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Goat’s Milk Intake Prevents Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet by Reducing Inflammatory Markers and Increasing Energy Expenditure and Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle

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Departamento de Nutrición Animal Dr. Fernando Pérez-Gil Romo, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), Ciudad de Mexico 14080, Mexico
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Departamento de Fisiología de la Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), Ciudad de Mexico 14080, Mexico
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Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
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Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
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Departamento de Inmunología y Reumatología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), Ciudad de Mexico 14080, Mexico
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Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA
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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155530
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive and Therapeutic Nutraceuticals against Chronic Diseases)
Goat’s milk is a rich source of bioactive compounds (peptides, conjugated linoleic acid, short chain fatty acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols such as phytoestrogens and minerals among others) that exert important health benefits. However, goat’s milk composition depends on the type of food provided to the animal and thus, the abundance of bioactive compounds in milk depends on the dietary sources of the goat feed. The metabolic impact of goat milk rich in bioactive compounds during metabolic challenges such as a high-fat (HF) diet has not been explored. Thus, we evaluated the effect of milk from goats fed a conventional diet, a conventional diet supplemented with 30% Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods or grazing on metabolic alterations in mice fed a HF diet. Interestingly, the incorporation of goat’s milk in the diet decreased body weight and body fat mass, improved glucose tolerance, prevented adipose tissue hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a HF diet. These effects were associated with an increase in energy expenditure, augmented oxidative fibers in skeletal muscle, and reduced inflammatory markers. Consequently, goat’s milk can be considered a non-pharmacologic strategy to improve the metabolic alterations induced by a HF diet. Using the body surface area normalization method gave a conversion equivalent daily human intake dose of 1.4 to 2.8 glasses (250 mL per glass/day) of fresh goat milk for an adult of 60 kg, which can be used as reference for future clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: goat’s milk; polyphenols; adipose tissue browning; functional food; bioactive compounds; energy expenditure; grazing; Acacia farnesiana goat’s milk; polyphenols; adipose tissue browning; functional food; bioactive compounds; energy expenditure; grazing; Acacia farnesiana
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Delgadillo-Puga, C.; Noriega, L.G.; Morales-Romero, A.M.; Nieto-Camacho, A.; Granados-Portillo, O.; Rodríguez-López, L.A.; Alemán, G.; Furuzawa-Carballeda, J.; Tovar, A.R.; Cisneros-Zevallos, L.; Torre-Villalvazo, I. Goat’s Milk Intake Prevents Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet by Reducing Inflammatory Markers and Increasing Energy Expenditure and Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5530.

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