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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1500;

Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Unidad Académica de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Manizales 170001, Colombia
Automation and Control Group in Manufacturing Processes—GRACO, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Brasilia DF 7191090, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system. View Full-Text
Keywords: monitoring of GMAW process; weld bead geometry; passive vision; digital images processing; real-Time monitoring of GMAW process; weld bead geometry; passive vision; digital images processing; real-Time

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Pinto-Lopera, J.E.; S. T. Motta, J.M.; Absi Alfaro, S.C. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes. Sensors 2016, 16, 1500.

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