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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2187;

A Method of Detections’ Fusion for GNSS Anti-Spoofing

Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [677 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  


The spoofing attack is one of the security threats of systems depending on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). There have been many GNSS spoofing detection methods, and each of them focuses on a characteristic of the GNSS signal or a measurement that the receiver has obtained. The method based on a single detector is insufficient against spoofing attacks in some scenarios. How to fuse multiple detections together is a problem that concerns the performance of GNSS anti-spoofing. Scholars have put forward a model to fuse different detection results based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence combination. However, there are some problems in the application. The main challenge is the valuation of the belief function, which is a key issue in DST. This paper proposes a practical method of detections’ fusion based on an approach to assign the belief function for spoofing detections. The frame of discernment is simplified, and the hard decision of hypothesis testing is replaced by the soft decision; then, the belief functions for some detections can be evaluated. The method is discussed in detail, and a performance evaluation is provided, as well. Detections’ fusion reduces false alarms of detection and makes the result more reliable. Experimental results based on public test datasets demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; spoofing; detection; fusion; Dempster-Shafer theory; belief function GNSS; spoofing; detection; fusion; Dempster-Shafer theory; belief function

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Tao, H.; Li, H.; Lu, M. A Method of Detections’ Fusion for GNSS Anti-Spoofing. Sensors 2016, 16, 2187.

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