach for target localization based on a set of nodes with known positions, with high accuracy and low complexity. Common localization algorithms include the maximum-likelihood, non-linear least-squares and weighted least-squares methods. These methods have
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Time difference of arrival (TDoA) measurement is a promising approach for target localization based on a set of nodes with known positions, with high accuracy and low complexity. Common localization algorithms include the maximum-likelihood, non-linear least-squares and weighted least-squares methods. These methods have shortcomings such as high computational complexity, requiring an initial guess position, or having difficulty in finding the optimal solution. From the point of view of geometrical analysis, this study proposes two new shrinking-circle methods (SC-1 and SC-2) to solve the TDoA-based localization problem in a two-dimensional (2-D) space. In both methods, an optimal radius is obtained by shrinking the radius with a dichotomy algorithm, and the position of the target is determined by the optimal radius. The difference of the two methods is that a distance parameter is defined in SC-1, while an error function is introduced in SC-2 to guide the localization procedure. Simulations and indoor-localization experiments based on acoustic transducers were conducted to compare the performance differences between the proposed methods, algorithms based on weighted least-squares as well as the conventional shrinking-circle method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can realize high-precision target localization based on TDoA measurements using three nodes, and have the advantages of speed and high robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Wireless Sensors in Localization and Tracking)
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Open AccessLetter Complex Fiber Micro-Knots
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041273
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Fiber micro-knots are a promising and a cheap solution for advanced fiber-based sensors. We investigated complex fiber micro-knots in theory and experiment. We compared the measured spectral response and present an analytical study of simple micro-knots with double twists, twin micro-knots, figure-eight micro-knots,
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Fiber micro-knots are a promising and a cheap solution for advanced fiber-based sensors. We investigated complex fiber micro-knots in theory and experiment. We compared the measured spectral response and present an analytical study of simple micro-knots with double twists, twin micro-knots, figure-eight micro-knots, and tangled micro-knots. This research brings the simple fabrication process and robustness of fiber micro-knots into the world of complex resonators which may lead to novel optical devices based on fiber micro-knots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonator Sensors 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041272
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started
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One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED). In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap) and low-capacity (Lo-Cap) sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%). However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection. Full article
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