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Special Issue "Inflammasome"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Kuo-Feng Hua
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan
2. Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
Interests: NLRP3 inflammasome; inflammatory disease; renal disease; neurodegenerative diseases; cytokines; anti-inflammatory drug development; autophagy; drug repositioning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammasomes are cytosolic caspase-1-containing protein complexes which recognize and respond to pathogen infection and diverse sterile host-derived or environmental danger signals to promote inflammatory disease development. Activation of inflammasomes leads to caspase-1-dependent maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and promotes Gasdermin D-dependent pyroptotic cell death. Dysregulation of inflammasomes is associated with a number of inflammatory conditions. such as metabolic disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney injury, and infectious diseases. As inflammasomes respond to a board range of medically relevant stimuli, inflammasomes become a highly desirable drug target to treat a wide range of human diseases. Small molecule inhibitors targeting inflammasomes offer a new therapeutic strategy in new drug development. This Special Issue, “Inflammasome”, welcomes original research and review articles in the field, with a focus on but not limited to the molecular and mechanistic basis for the inflammasome activation, inflammasome-associated pathogenesis, inflammasome inhibitor development, and inflammasome-specific therapeutics.

Prof. Kuo-Feng Hua
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Inflammasome
  • Inflammatory disease
  • Caspase-1
  • Cytokines
  • Pyroptosis
  • NLRP3
  • Inflammasome inhibitor
  • Sterile inflammation

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Differential Effect of Extracellular Acidic Environment on IL-1β Released from Human and Mouse Phagocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197229 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 427
Abstract
Areas of locally decreased pH are characteristic for many chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, acute pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion, and tumor microenvironment. The data on the effects of extracellular acidic pH on inflammation are conflicting with respect to [...] Read more.
Areas of locally decreased pH are characteristic for many chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, acute pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion, and tumor microenvironment. The data on the effects of extracellular acidic pH on inflammation are conflicting with respect to interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) as one of the most potent proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we used various mouse- and human-derived cells in order to identify potential species-specific differences in IL-1β secretion pattern in response to extracellular acidification. We found that a short incubation in mild acidic medium caused significant IL-1β release from human macrophages, however, the same effect was not observed in mouse macrophages. Rather, a marked IL-1β suppression was observed when mouse cells were stimulated with a combination of various inflammasome instigators and low pH. Upon activation of cells under acidic conditions, the cytosolic pH was reduced while metabolic activity and the expression of the main inflammasome proteins were not affected by low pH. We show that IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages is reversible upon restoration of physiological pH. pH sensitivity of NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes appeared to be conferred by the processes upstream of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization and most likely contributed by the cell background rather than species-specific amino acid sequences of the sensor proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
A Synthetic Epoxydocosapentaenoic Acid Analogue Ameliorates Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: The Involvement of the Sirtuin 3–NLRP3 Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155261 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 550
Abstract
While survival rates have markedly improved following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, the resulting heart damage remains an important issue. Preserving mitochondrial quality and limiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an approach to limit IR injury, in which the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has [...] Read more.
While survival rates have markedly improved following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, the resulting heart damage remains an important issue. Preserving mitochondrial quality and limiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an approach to limit IR injury, in which the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has a role. Recent data demonstrate cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-derived epoxy metabolites, epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), attenuate cardiac IR injury. EDPs undergo rapid removal and inactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes. The current study hypothesizes that the cardioprotective effects of the synthetic EDP surrogates AS-27, SA-26 and AA-4 against IR injury involve activation of SIRT3. Isolated hearts from wild type (WT) mice were perfused in the Langendorff mode with vehicle, AS-27, SA-26 or AA-4. Improved postischemic functional recovery, maintained cardiac ATP levels, reduced oxidative stress and attenuation of NLRP3 activation were observed in hearts perfused with the analogue SA-26. Assessment of cardiac mitochondria demonstrated SA-26 preserved SIRT3 activity and reduced acetylation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) suggesting enhanced antioxidant capacity. Together, these data demonstrate that the cardioprotective effects of the EDP analogue SA-26 against IR injury involve preservation of mitochondrial SIRT3 activity, which attenuates a detrimental innate NLRP3 inflammasome response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Cbl Negatively Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through GLUT1-Dependent Glycolysis Inhibition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145104 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Activation of the nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes is crucial for immune defense, but improper and excessive activation causes inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that Cbl plays a pivotal role in suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting Pyk2-mediated apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a [...] Read more.
Activation of the nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes is crucial for immune defense, but improper and excessive activation causes inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that Cbl plays a pivotal role in suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting Pyk2-mediated apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization. Here, we showed that Cbl dampened NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting glycolysis, as demonstrated with Cbl knockout cells and treatment with the Cbl inhibitor hydrocotarnine. We revealed that the inhibition of Cbl promoted caspase-1 cleavage and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion through a glycolysis-dependent mechanism. Inhibiting Cbl increased cellular glucose uptake, glycolytic capacity, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity. Upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inhibiting Cbl increased glycolysis-dependent activation of mitochondrial respiration and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which contributes to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion. Mechanistically, inhibiting Cbl increased surface expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein through post-transcriptional regulation, which increased cellular glucose uptake and consequently raised glycolytic capacity, and in turn enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Together, our findings provide new insights into the role of Cbl in NLRP3 inflammasome regulation through GLUT1 downregulation. We also show that a novel Cbl inhibitor, hydrocortanine, increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity via its effect on glycolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Gonadal Hormones E2 and P Mitigate Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Upregulation of the AIM2 and NLRC4 Inflammasomes in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134795 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a devastating neurological condition with a lack of neuroprotective therapeutic options, despite the reperfusion modalities thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Post-ischemic brain damage is aggravated by an excessive inflammatory cascade involving the activation and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β [...] Read more.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a devastating neurological condition with a lack of neuroprotective therapeutic options, despite the reperfusion modalities thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Post-ischemic brain damage is aggravated by an excessive inflammatory cascade involving the activation and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 by inflammasomes. However, the role of AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes and the influence of the neuroprotective steroids 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) on their regulation after ischemic stroke have not yet been conclusively elucidated. To address the latter, we subjected a total of 65 rats to 1 h of transient Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (tMCAO) followed by a reperfusion period of 72 h. Moreover, we evaluated the expression and regulation of AIM2 and NLRC4 in glial single-cell cultures (astroglia and microglia) after oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). The administration of E2 and P decreased both infarct sizes and neurological impairments after cerebral ischemia in rats. We detected a time-dependent elevation of gene and protein levels (Western Blot/immunohistochemistry) of the AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes in the post-ischemic brains. E2 or P selectively mitigated the stroke-induced increase of AIM2 and NLRC4. While both inflammasomes seemed to be exclusively abundant in neurons under physiological and ischemic conditions in vivo, single-cell cultures of cortical astrocytes and microglia equally expressed both inflammasomes. In line with the in vivo data, E and P selectively reduced AIM2 and NLRC4 in primary cortical astrocytes and microglial cells after OGD. In conclusion, the post-ischemic elevation of AIM2 and NLRC4 and their down-regulation by E2 and P may shed more light on the anti-inflammatory effects of both gonadal hormones after stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Sphingosine Kinases are Involved in Macrophage NLRP3 Inflammasome Transcriptional Induction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134733 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Recent studies suggested an important contribution of sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) signaling via its specific receptors (S1PRs) in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Interleukin (IL)-1β in cancer and inflammation. In an inflammation-driven cancer setting, we previously reported that myeloid S1PR1 signaling induces IL-1β [...] Read more.
Recent studies suggested an important contribution of sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) signaling via its specific receptors (S1PRs) in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Interleukin (IL)-1β in cancer and inflammation. In an inflammation-driven cancer setting, we previously reported that myeloid S1PR1 signaling induces IL-1β production by enhancing NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and Pyrin Domain-Containing Protein 3) inflammasome activity. However, the autocrine role of S1P and enzymes acting on the S1P rheostat in myeloid cells are unknown. Using human and mouse macrophages with pharmacological or genetic intervention we explored the relative contribution of sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) in NLRP3 inflammasome activity regulation. We noticed redundancy in SPHK1 and SPHK2 activities towards macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome transcriptional induction and IL-1β secretion. However, pharmacological blockade of both kinases in unison completely abrogated NLRP3 inflammasome induction and IL-1β secretion. Interestingly, human and mouse macrophages demonstrate varied responses towards SPHKs inhibition and IL-1β secretion. Clinical datasets of renal cell carcinoma and psoriasis patients showed a positive correlation between enzymes affecting the S1P rheostat with NLRP3 inflammasome components expression, which corroborates our finding. Our data provide a better understanding on the role of SPHKs and de novo synthesized S1P in macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
HSP70-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Suppression Underlies Reversal of Acute Kidney Injury Following Extracellular Vesicle and Focused Ultrasound Combination Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114085 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the abrupt loss of renal function, for which only supportive therapies exist. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to be therapeutically effective in treating AKI by spurring endogenous cell proliferation and survival while suppressing [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the abrupt loss of renal function, for which only supportive therapies exist. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to be therapeutically effective in treating AKI by spurring endogenous cell proliferation and survival while suppressing inflammation. Pre-treating kidneys with pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) has also been shown to enhance MSC therapy for AKI, but its role in MSC-derived EV therapy remains unexplored. Using a mouse model of cisplatin-induced AKI, we show that combination therapy with pFUS and EVs restores physiological and molecular markers of kidney function, more so than either alone. Both pFUS and EVs downregulate heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), the NLRP3 inflammasome, and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, all of which are highly upregulated in AKI. In vitro knockdown studies suggest that HSP70 is a positive regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study therefore demonstrates the ability of pFUS to enhance EV therapy for AKI and provides further mechanistic understanding of their anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effects of Inflammatory Cytokine-Targeting Aptamers in an Animal Model of Chronic Prostatitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113953 - 31 May 2020
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Non-bacterial prostatitis is an inflammatory disease that is difficult to treat. Oligonucleotide aptamers are well known for their stability and flexibility in conjugating various inflammatory molecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokine-targeting aptamers (ICTA), putative neutralizers of TNF-alpha and [...] Read more.
Non-bacterial prostatitis is an inflammatory disease that is difficult to treat. Oligonucleotide aptamers are well known for their stability and flexibility in conjugating various inflammatory molecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokine-targeting aptamers (ICTA), putative neutralizers of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta activation, on local carrageenan-induced prostate inflammation, allodynia, and hyperalgesia in rats. In vitro evaluation confirmed the binding capability of ICTA. Intraprostatic injection of carrageenan or control vehicle was performed in six-week-old rats, and ICTA (150 µg) or vehicle was administered in the prostate along with carrageenan injection. The von Frey filament test was performed to determine mechanical allodynia, and prostate inflammation was examined seven days after drug administration. Local carrageenan administration resulted in a reduction of the tactile threshold. The levels of mononuclear cell infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (b), caspase-1 (casp-1), and Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, Leucine rich Repeat and Pyrin domain containing proteins 1 and 3 (NALP1 and NALP3) in the prostate of rats were increased seven days after carrageenan injection. Treatment with ICTA significantly attenuated the carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and reduced the elevated levels of proteins including TNF-a and IL-1b in the rats. Apoptosis markers, B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3, were elevated in ICTA-treated Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) rats. These results suggest that ICTA provides protection against local carrageenan-induced enhanced pain sensitivity, and that the neutralization of proinflammatory cytokines may result in inflammatory cell apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
NLRC4, ASC and Caspase-1 Are Inflammasome Components That Are Mediated by P2Y2R Activation in Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093337 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
The inflammasomes are reported to be associated with tumor progression. In our previous study, we determined that extracellular ATP enhances invasion and tumor growth by inducing inflammasome activation in a P2Y purinergic receptor 2 (P2Y2R)-dependent manner. However, it is not clear [...] Read more.
The inflammasomes are reported to be associated with tumor progression. In our previous study, we determined that extracellular ATP enhances invasion and tumor growth by inducing inflammasome activation in a P2Y purinergic receptor 2 (P2Y2R)-dependent manner. However, it is not clear which inflammasome among the diverse complexes is associated with P2Y2R activation in breast cancer. Thus, in this study, we determined which inflammasome components are regulated by P2Y2R activation and are involved in tumor progression in breast cancer cells and radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R)-breast cancer cells. First, we found that NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3); NLR family caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 4 (NLRC4); apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD complex (ASC); and caspase-1 mRNA levels were upregulated in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or ATP treatment induced NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1 but not NLRP3 protein levels. Moreover, TNF-α or ATP increased protein levels of NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1 in a P2Y2R-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, P2Y2R activation by ATP induced the secretion of IL-1β and VEGF-A, as well as invasion, in MDA-MB-231 and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells, which was inhibited by NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Taken together, this report suggests that P2Y2R activation by ATP induces tumor invasion and angiogenesis through inflammasome activation, specifically by regulating the inflammasome components NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Short Exposure to Ethanol Diminishes Caspase-1 and ASC Activation in Human HepG2 Cells In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093196 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
This paper discusses how the assembly of pro-caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) in macromolecular protein complexes, inflammasomes, activates caspase-1. The present study investigates the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in HepG2 cells and examines how short exposures to [...] Read more.
This paper discusses how the assembly of pro-caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) in macromolecular protein complexes, inflammasomes, activates caspase-1. The present study investigates the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in HepG2 cells and examines how short exposures to ethanol (EtOH) affect inflammasome activation. HepG2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ATP or nigericin (NIG) in a two-step model. After LPS priming, ATP or NIG were added. As inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate (general inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases), AC-YVAD-CMK (caspase-1 inhibitor) or AZ10606120 (purinergic receptor P2X7R inhibitor) were applied after LPS priming. To monitor the inflammasome activation, the caspase-1 activity, ASC speck formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death were analyzed. To elucidate the mechanistical approach of EtOH to the inflammasome assembly, the cells were treated with EtOH either under simultaneous LPS administration or concurrently with ATP or NIG application. The co-stimulation with LPS and ATP induced a significant ASC speck formation, caspase-1 activation, cell death and ROS generation. The inhibition of the ATP-dependent purinoreceptor P2X7 decreased the caspase-1 activation, whereas sodium orthovanadate significantly induced caspase-1. Additional treatment with EtOH reversed the LPS and ATP-induced caspase-1 activation, ASC speck formation and ROS production. The ASC speck formation and caspase-1 induction require a two-step signaling with LPS and ATP in HepG2 cells. Inflammasome activation may depend on P2X7. The molecular pathway of an acute effect of EtOH on inflammasomes may involve a reduction in ROS generation, which in turn may increase the activity of tyrosine phosphatases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Sweroside Prevents Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Suppressing Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082790 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is characterized as steatosis and inflammation in the liver. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with NASH pathology. We hypothesized that suppressing the NLRP3 inflammasome could be effective in preventing NASH. We searched substances [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is characterized as steatosis and inflammation in the liver. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with NASH pathology. We hypothesized that suppressing the NLRP3 inflammasome could be effective in preventing NASH. We searched substances that could inhibit the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and identified sweroside as an NLRP3 inhibitor. We investigated whether sweroside can be applied to prevent the pathological symptoms associated with NASH in a methionine–choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mouse model. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was determined by detecting the production of caspase-1 and IL-1β from pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β in primary mouse macrophages and mouse liver. In a NASH model, mice were fed an MCD diet for two weeks with daily intraperitoneal injections of sweroside. Sweroside effectively inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in primary macrophages as shown by a decrease in IL-1β and caspase-1 production. In a MCD diet-induced NASH mouse model, intraperitoneal injection of sweroside significantly reduced serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, hepatic immune cell infiltration, hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and liver fibrosis. The improvement of NASH symptoms by sweroside was accompanied with its inhibitory effects on the hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome as hepatic IL-1β and caspase-1 were decreased. Furthermore, sweroside blocked de novo synthesis of mitochondrial DNA in the liver, contributing to suppression of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome with sweroside could be beneficially employed to improve NASH symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome through Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 (Fpr-1) Pathway as a New Therapeutic Target in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062144 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Chronic rejection is the major leading cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a fibroproliferative disorder of the small airways, is the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft rejection. We investigated, using transgenic mice, the mechanisms through which [...] Read more.
Chronic rejection is the major leading cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a fibroproliferative disorder of the small airways, is the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft rejection. We investigated, using transgenic mice, the mechanisms through which the deficiency of IL-1β/IL-18, Casp-1, or Fpr-1 genes could be protective in an experimental model of BOS, induced in mice by allogeneic heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Fpr-1 KO mice showed a marked reduction in histological markers of BOS and of mast cell numbers compared to other groups. Molecular analyses indicated that the absence of the Fpr-1 gene was able to decrease NF-κB nuclear translocation and modulate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in a more significant way compared to other groups. Additionally, Fpr-1 gene deletion caused a reduction in resistance to the apoptosis, assessed by the TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated changes in nitrotyrosine, PARP, VEGF, and TGF-β expression associated with the pathology, which were reduced in the absence of the Fpr1 gene more so than by the deletion of IL-1β/IL-18 and Casp-1. We underline the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the pathogenic role of Fpr-1 in experimental models of BOS, which is the result of the modulation of immune cell recruitment together with the modulation of local cellular activation, suggesting this gene as a new target in the control of the pathologic features of BOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessArticle
Microtubule-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Independent of Microtubule-Associated Innate Immune Factor GEF-H1 in Murine Macrophages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041302 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiple protein complexes that mount innate immune responses to tissue damage and invading pathogens. Their excessive activation is crucial in the development and pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. Microtubules have been reported to provide the platform for mediating the assembly and [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiple protein complexes that mount innate immune responses to tissue damage and invading pathogens. Their excessive activation is crucial in the development and pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. Microtubules have been reported to provide the platform for mediating the assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Recently, we have identified the microtubule-associated immune molecule guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) that is crucial in coupling microtubule dynamics to the initiation of microtubule-mediated immune responses. However, whether GEF-H1 also controls the activation of other immune receptors that require microtubules is still undefined. Here we employed GEF-H1-deficient mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to interrogate the impact of GEF-H1 on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production was dependent on dynamic microtubule network in wild-type (WT) BMDMs. However, GEF-H1 deficiency did not affect NLRP3-driven IL-1β maturation and secretion in macrophages. Moreover, α-tubulin acetylation and mitochondria aggregations were comparable between WT and GEF-H1-deficient BMDMs in response to NLRP3 inducers. Further, GEF-H1 was not required for NLRP3-mediated immune defense against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Collectively, these findings suggest that the microtubule-associated immune modulator GEF-H1 is dispensable for microtubule-mediated NLRP3 activation and host defense in mouse macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Update on CARD Only Proteins (COPs) and PYD Only Proteins (POPs) as Inflammasome Regulators
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186901 - 20 Sep 2020
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Inflammasomes are protein scaffolds required for the activation of caspase-1 and the subsequent release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and danger signals, as well as the induction of pyroptotic cell death to restore homeostasis following infection and sterile tissue damage. However, excessive inflammasome activation [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes are protein scaffolds required for the activation of caspase-1 and the subsequent release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and danger signals, as well as the induction of pyroptotic cell death to restore homeostasis following infection and sterile tissue damage. However, excessive inflammasome activation also causes detrimental inflammatory disease. Therefore, extensive control mechanisms are necessary to prevent improper inflammasome responses and inflammatory disease. Inflammasomes are assembled by sequential nucleated polymerization of Pyrin domain (PYD) and caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing inflammasome components. Once polymerization is nucleated, this process proceeds in a self-perpetuating manner and represents a point of no return. Therefore, regulation of this key step is crucial for a controlled inflammasome response. Here, we provide an update on two single domain protein families containing either a PYD or a CARD, the PYD-only proteins (POPs) and CARD-only proteins (COPs), respectively. Their structure allows them to occupy and block access to key protein–protein interaction domains necessary for inflammasome assembly, thereby regulating the threshold of these nucleated polymerization events, and consequently, the inflammatory host response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
The Emerging Relevance of AIM2 in Liver Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186535 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and triggers the activation of the inflammasome cascade. Activation of the inflammasome results in the maturation of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-18, and a form [...] Read more.
Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and triggers the activation of the inflammasome cascade. Activation of the inflammasome results in the maturation of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-18, and a form of cell death known as pyroptosis. Owing to the conserved nature of its ligand, AIM2 is important during immune recognition of multiple pathogens. Additionally, AIM2 is also capable of recognizing host DNA during cellular damage or stress, thereby contributing to sterile inflammatory diseases. Inflammation, either in response to pathogens or due to sterile cellular damage, is at the center of the most prevalent and life-threatening liver diseases. Therefore, during the last 15 years, the study of inflammasome activation in the liver has emerged as a new research area in hepatology. Here, we discuss the known functions of AIM2 in the pathogenesis of different hepatic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatitis B, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176204 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important problem of global health. The damage related to TBI is first due to the direct injury and then to a secondary phase in which neuroinflammation plays a key role. NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important problem of global health. The damage related to TBI is first due to the direct injury and then to a secondary phase in which neuroinflammation plays a key role. NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the innate immune response and different diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, are characterized by NLRP3 activation. This review aims to describe NLRP3 inflammasome and the consequences related to its activation following TBI. NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 are significantly upregulated after TBI, therefore, the use of nonspecific, but mostly specific NLRP3 inhibitors is useful to ameliorate the damage post-TBI characterized by neuroinflammation. Moreover, NLRP3 and the molecules associated with its activation may be considered as biomarkers and predictive factors for other neurodegenerative diseases consequent to TBI. Complications such as continuous stimuli or viral infections, such as the SARS-CoV-2 infection, may worsen the prognosis of TBI, altering the immune response and increasing the neuroinflammatory processes related to NLRP3, whose activation occurs both in TBI and in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review points out the role of NLRP3 in TBI and highlights the hypothesis that NLRP3 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the management of neuroinflammation in TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Epigenetic Mechanisms of Inflammasome Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165758 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The innate immune system represents the host’s first-line defense against pathogens, dead cells or environmental factors. One of the most important inflammatory pathways is represented by the activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein family. Some NLRs induce the assembly of large caspase-1-activating [...] Read more.
The innate immune system represents the host’s first-line defense against pathogens, dead cells or environmental factors. One of the most important inflammatory pathways is represented by the activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein family. Some NLRs induce the assembly of large caspase-1-activating complexes called inflammasomes. Different types of inflammasomes have been identified that can respond to distinct bacterial, viral or fungal infections; sterile cell damage or other stressors, such as metabolic imbalances. Epigenetic regulation has been recently suggested to provide a complementary mechanism to control inflammasome activity. This regulation can be exerted through at least three main mechanisms, including CpG DNA methylation, histones post-translational modifications and noncoding RNA expression. The repression or promotion of expression of different inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, NLRP4, NLRP6, NLRP7, NLRP12 and AIM2) through epigenetic mechanisms determines the development of pathologies with variable severity. For example, our team recently explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting and modulating the components of the inflammasome as potential biomarkers in bladder cancer and during therapy. This suggests that the epigenetic control of inflammasome-related genes could represent a potential target for further investigations of molecular mechanisms regulating inflammatory pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Inflammasome Activation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155481 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that mediate the activation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. More than half a decade ago, it has been shown that the inflammasome adaptor molecule, ASC requires tyrosine phosphorylation to allow effective inflammasome assembly and sustained [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that mediate the activation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. More than half a decade ago, it has been shown that the inflammasome adaptor molecule, ASC requires tyrosine phosphorylation to allow effective inflammasome assembly and sustained IL-1β/IL-18 release. This finding provided evidence that the tyrosine phosphorylation status of inflammasome components affects inflammasome assembly and that inflammasomes are subjected to regulation via kinases and phosphatases. In the subsequent years, it was reported that activation of the inflammasome receptor molecule, NLRP3, is modulated via tyrosine phosphorylation as well, and that NLRP3 de-phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues was required for inflammasome assembly and sustained IL-1β/IL-18 release. These findings demonstrated the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation as a key modulator of inflammasome activity. Following these initial reports, additional work elucidated that the activity of several inflammasome components is dictated via their phosphorylation status. Particularly, the action of specific tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are of critical importance for the regulation of inflammasome assembly and activity. By summarizing the currently available literature on the interaction of tyrosine phosphatases with inflammasome components we here provide an overview how tyrosine phosphatases affect the activation status of inflammasomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Innate Immune Response to Tick-Borne Pathogens: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Induced in the Hosts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155437 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Many pathogens are transmitted by tick bites, including Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., Babesia and Theileria sensu stricto species. These pathogens cause infectious diseases both in animals and humans. Different types of immune effector mechanisms could be induced in hosts by these [...] Read more.
Many pathogens are transmitted by tick bites, including Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., Babesia and Theileria sensu stricto species. These pathogens cause infectious diseases both in animals and humans. Different types of immune effector mechanisms could be induced in hosts by these microorganisms, triggered either directly by pathogen-derived antigens or indirectly by molecules released by host cells binding to these antigens. The components of innate immunity, such as natural killer cells, complement proteins, macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor necrosis factor alpha, cause a rapid and intense protection for the acute phase of infectious diseases. Moreover, the onset of a pro-inflammatory state occurs upon the activation of the inflammasome, a protein scaffold with a key-role in host defense mechanism, regulating the action of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin-1β and IL-18 into bioactive molecules. During the infection caused by different microbial agents, very similar profiles of the human innate immune response are observed including secretion of IL-1α, IL-8, and IFN-α, and suppression of superoxide dismutase, IL-1Ra and IL-17A release. Innate immunity is activated immediately after the infection and inflammasome-mediated changes in the pro-inflammatory cytokines at systemic and intracellular levels can be detected as early as on days 2–5 after tick bite. The ongoing research field of “inflammasome biology” focuses on the interactions among molecules and cells of innate immune response that could be responsible for triggering a protective adaptive immunity. The knowledge of the innate immunity mechanisms, as well as the new targets of investigation arising by bioinformatics analysis, could lead to the development of new methods of emergency diagnosis and prevention of tick-borne infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Galectin-3 in Inflammasome Activation and Primary Biliary Cholangitis Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145097 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune liver disease characterized by inflammation and damage of small bile ducts. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric complex of proteins that after activation with various stimuli initiates an inflammatory process. Increasing data obtained from [...] Read more.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune liver disease characterized by inflammation and damage of small bile ducts. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric complex of proteins that after activation with various stimuli initiates an inflammatory process. Increasing data obtained from animal studies implicate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin that plays important roles in various biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis, pre-mRNA splicing, inflammation, fibrosis and host defense. The multilineage immune response at various stages of PBC development includes the involvement of Gal-3 in the pathogenesis of this disease. The role of Galectin-3 in the specific binding to NLRP3, and inflammasome activation in models of primary biliary cholangitis has been recently described. This review provides a brief pathogenesis of PBC and discusses the current knowledge about the role of Gal-3 in NLRP3 activation and PBC development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
The NLRP1 Inflammasome in Human Skin and Beyond
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134788 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Inflammasomes represent a group of protein complexes that contribute to host defense against pathogens and repair processes upon the induction of inflammation. However, aberrant and chronic inflammasome activation underlies the pathology of numerous common inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome assembly causes activation of the protease [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes represent a group of protein complexes that contribute to host defense against pathogens and repair processes upon the induction of inflammation. However, aberrant and chronic inflammasome activation underlies the pathology of numerous common inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome assembly causes activation of the protease caspase-1 which in turn activates proinflammatory cytokines and induces a lytic type of cell death termed pyroptosis. Although NLRP1 (NACHT, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 1) was the first inflammasome sensor, described almost 20 years ago, the molecular mechanisms underlying its activation and the resulting downstream events are incompletely understood. This is partially a consequence of the poor conservation of the NLRP1 pathway between human and mice. Moreover, recent evidence demonstrates a complex and multi-stage mechanism of NLRP1 inflammasome activation. In contrast to other inflammasome sensors, NLRP1 possesses protease activity required for proteolytic self-cleavage and activation mediated by the function-to-find domain (FIIND). CARD8 is a second FIIND protein and is expressed in humans but not in mice. In immune cells and AML (acute myeloid leukemia) cells, the anti-cancer drug talabostat induces CARD8 activation and causes caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis. In contrast, in human keratinocytes talabostat induces NLRP1 activation and massive proinflammatory cytokine activation. NLRP1 is regarded as the principal inflammasome sensor in human keratinocytes and UVB radiation induces its activation, which is believed to underlie the induction of sunburn. Moreover, gain-of-function mutations of NLRP1 cause inflammatory skin syndromes and a predisposition for the development of skin cancer. SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NLRP1 are associated with several (auto)inflammatory diseases with a major skin phenotype, such as psoriasis or vitiligo. Here, we summarize knowledge about NLRP1 with emphasis on its role in human keratinocytes and skin. Due to its accessibility, pharmacological targeting of NLRP1 activation in epidermal keratinocytes represents a promising strategy for the treatment of the numerous patients suffering from NLRP1-dependent inflammatory skin conditions and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Inflammasome and Mitophagy Connection in Health and Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134714 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The inflammasome is a large intracellular protein complex that activates inflammatory caspase-1 and induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Mitophagy plays an essential role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis during stress. Previous studies have indicated compelling evidence of the crosstalk [...] Read more.
The inflammasome is a large intracellular protein complex that activates inflammatory caspase-1 and induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Mitophagy plays an essential role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis during stress. Previous studies have indicated compelling evidence of the crosstalk between inflammasome and mitophagy. Mitophagy regulation of the inflammasome, or vice versa, is crucial for various biological functions, such as controlling inflammation and metabolism, immune and anti-tumor responses, and pyroptotic cell death. Uncontrolled regulation of the inflammasome often results in pathological inflammation and pyroptosis, and causes a variety of human diseases, including metabolic and inflammatory diseases, infection, and cancer. Here, we discuss how improved understanding of the interactions between inflammasome and mitophagy can lead to novel therapies against various disease pathologies, and how the inflammasome-mitophagy connection is currently being targeted pharmacologically by diverse agents and small molecules. A deeper understanding of the inflammasome-mitophagy connection will provide new insights into human health and disease through the balance between mitochondrial clearance and pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Cellular Models and Assays to Study NLRP3 Inflammasome Biology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124294 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that initiates innate immunity responses when exposed to a wide range of stimuli, including pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasome activation leads to the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and [...] Read more.
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that initiates innate immunity responses when exposed to a wide range of stimuli, including pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasome activation leads to the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and to pyroptotic cell death. Over-activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases. A deep knowledge of NLRP3 inflammasome biology is required to better exploit its potential as therapeutic target and for the development of new selective drugs. To this purpose, in the past few years, several tools have been developed for the biological characterization of the multimeric inflammasome complex, the identification of the upstream signaling cascade leading to inflammasome activation, and the downstream effects triggered by NLRP3 activation. In this review, we will report cellular models and cellular, biochemical, and biophysical assays that are currently available for studying inflammasome biology. A special focus will be on those models/assays that have been used to identify NLRP3 inhibitors and their mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Focus on the Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124223 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Inflammation is a protective reaction activated in response to detrimental stimuli, such as dead cells, irritants or pathogens, by the evolutionarily conserved immune system and is regulated by the host. The inflammasomes are recognized as innate immune system sensors and receptors that manage [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a protective reaction activated in response to detrimental stimuli, such as dead cells, irritants or pathogens, by the evolutionarily conserved immune system and is regulated by the host. The inflammasomes are recognized as innate immune system sensors and receptors that manage the activation of caspase-1 and stimulate inflammation response. They have been associated with several inflammatory disorders. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the most well characterized. It is so called because NLRP3 belongs to the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs). Recent evidence has greatly improved our understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated. Additionally, increasing data in animal models, supported by human studies, strongly implicate the involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of disorders with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic pathologies (obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis), cardiovascular diseases (ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease), inflammatory issues (liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, gut microbiome, rheumatoid arthritis) and neurologic disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders), compared to other molecular platforms. This review will provide a focus on the available knowledge about the NLRP3 inflammasome role in these pathologies and describe the balance between the activation of the harmful and beneficial inflammasome so that new therapies can be created for patients with these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
DROSHA-Dependent miRNA and AIM2 Inflammasome Activation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051668 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease. Chronic lung inflammation is linked to the pathogenesis of IPF. DROSHA, a class 2 ribonuclease III enzyme, has an important role in the biogenesis of microRNA (miRNA). The function of miRNAs has [...] Read more.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease. Chronic lung inflammation is linked to the pathogenesis of IPF. DROSHA, a class 2 ribonuclease III enzyme, has an important role in the biogenesis of microRNA (miRNA). The function of miRNAs has been identified in the regulation of the target gene or protein related to inflammatory responses via degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. The absent-in-melanoma-2 (AIM2) inflammasome is critical for inflammatory responses against cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) from pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and self-DNA from danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The AIM2 inflammasome senses double strand DNA (dsDNA) and interacts with the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), which recruits pro-caspase-1 and regulates the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. A recent study showed that inflammasome activation contributes to lung inflammation and fibrogenesis during IPF. In the current review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the DROSHA–miRNA–AIM2 inflammasome axis in the pathogenesis of IPF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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Open AccessReview
Inflammasome and Cognitive Symptoms in Human Diseases: Biological Evidence from Experimental Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031103 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Cognitive symptoms are prevalent in the elderly and are associated with an elevated risk of developing dementia. Disease-driven changes can cause cognitive disabilities in memory, attention, and language. The inflammasome is an innate immune intracellular complex that has a critical role in the [...] Read more.
Cognitive symptoms are prevalent in the elderly and are associated with an elevated risk of developing dementia. Disease-driven changes can cause cognitive disabilities in memory, attention, and language. The inflammasome is an innate immune intracellular complex that has a critical role in the host defense system, in that it senses infectious pathogen-associated and endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns. An unbalanced or dysregulated inflammasome is associated with infectious, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to its importance in such pathological conditions, the inflammasome is an emerging drug target for human diseases. A growing number of studies have revealed links between cognitive symptoms and the inflammasome. Several studies have shown that reducing the inflammasome component mitigates cognitive symptoms in diseased states. Therefore, understanding the inflammasome regulatory mechanisms may be required for the prevention and treatment of cognitive symptoms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current understanding of the inflammasome and its relationships with cognitive symptoms in various human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammasome)
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