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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2013) , Pages 12914-15198

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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of a Gene Encoding Clathrin Heavy Chain in Maize Up-Regulated by Salicylic Acid, Abscisic Acid and High Boron Supply
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15179-15198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715179
Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3111 | PDF Full-text (2645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned [...] Read more.
Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. The expressions of ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 genes in maize are down-regulated by azide or cold treatment, further revealing the energy requirement of CME and suggesting that CME in plants is sensitive to low temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Membrane Trafficking and Its Potential Implications)
Open AccessArticle
Serum Oxidant and Antioxidant Status Following an All-Out 21-km Run in Adolescent Runners Undergoing Professional Training—A One-Year Prospective Trial
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15167-15178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715167
Received: 6 June 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2899 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years) undergoing professional training were evaluated twice in 12 months (pre- and post-evaluation). Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and 4-h following the 21-km run for analysis of serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). In pre-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased after the 21-km run (p < 0.05) while XO, GSH, CAT and TAOC were unchanged. In post-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased, whereas XO and CAT increased post-exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pre-exercise serum T-AOC, post-exercise serum XO, CAT, T-AOC (p < 0.05), and GSH (p = 0.057) appeared to be higher than the corresponding pre-evaluation values. The current findings suggest that a professional training regime in adolescent runners is not likely to jeopardize the development of their antioxidant defense. However, uncertainties in the maintenance of redox balance in runners facing increased exercise-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of training-induced enhancement of exercise capacity await further elucidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle
Impacts of pr-10a Overexpression at the Molecular and the Phenotypic Level
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15141-15166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715141
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 19 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3078 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biotechnological approaches using genetic modifications such as homologous gene overexpression can be used to decode gene functions under well-defined circumstances. However, only the recording of the resulting phenotypes allows inferences about the impact of the modification on the organisms’ evolutionary, ecological or economic [...] Read more.
Biotechnological approaches using genetic modifications such as homologous gene overexpression can be used to decode gene functions under well-defined circumstances. However, only the recording of the resulting phenotypes allows inferences about the impact of the modification on the organisms’ evolutionary, ecological or economic performance. We here compare a potato wild-type cell line with two genetically engineered cell cultures homologously overexpressing Pathogenesis Related Protein 10a (pr-10a). A detailed analysis of the relative gene-expression patterns of pr-10a and its regulators sebf and pti4 over time provides insights into the molecular response of heterotrophic cells to distinct osmotic and salt-stress conditions. Furthermore, this system serves as an exemplar for the tracing of respiration kinetics as a faster and more sensitive alternative to the laborious and time-consuming recording of growth curves. The utility and characteristics of the resulting data type and the requirements for its appropriate analysis are figured out. It is demonstrated how this novel type of phenotypic information together with the gene-expression-data provides valuable insights into the effect of genetic modifications on the behaviour of cells on both the molecular and the macroscopic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
Open AccessArticle
Disease-Causing Mutations in BEST1 Gene Are Associated with Altered Sorting of Bestrophin-1 Protein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15121-15140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715121
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7843 | PDF Full-text (4016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mutations in BEST1 gene, encoding the bestrophin-1 (Best1) protein are associated with macular dystrophies. Best1 is predominantly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and is inserted in its basolateral membrane. We investigated the cellular localization in polarized MDCKII cells of disease-associated Best1 [...] Read more.
Mutations in BEST1 gene, encoding the bestrophin-1 (Best1) protein are associated with macular dystrophies. Best1 is predominantly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and is inserted in its basolateral membrane. We investigated the cellular localization in polarized MDCKII cells of disease-associated Best1 mutant proteins to study specific sorting motifs of Best1. Real-time PCR and western blots for endogenous expression of BEST1 in MDCK cells were performed. Best1 mutant constructs were generated using site-directed mutagenesis and transfected in MDCK cells. For protein sorting, confocal microscopy studies, biotinylation assays and statistical methods for quantification of mislocalization were used. Analysis of endogenous expression of BEST1 in MDCK cells revealed the presence of BEST1 transcript but no protein. Confocal microscopy and quantitative analyses indicate that transfected normal human Best1 displays a basolateral localization in MDCK cells, while cell sorting of several Best1 mutants (Y85H, Q96R, L100R, Y227N, Y227E) was altered. In contrast to constitutively active Y227E, constitutively inactive Y227F Best1 mutant localized basolaterally similar to the normal Best1 protein. Our data suggest that at least three basolateral sorting motifs might be implicated in proper Best1 basolateral localization. In addition, non-phosphorylated tyrosine 227 could play a role for basolateral delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
Open AccessReview
Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15105-15120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715105
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3378 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is [...] Read more.
Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Targeted Silencing of MART-1 Gene Expression by RNA Interference Enhances the Migration Ability of Uveal Melanoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15092-15104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715092
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2624 | PDF Full-text (1773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the leading potentially fatal primary intraocular disease in adults. Melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART-1) has been studied extensively as a clinically important diagnostic marker for melanoma, however, its biological function remains [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the leading potentially fatal primary intraocular disease in adults. Melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART-1) has been studied extensively as a clinically important diagnostic marker for melanoma, however, its biological function remains unclear. In the present study, the UM cell line SP6.5, which showed a high level of MART-1 expression, was subjected to small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of MART-1. Silencing of MART-1 expression increased the migration ability of SP6.5 cells and down-regulated the expression of the metastasis suppressor NM23. Our results suggest that MART-1 is a candidate target for the development of therapeutic strategies for UM and in particular for the suppression of metastasis associated with this malignancy. Full article
Open AccessReview
Defective Homocysteine Metabolism: Potential Implications for Skeletal Muscle Malfunction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15074-15091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715074
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 3868 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation [...] Read more.
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation and cellular antioxidant potential and imbalances in Hcy production and/or catabolism impacts gene expression and cell signaling including GPCR signaling. Furthermore, HHcy might damage the vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and affects various GPCR functions; therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. Understanding cellular targets of Hcy during HHcy in different contexts and its role either as a primary risk factor or as an aggravator of certain disease conditions would provide better interventions. In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. Overall, the impact of HHcy in various skeletal muscle malfunctions is underappreciated; future studies in this area will provide deeper insights and improve our understanding of the association between HHcy and diminished physical function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signaling in Biology and Patho-Biology)
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Open AccessReview
Epigenetics Meets Radiation Biology as a New Approach in Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15059-15073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715059
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3569 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is a disease that results from both genetic and epigenetic changes. In recent decades, a number of people have investigated the disparities in gene expression resulting from variable DNA methylation alteration and chromatin structure modification in response to the environment. Especially, colon [...] Read more.
Cancer is a disease that results from both genetic and epigenetic changes. In recent decades, a number of people have investigated the disparities in gene expression resulting from variable DNA methylation alteration and chromatin structure modification in response to the environment. Especially, colon cancer is a great model system for investigating the epigenetic mechanism for aberrant gene expression alteration. Ionizing radiation (IR) could affect a variety of processes within exposed cells and, in particular, cause changes in gene expression, disruption of cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic cell death. Even though there is growing evidence on the importance of epigenetics and biological processes induced by radiation exposure in various cancer types including colon cancer, specific epigenetic alterations induced by radiation at the molecular level are incompletely defined. This review focuses on discussing possible IR-mediated changes of DNA methylation and histone modification in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer)
Open AccessReview
DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15029-15058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715029
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 80 | Viewed by 5559 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the [...] Read more.
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Static Magnetic Fields and Fluoride Ions on the Antioxidant Defense System of Mice Fibroblasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 15017-15028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140715017
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3101 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are [...] Read more.
The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are present. It is not known whether static magnetic fields (SMF) cause any changes in fluoride assimilation or activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the potential relationship between magnetic field exposure to, and the antioxidant system of, fibroblasts cultured with fluoride ions. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.6, and 0.7 T) were used in this work. Fluoride ions were added at a concentration of 0.12 mM, which did not cause the precipitation of calcium or magnesium. The results of this study show that static magnetic fields reduce the oxidative stress caused by fluoride ions and normalize the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Static magnetic fields modify the energy state of fibroblasts, causing an increase in the ATP concentration and a decrease in the MDA concentration. These results suggest that exposure to fluoride and an SMF improves the tolerance of cells to the oxidative stress induced by fluoride ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
Open AccessArticle
Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14996-15016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714996
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 4141 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on [...] Read more.
Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14974-14995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714974
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3158 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of [...] Read more.
One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
Open AccessReview
Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14950-14973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714950
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 158 | Viewed by 5522 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims at analysing the synthesis of flavonoids, their import and export in plant cell compartments, as well as their involvement in the response to stress, with particular reference to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) [...] Read more.
This paper aims at analysing the synthesis of flavonoids, their import and export in plant cell compartments, as well as their involvement in the response to stress, with particular reference to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) as well as ABC transporters have been demonstrated in the tonoplast of grape berry, where they perform a flavonoid transport. The involvement of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene has also been inferred. Recently, a putative flavonoid carrier, similar to mammalian bilitranslocase (BTL), has been identified in both grape berry skin and pulp. In skin the pattern of BTL expression increases from véraison to harvest, while in the pulp its expression reaches the maximum at the early ripening stage. Moreover, the presence of BTL in vascular bundles suggests its participation in long distance transport of flavonoids. In addition, the presence of a vesicular trafficking in plants responsible for flavonoid transport is discussed. Finally, the involvement of flavonoids in the response to stress is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle
Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14936-14949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714936
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 30 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3849 | PDF Full-text (1464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host [...] Read more.
Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
SnoRNA U50 Levels Are Regulated by Cell Proliferation and rRNA Transcription
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14923-14935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714923
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3788 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
rRNA post transcriptional modifications play a role in cancer development by affecting ribosomal function. In particular, the snoRNA U50, mediating the methylation of C2848 in 28S rRNA, has been suggested as a potential tumor suppressor-like gene playing a role in breast and prostate [...] Read more.
rRNA post transcriptional modifications play a role in cancer development by affecting ribosomal function. In particular, the snoRNA U50, mediating the methylation of C2848 in 28S rRNA, has been suggested as a potential tumor suppressor-like gene playing a role in breast and prostate cancers and B-cell lymphoma. Indeed, we observed the downregulation of U50 in colon cancer cell lines as well as tumors. We then investigated the relationship between U50 and proliferation in lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and observed a strong decrease in U50 levels associated with a reduced C2848 methylation. This reduction was due to an alteration of U50 stability and to an increase of its consumption. Indeed, the blockade of ribosome biogenesis induced only an early decrease in U50 followed by a stabilization of U50 levels when ribosome biogenesis was almost completely blocked. Similar results were found with other snoRNAs. Lastly, we observed that U50 modulation affects ribosome efficiency in IRES-mediated translation, demonstrating that changes in the methylation levels of a single specific site on 28S rRNA may alter ribosome function. In conclusion, our results link U50 to the cellular proliferation rate and ribosome biogenesis and these findings may explain why its levels are often greatly reduced in cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessReview
Proteolytic Cleavage of Apolipoprotein E4 as the Keystone for the Heightened Risk Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14908-14922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714908
Received: 6 June 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3293 | PDF Full-text (2416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by microscopic lesions consisting of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The majority of cases are defined as sporadic and are likely caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Of the [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by microscopic lesions consisting of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The majority of cases are defined as sporadic and are likely caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Of the genetic risk factors identified, the 34 kDa protein, apolipoprotein (apo) E4, is of significant importance as APOE4 carriers account for 65%–80% of all AD cases. Although apoE4 plays a normal role in lipoprotein transport, how it contributes to AD pathogenesis is currently unknown. One potential mechanism by which apoE4 contributes to disease risk is its propensity to undergo proteolytic cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragments. The purpose of this review will be to examine the mechanisms by which apoE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis focusing on the potential loss or gain of function that may occur following cleavage of the full-length protein. In this context, a discussion of whether targeting apoE4 therapeutically is a rationale approach to treating this disease will be assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Structure Prediction of Partial-Length Protein Sequences
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14892-14907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714892
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2926 | PDF Full-text (1137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Protein structure information is essential to understand protein function. Computational methods to accurately predict protein structure from the sequence have primarily been evaluated on protein sequences representing full-length native proteins. Here, we demonstrate that top-performing structure prediction methods can accurately predict the partial [...] Read more.
Protein structure information is essential to understand protein function. Computational methods to accurately predict protein structure from the sequence have primarily been evaluated on protein sequences representing full-length native proteins. Here, we demonstrate that top-performing structure prediction methods can accurately predict the partial structures of proteins encoded by sequences that contain approximately 50% or more of the full-length protein sequence. We hypothesize that structure prediction may be useful for predicting functions of proteins whose corresponding genes are mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that encode partial-length amino acid sequences. Additionally, we identify a confidence score representing the quality of a predicted structure as a useful means of predicting the likelihood that an arbitrary polypeptide sequence represents a portion of a foldable protein sequence (“foldability”). This work has ramifications for the prediction of protein structure with limited or noisy sequence information, as well as genome annotation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Protein Folding)
Open AccessArticle
Ectopic Expression of BraYAB1-702, a Member of YABBY Gene Family in Chinese Cabbage, Causes Leaf Curling, Inhibition of Development of Shoot Apical Meristem and Flowering Stage Delaying in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14872-14891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714872
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3140 | PDF Full-text (6508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
YABBY gene family plays an important role in the polarity development of lateral organs. We isolated the BraYAB1-702 gene, a member of the YABBY gene family, from young leaves of Chinese cabbage line 06J45. The full-length gene has a 937 bp CDNA sequence [...] Read more.
YABBY gene family plays an important role in the polarity development of lateral organs. We isolated the BraYAB1-702 gene, a member of the YABBY gene family, from young leaves of Chinese cabbage line 06J45. The full-length gene has a 937 bp CDNA sequence and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp. The subcellular localization analysis showed that the expression product of the gene was localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BraYAB1-702 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused leaf curling from the adaxial epidermises to abaxial epidermises; the partial abaxialization of the adaxial epidermises of leaves; leaf trichomes and stomata numbers being significantly increased; the plants being severely stunted; the flowering stage being remarkably delayed and inhibiting the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM) with the down-regulation of the expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), Brevipedicellus (BP) and KNAT2 which were related to the development of shoot apical meristem. These results from the present research help to reveal the molecular mechanism of BraYAB1-702 gene in the establishment of adaxial–abaxial polarity of the lateral organs in Chinese cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Thuja sutchuenensis Revealed by ISSR Markers and the Implications for Conservation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14860-14871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714860
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3289 | PDF Full-text (1232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. is a critically endangered plant endemic to the North-East Chongqing, China. Genetic variation was studied to assess the distribution of genetic diversity within and among seven populations from the single remnant locations, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total [...] Read more.
Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. is a critically endangered plant endemic to the North-East Chongqing, China. Genetic variation was studied to assess the distribution of genetic diversity within and among seven populations from the single remnant locations, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 15 primers generated 310 well defined bands, with an average of 20.7 bands per primer. The seven populations revealed a relatively high level of genetic diversity in the species. The percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index at the population and species level were 76.1%, 0.155, 0.252 and 100%, 0.165, 0.295, respectively. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations (GST = 0.102), in line with the results of Analyses of Molecular Variance (AMOVA), and a high level of gene flow (Nm = 4.407) were observed. Both the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmatic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) supported the grouping of all seven populations into two groups. In addition, Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.329, p = 0.100). The low genetic differentiation among populations implies that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessReview
Posttranslational Modification of the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14833-14859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714833
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 3995 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. AR undergoes posttranslational modifications that alter its transcription activity, translocation to the nucleus and stability. The posttranslational modifications that regulate these events are of [...] Read more.
The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. AR undergoes posttranslational modifications that alter its transcription activity, translocation to the nucleus and stability. The posttranslational modifications that regulate these events are of utmost importance to understand the functional role of AR and its activity. The majority of these modifications occur in the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR, which contains the transcriptional activation unit 1 (TAU1) and 5 (TAU5). Identification of the modifications that occur to these regions may increase our understanding of AR activation in prostate cancer and the role of AR in the progression from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Most of the posttranslational modifications identified to date have been determined using the full-length AR in androgen dependent cells. Further investigations into the role of posttranslational modifications in androgen-independent activation of full-length AR and constitutively active splicing variants are warranted, findings from which may provide new therapeutic options for CRPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessReview
Molecularly Targeted Agents as Radiosensitizers in Cancer Therapy—Focus on Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14800-14832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714800
Received: 8 May 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3217 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As our understanding of the molecular pathways driving tumorigenesis improves and more druggable targets are identified, we have witnessed a concomitant increase in the development and production of novel molecularly targeted agents. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various malignancies with [...] Read more.
As our understanding of the molecular pathways driving tumorigenesis improves and more druggable targets are identified, we have witnessed a concomitant increase in the development and production of novel molecularly targeted agents. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various malignancies with a prominent role in the care of prostate cancer patients, and efforts to improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation by technologic and pharmacologic means have led to important advances in cancer care. One promising approach is to combine molecularly targeted systemic agents with radiotherapy to improve tumor response rates and likelihood of durable control. This review first explores the limitations of preclinical studies as well as barriers to successful implementation of clinical trials with radiosensitizers. Special considerations related to and recommendations for the design of preclinical studies and clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents combined with radiotherapy are provided. We then apply these concepts by reviewing a representative set of targeted therapies that show promise as radiosensitizers in the treatment of prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessReview
Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14785-14799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714785
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 4795 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small noncoding RNAs that are 19-23 nucleotides long, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in almost all biological mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Recent studies show that miRNAs released from live cells are detectable in body fluids and may be taken up by other cells [...] Read more.
Small noncoding RNAs that are 19-23 nucleotides long, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in almost all biological mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Recent studies show that miRNAs released from live cells are detectable in body fluids and may be taken up by other cells to confer cell-cell communication. These released miRNAs (here referred to as extracellular miRNAs) are often protected by RNA-binding proteins or embedded inside circulating microvesicles. Due to their relative stability, extracellular miRNAs are believed to be promising candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease, or even as therapeutic agents for targeted treatment. In this review, we first describe biogenesis and characteristics of these miRNAs. We then summarize recent publications involving extracellular miRNA profiling studies in three representative urologic cancers, including: prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. We focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of these miRNAs in biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine. Finally, we discuss advantages and challenges of these miRNAs in clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessReview
Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14771-14784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714771
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4370 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded [...] Read more.
Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Open AccessReview
Long and Short Non-Coding RNAs as Regulators of Hematopoietic Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14744-14770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714744
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5021 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genomic analyses estimated that the proportion of the genome encoding proteins corresponds to approximately 1.5%, while at least 66% are transcribed, suggesting that many non-coding DNA-regions generate non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The relevance of these ncRNAs in biological, physiological as well as in pathological [...] Read more.
Genomic analyses estimated that the proportion of the genome encoding proteins corresponds to approximately 1.5%, while at least 66% are transcribed, suggesting that many non-coding DNA-regions generate non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The relevance of these ncRNAs in biological, physiological as well as in pathological processes increased over the last two decades with the understanding of their implication in complex regulatory networks. This review particularly focuses on the involvement of two large families of ncRNAs, namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of hematopoiesis. To date, miRNAs have been widely studied, leading to a wealth of data about processing, regulation and mechanisms of action and more specifically, their involvement in hematopoietic differentiation. Notably, the interaction of miRNAs with the regulatory network of transcription factors is well documented whereas roles, regulation and mechanisms of lncRNAs remain largely unexplored in hematopoiesis; this review gathers current data about lncRNAs as well as both potential and confirmed roles in normal and pathological hematopoiesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Amphipathic HIV Fusion Inhibitor Peptides on POPC and POPC/Cholesterol Membrane Properties: A Molecular Simulation Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14724-14743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714724
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 22 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3357 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
T-20 and T-1249 fusion inhibitor peptides were shown to interact with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) (liquid disordered, ld) and POPC/cholesterol (1:1) (POPC/Chol) (liquid ordered, lo) bilayers, and they do so to different extents. Although they both possess a tryptophan-rich domain (TRD), T-20 lacks a pocket [...] Read more.
T-20 and T-1249 fusion inhibitor peptides were shown to interact with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) (liquid disordered, ld) and POPC/cholesterol (1:1) (POPC/Chol) (liquid ordered, lo) bilayers, and they do so to different extents. Although they both possess a tryptophan-rich domain (TRD), T-20 lacks a pocket binding domain (PBD), which is present in T-1249. It has been postulated that the PBD domain enhances FI interaction with HIV gp41 protein and with model membranes. Interaction of these fusion inhibitor peptides with both the cell membrane and the viral envelope membrane is important for function, i.e., inhibition of the fusion process. We address this problem with a molecular dynamics approach focusing on lipid properties, trying to ascertain the consequences and the differences in the interaction of T-20 and T-1249 with ld and lo model membranes. T-20 and T-1249 interactions with model membranes are shown to have measurable and different effects on bilayer structural and dynamical parameters. T-1249’s adsorption to the membrane surface has generally a stronger influence in the measured parameters. The presence of both binding domains in T-1249 appears to be paramount to its stronger interaction, and is shown to have a definite importance in membrane properties upon peptide adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Biological Membranes)
Open AccessReview
The Role of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14712-14723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714712
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 6271 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of the existence of a subset of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, which are thought to play a significant role in tumor formation, metastasis, resistance to anticancer therapies and cancer recurrence, has gained tremendous attraction within the last decade. These [...] Read more.
The concept of the existence of a subset of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, which are thought to play a significant role in tumor formation, metastasis, resistance to anticancer therapies and cancer recurrence, has gained tremendous attraction within the last decade. These cancer stem cells (CSCs) are relatively rare and have been described by different molecular markers and cellular features in different types of cancers. Ten years ago, a novel class of molecules, small non-protein-coding RNAs, was found to be involved in carcinogenesis. These small RNAs, which are called microRNAs (miRNAs), act as endogenous suppressors of gene expression that exert their effect by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of large target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). MicroRNAs trigger either translational repression or mRNA cleavage of target mRNAs. Some studies have shown that putative breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) exhibit a distinct miRNA expression profile compared to non-tumorigenic breast cancer cells. The deregulated miRNAs may contribute to carcinogenesis and self-renewal of BCSCs via several different pathways and can act either as oncomirs or as tumor suppressive miRNAs. It has also been demonstrated that certain miRNAs play an essential role in regulating the stem cell-like phenotype of BCSCs. Some miRNAs control clonal expansion or maintain the self-renewal and anti-apoptotic features of BCSCs. Others are targeting the specific mRNA of their target genes and thereby contribute to the formation and self-renewal process of BCSCs. Several miRNAs are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is often implicated in the process of formation of CSCs. Other miRNAs were shown to be involved in the increased chemotherapeutic resistance of BCSCs. This review highlights the recent findings and crucial role of miRNAs in the maintenance, growth and behavior of BCSCs, thus indicating the potential for novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic miRNA-based strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Development of Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions in Hypertensive Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14700-14711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714700
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2720 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated the impact of hypertension, a component of metabolic syndrome, on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis using SHRSP/Izm (SHRSP) non-diabetic/hypertensive rats and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic/hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated the impact of hypertension, a component of metabolic syndrome, on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis using SHRSP/Izm (SHRSP) non-diabetic/hypertensive rats and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic/hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old SHRSP, SHRSP-ZF, and control non-diabetic/normotensive Wister Kyoto/Izm (WKY) rats were given 2 weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks after the last injection of AOM, the SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats became hypertensive compared to the control WKY rats. Serum levels of angiotensin-II, the active product of the renin-angiotensin system, were elevated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats, but only the SHRSP-ZF rats developed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia and exhibited an increase in adipose tissue. The development of AOM-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and aberrant crypts foci, was significantly accelerated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF hypertensive rats, compared to WKY normotensive rats. Furthermore, induction of oxidative stress and exacerbation of inflammation were observed in the colonic mucosa and systemically in SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats. Our findings suggest that hypertension plays a role in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which might be associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
Cascading cis-Cleavage on Transcript from trans-Acting siRNA-Producing Locus 3
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14689-14699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714689
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3795 | PDF Full-text (642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of small RNAs (sRNAs) from phased positions set by microRNA-directed cleavage of trans-acting-siRNA-producing locus (TAS) transcript has been characterized extensively; however, the production of sRNAs from non-phased positions remains unknown. We report three cis-cleavages that occurred in TAS3 transcripts [...] Read more.
The production of small RNAs (sRNAs) from phased positions set by microRNA-directed cleavage of trans-acting-siRNA-producing locus (TAS) transcript has been characterized extensively; however, the production of sRNAs from non-phased positions remains unknown. We report three cis-cleavages that occurred in TAS3 transcripts in Vitis vinifera, by combining high-throughput sRNA deep sequencing information with evolutional conservation and genome-wide RNA degradome analysis. The three cis-cleavages can be deciphered to generate an orderly cleavage cascade, and can also produce distinct phasing patterns. Each of the patterns, either upstream or downstream of the cis-cleaved position, had a set of sRNAs arranged in 21-nucleotide increments. Part of the cascading cis-cleavages was also conserved in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results will enhance the understanding of the production of sRNAs from non-phased positions that are not set by microRNA-directed cleavage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle
Near Infrared Optical Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Levels in COLO205 Colorectal Cell Line, Orthotopic Tumor in Mice and Human Biopsies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14669-14688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714669
Received: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2604 | PDF Full-text (1583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR). The near infrared [...] Read more.
In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR). The near infrared (NIR) bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for EGF receptor bio-imaging of the NCI-60 recommended panel of tumor cell lines including 6–9 colorectal cell lines, since it avoids radioactive probes and is appropriate for use in the clinical setting using NIR technologies in a real-time manner. Full article
Open AccessArticle
TMPRSS4 as a Poor Prognostic Factor for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14659-14668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140714659
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3020 | PDF Full-text (1251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and lack of overexpression or amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Our aim was to investigate the expression of transmembrane protease, [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and lack of overexpression or amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Our aim was to investigate the expression of transmembrane protease, serine 4 (TMPRSS4) in TNBC patients and its possible relationship to the outcome of the disease. A total of 72 TNBC patients and 109 non-TNBC patients who were diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry was used to compare the expression pattern of TMPRSS4 in TNBC and non-TNBC groups, and the prognostic significance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression in TNBC patients. The rate of high expression of TMPRSS4 was significantly higher in TNBC group than that in non-TNBC group. High expression of TMPRSS4 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, histological grade, and tumor size. TNBC patients with high TMPRSS4 expression showed the poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) than those patients with low TMPRSS4 expression. In multivariate analysis, only lymph node metastasis and TMPRSS4 expression were the independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS in TNBC. Our study provides evidence that TMPRSS4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and histological grade in TNBC patients, and also is an independent prognostic factor for TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Bases of Cancer Research)
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