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The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, c/o AOU Policlinico G. Martino, Via C. Valeria Gazzi, 98,125 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphologic and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, c/o AOU Policlinico G. Martino, Via C. Valeria Gazzi, 98,125 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176204
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 25 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important problem of global health. The damage related to TBI is first due to the direct injury and then to a secondary phase in which neuroinflammation plays a key role. NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the innate immune response and different diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, are characterized by NLRP3 activation. This review aims to describe NLRP3 inflammasome and the consequences related to its activation following TBI. NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 are significantly upregulated after TBI, therefore, the use of nonspecific, but mostly specific NLRP3 inhibitors is useful to ameliorate the damage post-TBI characterized by neuroinflammation. Moreover, NLRP3 and the molecules associated with its activation may be considered as biomarkers and predictive factors for other neurodegenerative diseases consequent to TBI. Complications such as continuous stimuli or viral infections, such as the SARS-CoV-2 infection, may worsen the prognosis of TBI, altering the immune response and increasing the neuroinflammatory processes related to NLRP3, whose activation occurs both in TBI and in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review points out the role of NLRP3 in TBI and highlights the hypothesis that NLRP3 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the management of neuroinflammation in TBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; NLRP3 inflammasome; neuroinflammation; pyroptosis; SARS-CoV-2 traumatic brain injury; NLRP3 inflammasome; neuroinflammation; pyroptosis; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Irrera, N.; Russo, M.; Pallio, G.; Bitto, A.; Mannino, F.; Minutoli, L.; Altavilla, D.; Squadrito, F. The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176204

AMA Style

Irrera N, Russo M, Pallio G, Bitto A, Mannino F, Minutoli L, Altavilla D, Squadrito F. The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):6204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Irrera, Natasha; Russo, Massimo; Pallio, Giovanni; Bitto, Alessandra; Mannino, Federica; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco. 2020. "The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 17: 6204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176204

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