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Molecules, Volume 25, Issue 13 (July-1 2020) – 110 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Standardized Extract of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba and Fructus Schisandrae Ameliorates Coughing and Increases Expectoration of Phlegm
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133064 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cough and phlegm frequently occur in respiratory diseases like upper respiratory tract infections, acute bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. To relieve these symptoms and diseases, various ingredients are being used despite the debates on their clinical efficacy. We aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Cough and phlegm frequently occur in respiratory diseases like upper respiratory tract infections, acute bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. To relieve these symptoms and diseases, various ingredients are being used despite the debates on their clinical efficacy. We aimed to investigate the effects of the extract CKD-497, composed of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba and Fructus Schisandrae, in relieving cough and facilitating expectoration of phlegm. CKD-497 was found to inhibit inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse macrophages and transient receptor potential cation channel 1 (TRPV-1)-overexpressed human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated by capsaicin. CKD-497 decreased the viscosity of the mucin solution. During in vivo experiments, CKD-497 reduced coughing numbers and increased expectoration of phlegm via mucociliary clearance enhancement. Collectively, these data suggest that CKD-497 possesses potential for cough and phlegm expectoration treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on the Mechanism of Medicinal Plants on Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Chrysin-De-Allyl PAC-1 Hybrid Analogues as Anticancer Compounds: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133063 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
New chrysin-De-allyl-Pac-1 hybrid analogues, tethered with variable heterocyclic systems (4a4o), were rationally designed and synthesized. The target compounds were screened for in vitro antiproliferative efficacy in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-231, and normal human mammary epithelial [...] Read more.
New chrysin-De-allyl-Pac-1 hybrid analogues, tethered with variable heterocyclic systems (4a4o), were rationally designed and synthesized. The target compounds were screened for in vitro antiproliferative efficacy in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-231, and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Two compounds, 4g and 4i, had the highest efficacy and selectivity towards MDA-MB-231 cells, and thus, were further evaluated by mechanistic experiments. The results indicated that both compounds 4g and 4i induced apoptosis by (1) inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells, and (2) activating the intrinsic apoptotic pathways in a concentration-dependent manner. Physicochemical characterizations of these compounds suggested that they can be further optimized as potential anticancer compounds for TNBC cells. Overall, our results suggest that 4g and 4i could be suitable leads for developing novel compounds to treat TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sesamin, the Major Furofuran Lignan of Sesame Oil, on the Amplitude and Gating of Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Currents
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133062 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Sesamin (SSM) and sesamolin (SesA) are the two major furofuran lignans of sesame oil and they have been previously noticed to exert various biological actions. However, their modulatory actions on different types of ionic currents in electrically excitable cells remain largely unresolved. The [...] Read more.
Sesamin (SSM) and sesamolin (SesA) are the two major furofuran lignans of sesame oil and they have been previously noticed to exert various biological actions. However, their modulatory actions on different types of ionic currents in electrically excitable cells remain largely unresolved. The present experiments were undertaken to explore the possible perturbations of SSM and SesA on different types of ionic currents, e.g., voltage-gated Na+ currents (INa), erg-mediated K+ currents (IK(erg)), M-type K+ currents (IK(M)), delayed-rectifier K+ currents (IK(DR)) and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) identified from pituitary tumor (GH3) cells. The exposure to SSM or SesA depressed the transient and late components of INa with different potencies. The IC50 value of SSM needed to lessen the peak or sustained INa was calculated to be 7.2 or 0.6 μM, while that of SesA was 9.8 or 2.5 μM, respectively. The dissociation constant of SSM-perturbed inhibition on INa, based on the first-order reaction scheme, was measured to be 0.93 μM, a value very similar to the IC50 for its depressant action on sustained INa. The addition of SSM was also effective at suppressing the amplitude of resurgent INa. The addition of SSM could concentration-dependently inhibit the IK(M) amplitude with an IC50 value of 4.8 μM. SSM at a concentration of 30 μM could suppress the amplitude of IK(erg), while at 10 μM, it mildly decreased the IK(DR) amplitude. However, the addition of neither SSM (10 μM) nor SesA (10 μM) altered the amplitude or kinetics of Ih in response to long-lasting hyperpolarization. Additionally, in this study, a modified Markovian model designed for SCN8A-encoded (or NaV1.6) channels was implemented to evaluate the plausible modifications of SSM on the gating kinetics of NaV channels. The model demonstrated herein was well suited to predict that the SSM-mediated decrease in peak INa, followed by increased current inactivation, which could largely account for its favorable decrease in the probability of the open-blocked over open state of NaV channels. Collectively, our study provides evidence that highlights the notion that SSM or SesA could block multiple ion currents, such as INa and IK(M), and suggests that these actions are potentially important and may participate in the functional activities of various electrically excitable cells in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Intrinsic Virtues of EGCG, an Extremely Good Cell Guardian, on Prevention and Treatment of Diabesity Complications
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133061 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
The pandemic proportion of diabesity—a combination of obesity and diabetes—sets a worldwide health issue. Experimental and clinical studies have progressively reinforced the pioneering epidemiological observation of an inverse relationship between consumption of polyphenol-rich nutraceutical agents and mortality from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. With [...] Read more.
The pandemic proportion of diabesity—a combination of obesity and diabetes—sets a worldwide health issue. Experimental and clinical studies have progressively reinforced the pioneering epidemiological observation of an inverse relationship between consumption of polyphenol-rich nutraceutical agents and mortality from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. With chemical identification of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as the most abundant catechin of green tea, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the activities of this unique catechin have been proposed. Favorable effects of EGCG have been initially attributed to its scavenging effects on free radicals, inhibition of ROS-generating mechanisms and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Biologic actions of EGCG are concentration-dependent and under certain conditions EGCG may exert pro-oxidant activities, including generation of free radicals. The discovery of 67-kDa laminin as potential EGCG membrane target has broaden the likelihood that EGCG may function not only because of its highly reactive nature, but also via receptor-mediated activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Finally, by acting as epigenetic modulator of DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling, EGCG may alter gene expression and modify miRNA activities. Despite unceasing research providing detailed insights, ECGC composite activities are still not completely understood. This review summarizes the most recent evidence on molecular mechanisms by which EGCG may activate signal transduction pathways, regulate transcription factors or promote epigenetic changes that may contribute to prevent pathologic processes involved in diabesity and its cardiovascular complications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Flavonoids and Mitochondria: Activation of Cytoprotective Pathways?
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133060 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
A large number of diverse mechanisms that lead to cytoprotection have been described to date. Perhaps, not surprisingly, the role of mitochondria in these phenomena is notable. In addition to being metabolic centers, due to their role in cell catabolism, ATP synthesis, and [...] Read more.
A large number of diverse mechanisms that lead to cytoprotection have been described to date. Perhaps, not surprisingly, the role of mitochondria in these phenomena is notable. In addition to being metabolic centers, due to their role in cell catabolism, ATP synthesis, and biosynthesis these organelles are triggers and/or end-effectors of a large number of signaling pathways. Their role in the regulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, calcium homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species signaling is well documented. In this review, we aim to characterize the prospects of influencing cytoprotective mitochondrial signaling routes by natural substances of plant origin, namely, flavonoids (e.g., flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and isoflavones). Flavonoids are a family of widely distributed plant secondary metabolites known for their beneficial effects on human health and are widely applied in traditional medicine. Their pharmacological characteristics include antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antidiabetic properties. Here, we focus on presenting mitochondria-mediated cytoprotection against various insults. Thus, the role of flavonoids as antioxidants and modulators of antioxidant cellular response, apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy, and fission and fusion is reported. Finally, an emerging field of flavonoid-mediated changes in the activity of mitochondrial ion channels and their role in cytoprotection is outlined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 4-Hydroxy-2-quinolone Analogs
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133059 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Alkyl quinolone has been proven to be a privileged scaffold in the antimicrobial drug discovery pipeline. In this study, a series of new 4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone analogs containing a long alkyl side chain at C-3 and a broad range of substituents on the C-6 and [...] Read more.
Alkyl quinolone has been proven to be a privileged scaffold in the antimicrobial drug discovery pipeline. In this study, a series of new 4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone analogs containing a long alkyl side chain at C-3 and a broad range of substituents on the C-6 and C-7 positions were synthesized. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these analogs against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus flavus were investigated. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the length of the alkyl chain, as well as the type of substituent, has a dramatic impact on the antimicrobial activities. Particularly, the brominated analogs 3j with a nonyl side chain exhibited exceptional antifungal activities against A. flavus (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 1.05 µg/mL), which surpassed that of the amphotericin B used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus, although not as potent, showed a similar trend to the antifungal activity. The data suggest that the 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone is a promising framework for the further development of new antimicrobial agents, especially for antifungal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies toward Bioactive Natural Product Like-Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
SAR:s for the Antiparasitic Plant Metabolite Pulchrol. 1. The Benzyl Alcohol Functionality.
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133058 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Pulchrol (1) is a natural benzochromene isolated from the roots of Bourreria pulchra, shown to possess potent antiparasitic activity towards both Leishmania and Trypanozoma species. As it is not understood which molecular features of 1 are important for the antiparasitic [...] Read more.
Pulchrol (1) is a natural benzochromene isolated from the roots of Bourreria pulchra, shown to possess potent antiparasitic activity towards both Leishmania and Trypanozoma species. As it is not understood which molecular features of 1 are important for the antiparasitic activity, several analogues were synthesized and assayed. The ultimate goal is to understand the structure–activity relationships (SAR:s) and create a QSAR model that can be used for the development of clinically useful antiparasitic agents. In this study, we have synthesized 25 2-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen analogues of 1 and its co-metabolite pulchral (5a), by semi-synthetic procedures starting from the natural product pulchrol (1) itself. All 27 compounds, including the two natural products 1 and 5a, were subsequently assayed in vitro for antiparasitic activity against Trypanozoma cruzi, Leishmania brasiliensis and Leishmania amazoniensis. In addition, the cytotoxicity in RAW cells was assayed, and a selectivity index (SI) for each compound and each parasite was calculated. Several compounds are more potent or equi-potent compared with the positive controls Benznidazole (Trypanozoma) and Miltefosine (Leishmania). The compounds with the highest potencies as well as SI-values are esters of 1 with various carboxylic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Inorganic Arsenic Exposure Decreases Muscle Mass and Enhances Denervation-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133057 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid. Infants with a low birth-weight have been observed in areas with high-level arsenic in drinking water ranging from 463 to 1025 μg/L. A distal muscular atrophy side effect has been observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with [...] Read more.
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid. Infants with a low birth-weight have been observed in areas with high-level arsenic in drinking water ranging from 463 to 1025 μg/L. A distal muscular atrophy side effect has been observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) for therapy. The potential of As2O3 on muscle atrophy remains to be clarified. In this study, the myoatrophic effect of arsenic was evaluated in normal mice and sciatic nerve denervated mice exposed with or without As2O3 (0.05 and 0.5 ppm) in drinking water for 4 weeks. We found that both 0.05 and 0.5 ppm As2O3 increased the fasting plasma glucose level; but only 0.5 ppm arsenic exposure significantly decreased muscle mass, muscle endurance, and cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, and increased muscle Atrogin-1 protein expression in the normal mice. Both 0.05 and 0.5 ppm As2O3 also significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects on muscle endurance, muscle mass, and cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, and increased the effect on muscle Atrogin-1 protein expression in the denervated mice. These in vivo results suggest that inorganic arsenic at doses relevant to humans may possess myoatrophic potential. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Safety and Efficacy of New Oximes to Reverse Low Dose Diethyl-Paraoxon-Induced Ventilatory Effects in Rats
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133056 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Background: Oximes are used in addition to atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning. However, the efficiency of oximes is still a matter of debate. In vitro experiments suggested than new oximes are more potent than the commercial oximes. However, the antidotal activity of new [...] Read more.
Background: Oximes are used in addition to atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning. However, the efficiency of oximes is still a matter of debate. In vitro experiments suggested than new oximes are more potent than the commercial oximes. However, the antidotal activity of new oximes has not been assessed in vivo. Methods: The aim of this work was to assess the safety and efficiency of new oximes compared to pralidoxime in a rat model of diethyl paraoxon-induced non-lethal respiratory toxicity. Results: Safety study of oximes showed no adverse effects on ventilation in rats. KO-33, KO-48, KO-74 oximes did not exhibit significant antidotal effect in vivo. In contrast, KO-27 and BI-6 showed evidence of antidotal activity by normalization of respiratory frequency and respiratory times. KO-27 became inefficient only during the last 30 min of the study. In contrast, pralidoxime demonstrated to be inefficient at 30 min post injection. Inversely, the antidotal activity of BI-6 occurred lately, within the last 90 min post injection. Conclusion: This study showed respiratory safety of new oximes. Regarding, the efficiency, KO-27 revealed to be a rapid acting antidote toward diethylparaoxon-induced respiratory toxicity, meanwhile BI-6 was a late-acting antidote. Simultaneous administration of these two oximes might result in a complete and prolonged antidotal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Antidotes)
Open AccessArticle
New Microporous Lanthanide Organic Frameworks. Synthesis, Structure, Luminescence, Sorption, and Catalytic Acylation of 2-Naphthol
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133055 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
New metal-organic frameworks (MOF) with lanthanum(III), cerium(III), neodymium(III), europium(III), gadolinium(III), dysprosium(III), and holmium(III)] and the ligand precursor 1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (H3L) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal x-ray analysis confirmed the formation of three-dimensional frameworks of [LnL(H [...] Read more.
New metal-organic frameworks (MOF) with lanthanum(III), cerium(III), neodymium(III), europium(III), gadolinium(III), dysprosium(III), and holmium(III)] and the ligand precursor 1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (H3L) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal x-ray analysis confirmed the formation of three-dimensional frameworks of [LnL(H2O)2]n·xDMF·yH2O for Ln = La, Ce, and Nd. From the nitrogen sorption experiments, the compounds showed permanent porosity with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of about 400 m2/g, and thermal stability up to 500 °C. Further investigations showed that these Ln-MOFs exhibit catalytic activity, paving the way for potential applications within the field of catalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Fingerprinting, Antioxidant, and Deterrent Potentials of Persicaria maculosa Extracts
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133054 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Persicaria maculosa (Polygonaceae) (known as lady’s thumb) is an annual morphologically variable weed that is widely distributed in Chile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifeedant potential of methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH), and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from the aerial parts [...] Read more.
Persicaria maculosa (Polygonaceae) (known as lady’s thumb) is an annual morphologically variable weed that is widely distributed in Chile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifeedant potential of methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH), and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from the aerial parts of this plant collected in the Valparaíso and Curicó provinces (Chile) and relate this activity to the antioxidant capacity and the presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. A phenolic profile based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 26 phenolic compounds, most of them glycosyl derivatives of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. In addition, the total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion scavenging (O2), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) of the extracts are reported. The antifeedant potentials of the plant extracts were tested against Epilachna paenulata, Pseudaletia adultera, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and Diaphorina citri insects for the first time. The activity against the aphid M. euphorbiae was significant for the DCM extracts of plants from Valparaíso and Curicó (settling % = 23% ± 4% and 23% ± 5%, respectively). The antifeedant activities against the beetle E. paenulata and the lepidoptera P. adultera were significant for Valparaíso extracts, especially when tested against E. Paenulata (IFP = 1.0 ± 0.0). Finally, the MeOH and EtOH extracts from Valparaíso plants reduced the diet consumption of the psilid D. citri (p < 0.05). The results showed that P. maculosa is a good source of flavonoids with some antioxidant capacities and has potential interest as botanical eco-friendly alternative with deterrent activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Zeolitic Waste in Alkali-Activated Biomass Bottom Ash Blends
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133053 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 122
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of ammonium-bearing zeolitic waste (FCC) on alkali-activated biomass bottom ash (BBA). FCC was obtained from the oil-cracking process in petroleum plants. In this study, two types of production waste were used: biomass bottom ash and ammonium-bearing [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effects of ammonium-bearing zeolitic waste (FCC) on alkali-activated biomass bottom ash (BBA). FCC was obtained from the oil-cracking process in petroleum plants. In this study, two types of production waste were used: biomass bottom ash and ammonium-bearing zeolitic waste. These binary alkali-activated FCC/BBA blends were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The compressive strength of the hardened samples was evaluated. The results show that the samples made from alkali-activated BBA biomass bottom ash had low (8.5 MPa) compressive strength, which could be explained with low reactive BBA and insufficient quantities of silicon and aluminum compounds. The reactivity of BBA was improved with incorporating zeolitic waste as an aluminosilicate material. This zeolitic waste was first used for ammonium sorption; then, it was incorporated in alkali-activated samples. Additional amounts of hydrated products formed, such as calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminum silicate hydrate and calcium sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. The silicon and aluminum compound, which varied in zeolitic waste, changed the mineral composition and microstructure of alkali-activated binder systems. NH4Cl, which was incorporated in the zeolitic waste, did not negatively affect the compressive strength of the alkali-activated BBA samples. This investigation proved that waste materials can be reused by producing alkali-activated binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alkali-Activated Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Analogs of Didehydroepiandrosterone as Potential New Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133052 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
The synthesis, cytotoxicity and inhibition of CDK8 by thirteen analogs of cortistatin A are reported. These efforts revealed that the analogs with either a 6- or 7-isoquinoline or 5-indole side chain in the 17-position are the most promising anti-proliferative agents. These compounds showed [...] Read more.
The synthesis, cytotoxicity and inhibition of CDK8 by thirteen analogs of cortistatin A are reported. These efforts revealed that the analogs with either a 6- or 7-isoquinoline or 5-indole side chain in the 17-position are the most promising anti-proliferative agents. These compounds showed potent cytotoxic effects in CEM, HeLa and HMEC-1 cells. All three compounds exhibited IC50 values <10µM. The most interesting 10l analog exhibited an IC50 value of 0.59 µM towards the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1), significantly lower than the reference standard 2-methoxyestradiol. At a concentration at 50 nM the most potent 10h compound reduced the activity of CDK8 to 35%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Compounds with Different Biological Targets)
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Open AccessArticle
Complete Microbial Fuel Cell Fabrication Using Additive Layer Manufacturing
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133051 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 117
Abstract
Improving the efficiency of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology by enhancing the system performance and reducing the production cost is essential for commercialisation. In this study, building an additive manufacturing (AM)-built MFC comprising all 3D printed components such as anode, cathode and chassis [...] Read more.
Improving the efficiency of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology by enhancing the system performance and reducing the production cost is essential for commercialisation. In this study, building an additive manufacturing (AM)-built MFC comprising all 3D printed components such as anode, cathode and chassis was attempted for the first time. 3D printed base structures were made of low-cost, biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) filaments. For both anode and cathode, two surface modification methods using either graphite or nickel powder were tested. The best performing anode material, carbon-coated non-conductive PLA filament, was comparable to the control modified carbon veil with a peak power of 376.7 µW (7.5 W m−3) in week 3. However, PLA-based AM cathodes underperformed regardless of the coating method, which limited the overall performance. The membrane-less design produced more stable and higher power output levels (520−570 µW, 7.4−8.1 W m−3) compared to the ceramic membrane control MFCs. As the final design, four AM-made membrane-less MFCs connected in series successfully powered a digital weather station, which shows the current status of low-cost 3D printed MFC development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Biocompatible, Stimuli-Responsive, and Injectable Hydrogel with Triple Dynamic Bonds
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133050 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Injectable hydrogels have attracted growing interests as promising biomaterials for clinical applications, due to their minimum invasive implanting approach and easy-handling performance. Nevertheless, natural biomaterials-based injectable hydrogels with desirable nontoxicity are suffering from limited functions, failing to fulfill the requirements of clinical biomaterials. [...] Read more.
Injectable hydrogels have attracted growing interests as promising biomaterials for clinical applications, due to their minimum invasive implanting approach and easy-handling performance. Nevertheless, natural biomaterials-based injectable hydrogels with desirable nontoxicity are suffering from limited functions, failing to fulfill the requirements of clinical biomaterials. The development of novel injectable biomaterials with a combination of biocompatibility and adequate functional properties is a growing urgency toward biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a simple and effective approach to fabricate multi-functional CMC-OSA-DTP hydrogels. Two kinds of natural polysaccharide derived polymers, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and oxidized alginate (OSA) along with 3,3′-dithiopropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP) were utilized to introduce three dynamic covalent bonds. Owing to the existence of triple dynamic bonds, this unique CMC-OSA-DTP hydrogel possessed smart redox and pH stimuli-responsive property, injectability as well as self-healing ability. In addition, the CCK-8 and live/dead assays demonstrated satisfying cytocompatibility of the CMC-OSA-DTP hydrogel in vitro. Based on its attractive properties, this easy-fabricated and multi-functional hydrogel demonstrated the great potential as an injectable biomaterial in a variety of biomedical applications. Full article
Open AccessReview
Marine Excitatory Amino Acids: Structure, Properties, Biosynthesis and Recent Approaches to Their Syntheses
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133049 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 116
Abstract
This review considers the results of recent studies on marine excitatory amino acids, including kainic acid, domoic acid, dysiherbaine, and neodysiherbaine A, known as potent agonists of one of subtypes of glutamate receptors, the so-called kainate receptors. Novel information, particularly concerning biosynthesis, environmental [...] Read more.
This review considers the results of recent studies on marine excitatory amino acids, including kainic acid, domoic acid, dysiherbaine, and neodysiherbaine A, known as potent agonists of one of subtypes of glutamate receptors, the so-called kainate receptors. Novel information, particularly concerning biosynthesis, environmental roles, biological action, and syntheses of these marine metabolites, obtained mainly in last 10–15 years, is summarized. The goal of the review was not only to discuss recently obtained data, but also to provide a brief introduction to the field of marine excitatory amino acid research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Towards Robust Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides to Combat Bacterial Resistance
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133048 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), otherwise known as host defence peptides (HDPs), are naturally occurring biomolecules expressed by a large array of species across the phylogenetic kingdoms. They have great potential to combat microbial infections by directly killing or inhibiting bacterial activity and/or by modulating [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), otherwise known as host defence peptides (HDPs), are naturally occurring biomolecules expressed by a large array of species across the phylogenetic kingdoms. They have great potential to combat microbial infections by directly killing or inhibiting bacterial activity and/or by modulating the immune response of the host. Due to their multimodal properties, broad spectrum activity, and minimal resistance generation, these peptides have emerged as a promising response to the rapidly concerning problem of multidrug resistance (MDR). However, their therapeutic efficacy is limited by a number of factors, including rapid degradation, systemic toxicity, and low bioavailability. As such, many strategies have been developed to mitigate these limitations, such as peptide modification and delivery vehicle conjugation/encapsulation. Oftentimes, however, particularly in the case of the latter, this can hinder the activity of the parent AMP. Here, we review current delivery strategies used for AMP formulation, focusing on methodologies utilized for targeted infection site release of AMPs. This specificity unites the improved biocompatibility of the delivery vehicle with the unhindered activity of the free AMP, providing a promising means to effectively translate AMP therapy into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Development of Antimicrobial Agents)
Open AccessReview
Compensate for or Minimize Matrix Effects? Strategies for Overcoming Matrix Effects in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique: A Tutorial Review
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133047 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 111
Abstract
In recent decades, mass spectrometry techniques, particularly when combined with separation methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography, have become increasingly important in pharmaceutical, bio-analytical, environmental, and food science applications because they afford high selectivity and sensitivity. However, mass spectrometry has limitations due to [...] Read more.
In recent decades, mass spectrometry techniques, particularly when combined with separation methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography, have become increasingly important in pharmaceutical, bio-analytical, environmental, and food science applications because they afford high selectivity and sensitivity. However, mass spectrometry has limitations due to the matrix effects (ME), which can be particularly marked in complex mixes, when the analyte co-elutes together with other molecules, altering analysis results quantitatively. This may be detrimental during method validation, negatively affecting reproducibility, linearity, selectivity, accuracy, and sensitivity. Starting from literature and own experience, this review intends to provide a simple guideline for selecting the best operative conditions to overcome matrix effects in LC-MS techniques, to obtain the best result in the shortest time. The proposed methodology can be of benefit in different sectors, such as pharmaceutical, bio-analytical, environmental, and food sciences. Depending on the required sensitivity, analysts may minimize or compensate for ME. When sensitivity is crucial, analysis must try to minimize ME by adjusting MS parameters, chromatographic conditions, or optimizing clean-up. On the contrary, to compensate for ME analysts should have recourse to calibration approaches depending on the availability of blank matrix. When blank matrices are available, calibration can occur through isotope labeled internal standards and matrix matched calibration standards; conversely, when blank matrices are not available, calibration can be performed through isotope labeled internal standards, background subtraction, or surrogate matrices. In any case, an adjusting of MS parameters, chromatographic conditions, or a clean-up are necessary. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
AMP–Chitosan Coating with Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Human Plasma Proteins
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133046 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is increasing and new strategies are needed to fight infection. Advanced materials are promising tools that can be combined with innovative alternatives to conventional antibiotics to allow more targeted and efficient treatment. In this work, we explored the activity against Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is increasing and new strategies are needed to fight infection. Advanced materials are promising tools that can be combined with innovative alternatives to conventional antibiotics to allow more targeted and efficient treatment. In this work, we explored the activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) of the α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) MSI-78(4-20) (KFLKKAKKFGKAFVKIL) when covalently bound to a chitosan coating. The AMP MSI-78(4-20) (17 mer) is an improved version of its parent MSI-78 (22 mer; commercially known as Pexiganan), a cost-effective short AMP, which was demonstrated to be as effective as MSI-78 and less toxic to eukaryotic cells. An MSI-78(4-20)–chitosan coating could be applied in several infection scenarios, ranging from bone implants to wound dressings, as chitosan possesses osteoconductive and hemostatic properties. Cysteine-modified MSI-78(4-20) was covalently immobilized onto the chitosan coating through a succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-octaethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG)8), a heterobifuncional crosslinker, with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and maleimide groups, by its N- and C- termini. The MSI-78(4-20)–chitosan coating demonstrated bactericidal properties independently of the tethering site and an improved performance in the presence of plasma proteins, which mimics conditions that will be encountered in vivo. This AMP–chitosan coating has therefore great potential for applications in medical devices such as implants or even wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Peptides—From Therapy to Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Synergistic Effect of Piperlongumine and Sanguinarine on the Non-Small Lung Cancer
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133045 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 108
Abstract
Background: Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths nowadays. The development of new treatment schemes for oncological diseases is an interesting direction in experimental medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the influence of two alkaloids—piperlongumine (PL), sanguinarine (SAN) and their combination—on the [...] Read more.
Background: Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths nowadays. The development of new treatment schemes for oncological diseases is an interesting direction in experimental medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the influence of two alkaloids—piperlongumine (PL), sanguinarine (SAN) and their combination—on the basic life processes of the A549 cell line was considered reasonable. Methods: The aim was achieved by analyzing the cytotoxic effects of PL and SAN and their combination in the ratio of 4:1 on the induction of cell death, changes in the distribution of cell cycle phases, reorganization of cytoskeleton and metastatic potential of A549 cells. The versatility of the applied concentration ratio was evaluated in terms of other cancer cell lines: MCF-7, H1299 and HepG2. Results: The results obtained from the MTT assay indicated that the interaction between the alkaloids depends on the concentration and type of cells. Additionally, the compounds and their combination did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect against normal cells. The combined effects of PL and SAN increased apoptosis and favored metastasis inhibition. Conclusion: Selected alkaloids exhibit a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells. In turn, treatment with the combination of PL and SAN in a 4:1 ratio indicates a synergistic effect and is associated with an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development)
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Microwave Absorption Properties of Sulfur-Free Expanded Graphite/Fe3O4 Composites
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3044; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133044 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
In this study, sulfur-free expanded graphite (EG) was obtained by using flake graphite as the raw material, and EG/Fe3O4 composites with excellent microwave absorption properties were prepared by a facile one-pot co-precipitation method. The structure and properties of as-prepared EG/Fe [...] Read more.
In this study, sulfur-free expanded graphite (EG) was obtained by using flake graphite as the raw material, and EG/Fe3O4 composites with excellent microwave absorption properties were prepared by a facile one-pot co-precipitation method. The structure and properties of as-prepared EG/Fe3O4 were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) characterizations. The Fe3O4 intercalated between the layers of expanded graphite forms a sandwich-like structure which is superparamagnetic and porous. When applied as a microwave absorber, the reflection loss (RL) of EG/Fe3O4 reaches −40.39 dB with a thickness of 3.0 mm (10 wt% loading), and the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB < −10 dB) with RL exceeding −10 dB is 4.76–17.66 GHz with the absorber thickness of 1.5–4.0 mm. Considering its non-toxicity, easy operation, low cost, suitability for large-scale industrial production, and excellent microwave absorbing performance, EG/Fe3O4 is expected to be a promising candidate for industrialized electromagnetic absorbing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Materials for Advanced Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Naftifine Application for Transungual Delivery
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133043 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Naftifine is used to treat fungal skin infections as it inhibits dermatophytes, which are the cause of onychomycosis. However, naftifine’s ability to permeate the human nail barrier has not been investigated, thus, the antimycotic potential is not clearly established. This work aims to [...] Read more.
Naftifine is used to treat fungal skin infections as it inhibits dermatophytes, which are the cause of onychomycosis. However, naftifine’s ability to permeate the human nail barrier has not been investigated, thus, the antimycotic potential is not clearly established. This work aims to evaluate the effect of penetration enhancing factors on the accumulation of naftifine hydrochloride through human nail clippings. Naftifine polymeric nail lacquers with Eudragit RL100 were developed as a suitable delivery system. Low penetration of naftifine into nail has been determined as less than 10% of applied drug dose accumulated in the nail layers. Incorporation of thioglycolic acid into formulations resulted in increased accumulation of antifungal agent in the nail layers by 100% compared with a control group. Salicylic acid did not effect naftifine accumulation in the human nail. The permeation of naftifine through the nail increased by threefold when the thioglycolic acid-containing formulation was applied and the nail was pretreated with a fractional CO2 laser. Structural changes of the nail barrier, induced by fractional CO2 laser, were visualized by microscopy. The results suggest, that naftifine nail penetration could be significantly increased when physical and chemical enhancing factors are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Materials in Drug Delivery)
Open AccessArticle
Pectenovarin, A New Ovarian Carotenoprotein from Japanese Scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133042 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis accumulates carotenoids in the ovary during the maturation stage. Its conspicuous pink color implies the presence of carotenoprotein. However, the carotenoprotein from the scallop ovary has never been isolated and characterized, probably due to its instability and complexity. Here, [...] Read more.
The scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis accumulates carotenoids in the ovary during the maturation stage. Its conspicuous pink color implies the presence of carotenoprotein. However, the carotenoprotein from the scallop ovary has never been isolated and characterized, probably due to its instability and complexity. Here, we developed an extraction and isolation procedure for the carotenoprotein by employing a basic buffer containing potassium bromide to facilitate its efficient extraction from the ovary, and we succeeded in obtaining the carotenoprotein, termed pectenovarin. The carotenoid composition of the pectenovarin was similar to that of the ovary. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of pectenovarin showed a high similarity to those of vitellogenin, the precursor of egg yolk protein under analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Insight into the Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics for the Criegee Intermediate of anti-PhCHOO with SO2
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133041 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 107
Abstract
In this study, the density functional theory (DFT) and CCSD(T) method have been performed to gain insight into the possible products and detailed reaction mechanism of the Criegee intermediate (CI) of anti-PhCHOO with SO2 for the first time. The potential energy [...] Read more.
In this study, the density functional theory (DFT) and CCSD(T) method have been performed to gain insight into the possible products and detailed reaction mechanism of the Criegee intermediate (CI) of anti-PhCHOO with SO2 for the first time. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been depicted at the UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//UB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory with ZPE correction. Two different five-membered ring adducts, viz., endo PhCHOOS(O)O (IM1) and exo PhCHOOS(O)O (IM2) have been found in the entrance of reaction channels. Both direct and indirect reaction pathways from IM1 and IM2 have been considered for the title reaction. Our calculations show that the formation of PhCHO+SO3 (P1) via indirect reaction pathways from IM1 is predominant in all the pathways, and the production of P1 via direct dissociation pathway of IM1 and indirect reaction pathways of IM2 cannot be neglected. Moreover, PhCOOH+SO2 (P2) initiated from IM2 is identified as the minor product. According to the kinetic calculation, the total rate constant for the anti-PhCHOO+SO2 reaction is estimated to be 6.98 × 10−10 cm3·molecule−1·s−1 at 298 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational and Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Neopapillarine, an Unusual Coumarino-Alkaloid from the Root Extract of Neocryptodiscus papillaris with Cytotoxic Activity on Renal Cancer Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133040 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 116
Abstract
Several simple and prenylated coumarin derivatives were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the root of Neocryptodiscus papillaris based on moderate cytotoxic activity of the extract in COLO205, KM12 and MCF7 cancer cells. While the major prenylated furanocoumarin derivatives and osthol isolated from [...] Read more.
Several simple and prenylated coumarin derivatives were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the root of Neocryptodiscus papillaris based on moderate cytotoxic activity of the extract in COLO205, KM12 and MCF7 cancer cells. While the major prenylated furanocoumarin derivatives and osthol isolated from the dichloromethane extract were responsible for the activity in the colon and breast cancer cell lines, the 4′-acylated osthol derivatives including a novel coumarino-alkaloid; neopapillarine) demonstrated selective cytotoxic activity in A498 and UO31 renal cancer cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxicity and Antiviral Activity of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Droplet Rolling and Spinning in V-Shaped Hydrophobic Surfaces for Environmental Dust Mitigation
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133039 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 122
Abstract
The motion of a water droplet in a hydrophobic wedge fixture was examined to assess droplet rolling and spinning for improved dust mitigation from surfaces. A wedge fixture composed of two inclined hydrophobic plates had different wetting states on surfaces. Droplet rolling and [...] Read more.
The motion of a water droplet in a hydrophobic wedge fixture was examined to assess droplet rolling and spinning for improved dust mitigation from surfaces. A wedge fixture composed of two inclined hydrophobic plates had different wetting states on surfaces. Droplet rolling and spinning velocities were analyzed and findings were compared with the experiments. A wedge fixture was designed and realized using a 3D printing facility and a high speed recording system was adopted to evaluate droplet motion in the wedge fixture. Polycarbonate sheets were used as plates in the fixture, and solution crystallization and functionalized silica particles coating were adopted separately on plate surfaces, which provided different wetting states on each plate surface while generating different droplet pinning forces on each hydrophobic plate surface. This arrangement also gave rise to the spinning of rolling droplets in the wedge fixture. Experiments were extended to include dust mitigation from inclined hydrophobic surfaces while incorporating spinning- and rolling droplet and rolling droplet-only cases. The findings revealed the wedge fixture arrangement resulted in spinning and rolling droplets and spinning velocity became almost 25% of the droplet rolling velocity, which agrees well with both predictions and experiments. Rolling and spinning droplet gave rise to parallel edges droplet paths on dusty hydrophobic surfaces while striations in droplet paths were observed for rolling droplet-only cases. Spinning and rolling droplets mitigated a relatively larger area of dust on inclined hydrophobic surfaces as compared to their counterparts corresponding to rolling droplet-only cases. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for “Organometallic Chemistry” Section, in Journal Molecules
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133038 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
It is a great pleasure to assume the role of Editor-in-Chief for the “Organometallic Chemistry”. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
SUSSOL—Using Artificial Intelligence for Greener Solvent Selection and Substitution
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133037 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Solvents come in many shapes and types. Looking for solvents for a specific application can be hard, and looking for green alternatives for currently used nonbenign solvents can be even harder. We describe a new methodology for solvent selection and substitution, by applying [...] Read more.
Solvents come in many shapes and types. Looking for solvents for a specific application can be hard, and looking for green alternatives for currently used nonbenign solvents can be even harder. We describe a new methodology for solvent selection and substitution, by applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) software to cluster a database of solvents based on their physical properties. The solvents are processed by a neural network, the Self-organizing Map of Kohonen, which results in a 2D map of clusters. The resulting clusters are validated both chemically and statistically and are presented in user-friendly visualizations by the SUSSOL (Sustainable Solvents Selection and Substitution Software) software. The software helps the user in exploring the solvent space and in generating and evaluating a list of possible alternatives for a specific solvent. The alternatives are ranked based on their safety, health, and environment scores. Cases are discussed to demonstrate the possibilities of our approach and to show that it can help in the search for more sustainable and greener solvents. The SUSSOL software makes intuitive sense and in most case studies, the software confirms the findings in literature, thus providing a sound platform for selecting the most sustainable solvent candidate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based and Safer Solvents)
Open AccessReview
Chemistry and Biological Activities of 1,2,4-Triazolethiones—Antiviral and Anti-Infective Drugs
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133036 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Mercapto-substituted 1,2,4-triazoles are very interesting compounds as they play an important role in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects on cancer. In recent decades, literature has been enriched with sulfur- and nitrogen-containing heterocycles which are used as a basic nucleus of different heterocyclic compounds with [...] Read more.
Mercapto-substituted 1,2,4-triazoles are very interesting compounds as they play an important role in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects on cancer. In recent decades, literature has been enriched with sulfur- and nitrogen-containing heterocycles which are used as a basic nucleus of different heterocyclic compounds with various biological applications in medicine and also occupy a huge part of natural products. Therefore, we shed, herein, more light on the synthesis of this interesting class and its application as a biologically active moiety. They might also be suitable as antiviral and anti-infective drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugation Strategies in Drug Delivery and Molecular Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Content of Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Tortillas Added with Bambara Groundnut Flour
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133035 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 175
Abstract
The effect of substituting maize (masa) flour with Bambara groundnut flour in tortillas production was investigated. Thermal, antioxidant, physicochemical properties, degree of puffing and rollability of flour and tortillas were determined. Tortillas were produced from maize and Bambara Groundnut (BGN) flours [...] Read more.
The effect of substituting maize (masa) flour with Bambara groundnut flour in tortillas production was investigated. Thermal, antioxidant, physicochemical properties, degree of puffing and rollability of flour and tortillas were determined. Tortillas were produced from maize and Bambara Groundnut (BGN) flours at the ratio of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20, respectively. Compositing maize with BGN flour showed an improvement on the proximate composition of maize flour and tortillas; however, carbohydrate content of tortillas significantly decreased with the addition of BGN in blends from 77.07 to 55.22. The temperatures of gelatinisation such as onset temperature (To) of flour blends increased from 57.50 to 71.95 °C, peak temperature (Tp) from 74.94 to 76.74 °C and the end temperature (Te) from 81.72 to 91.58 °C. Composite flours and tortillas had higher values of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities than the control sample. Textural properties of control tortillas were higher than that of composite tortillas. Increase in the levels of BGN flour improved the weight and thickness of tortillas. However, diameter and spread ratio decreased. Degree of puffing and rollability of tortillas increased with the incorporation levels of BGN flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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