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Natural Products and Their Semi-synthetic Derivatives against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 66920

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d'Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: chemical modification of natural compounds; medicinal chemistry; food chemistry; antioxidants; antimicrobials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, I accepted an invitation to serve as the Guest Editor for this Special Issue, "Natural Products and their Semi-synthetic Derivatives Against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites”, of the journal Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules). In this regard, I would be pleased if you would agree to contribute an original research paper, short communication, or focus review to this issue. Provided below is some information that you may find useful in your consideration of this invitation.

This Special Issue will collect and disseminate the most significant and recent contributions in the interdisciplinary area of medicinal chemistry, food chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacognosy, with a particular emphasis on (biotechnological) production, isolation and characterization, biological effects, uses, and the analysis of semi-synthetic and natural products. The main applications of these natural active compounds must be strictly focused on microbial (bacterial, fungal, and viral) infections, parasite disease eradication and prevention, food contamination and preservation, inhibition of biofilm production and resistance development, herbal formulations, new mechanisms of action, new targets to be explored, structure–activity elucidation, and chemically modified natural compounds with improved biological activity or pharmacokinetics. The biological activity of complex natural extracts without a proper chemical characterization or the evaluation of the most representative active compounds will not be considered.

Dr. Simone Carradori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Antimicrobial agents
  • Anti-parasitic agents
  • Anti-protozoan agents
  • Stucture–activity relationships
  • Food contamination
  • Innovative (micro)extraction procedures
  • Synthetic derivatives inspired by natural scaffolds
  • Food and food supplements analyses
  • Pharmaco-toxicological activities
  • Physiological activities of food and food components
  • Uses of medicinal plants and fungi
  • Biofilm and resistance

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1152 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of the Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Against the Marine Parasitic Leech and Its Phytochemical Profiling
by Balu Alagar Venmathi Maran, Dawglas Josmeh, Jen Kit Tan, Yoong Soon Yong and Muhammad Dawood Shah
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071908 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4051
Abstract
Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (Hirudinea), a marine parasitic leech, not only resulted in the mortality of the host fish (Groupers) but also caused economic losses. The current study aimed to elucidate the antiparasitic efficacy of the aqueous extract of the Azadirachta indica leaves against [...] Read more.
Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (Hirudinea), a marine parasitic leech, not only resulted in the mortality of the host fish (Groupers) but also caused economic losses. The current study aimed to elucidate the antiparasitic efficacy of the aqueous extract of the Azadirachta indica leaves against Z. arugamensis and to profile the composition via LC-Q Exactive HF Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/mL) of A. indica extract were prepared and tested on the parasitic leeches. The total mortality of leeches was noticed with an exposure to the A. indica aqueous extract. The average times required for the aqueous extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL to kill the leeches were 42.65 ± 9.20, 11.69 ± 1.11 and 6.45 ± 0.45 min, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of five flavonoids (myricetin 3-O-galactoside, trifolin, isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol), four aromatics (4-methoxy benzaldehyde, scopoletin, indole-3-acrylic acid and 2,4-quinolinediol), three phenolics (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and phloretin) and two terpenoids (pulegone and caryophyllene oxide). Thus, our study indicates that A. indica aqueous extract is a good source of metabolites with the potential to act as a biocontrol agent against the marine parasitic leech in aquaculture. Full article
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14 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
Health Potential of Clery Strawberries: Enzymatic Inhibition and Anti-Candida Activity Evaluation
by Francesco Cairone, Giovanna Simonetti, Anastasia Orekhova, Maria Antonietta Casadei, Gokhan Zengin and Stefania Cesa
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061731 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Strawberries, belonging to cultivar Clery (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Weston) and to a graft obtained by crossing Clery and Fragaria vesca L., were chosen for a study on their health potential, with regard to the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. [...] Read more.
Strawberries, belonging to cultivar Clery (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Weston) and to a graft obtained by crossing Clery and Fragaria vesca L., were chosen for a study on their health potential, with regard to the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. Selected samples, coming from fresh and defrosted berries, submitted to different homogenization techniques combined with thermal and microwave treatments, had been previously analyzed in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In the present work, these homogenates were evaluated in relation to their enzymatic inhibition activity towards acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase. All these enzymes, involved in the onset of diabetes, and neurodegenerative and other chronic diseases, were modulated by the tested samples. The inhibitory effect on tyrosinase and cholinesterase was the most valuable. Antifungal activity against Candida albicans, recently shown to play a crucial role in human gut diseases as well as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease, was also shown in vitro and confirmed by the in vivo text on Galleria mellonella. Overall, the obtained results confirm once again the health potential of strawberries; however, the efficacy is dependent on high quality products submitted to correct processing flow charts. Full article
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12 pages, 2196 KiB  
Article
Antiparasitic Potential of Chromatographic Fractions of Nephrolepis biserrata and Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry Analysis
by Muhammad Dawood Shah, Kazuki Tani, Yoong Soon Yong, Fui Fui Ching, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad Shaleh, Charles S. Vairappan and Balu Alagar Venmathi Maran
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020499 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3903
Abstract
Marine aquaculture development is recently impeded by parasitic leech Zeylanicobdellaarugamensis (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) in Sabah, Malaysia. The parasitic leech infests a variety of cultured fishes in aquaculture facilities. In this study, we evaluated the antiparasitic activity of the chromatographic fractions of the medicinal [...] Read more.
Marine aquaculture development is recently impeded by parasitic leech Zeylanicobdellaarugamensis (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) in Sabah, Malaysia. The parasitic leech infests a variety of cultured fishes in aquaculture facilities. In this study, we evaluated the antiparasitic activity of the chromatographic fractions of the medicinal plant Nephrolepis biserrata methanol extract against Z.arugamensis and highlighted the potential metabolites responsible for the antiparasitic properties through liquid chromatography (LC)–quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)–mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Out of seven fractions obtained through flash column chromatography techniques, three fractions demonstrated antiparasitic properties. Significant parasitic mortality was indicated by fraction 3 at a concentration of 2.50 mg/mL, all the leeches were killed in a time limit of 1.92 ± 0.59 min. followed by fraction 4 (14 mg/mL) in 34.57 ± 3.39 and fraction 5 (15.3 mg/mL) in 36.82 ± 4.53 min. LC-QTOF-MS analysis indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including phytosphingosine (6), pyrethrosin (1), haplophytine (9), ivalin (2), warburganal (3), isodomedin (4) and pheophorbide a (16), representing sphingoid, alkaloid, terpenoid, phenolic and flavonoid groups. Thus, our study indicated that the chromatographic fractions of N. biserrata demonstrated significant antiparasitic activity against the marine parasitic leeches due to the presence of potent antiparasitic bioactive compounds. Full article
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11 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effect of Nepeta deflersiana on Climax Bacterial Community Isolated from the Oral Plaque of Patients with Periodontal Disease
by Irfan Ahmad, Safia Irfan, Mohammed Abohashrh, Shadma Wahab, Shahabe Saquib Abullais, Mukhatar Ahmed Javali, Nazima Nisar, Mohammad Mahtab Alam, Saurabh Srivastava, Mohd Saleem, Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Irshad Ahmad and Nasrin Mansuri
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010202 - 3 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
Background: The red-complex bacteria are one of the most significant complexes found simultaneously in subgingival plaque next to the periodontal pocket. The current antibacterial treatment is not adequate, and multidrug resistance to it is developing. Henceforth, the antibacterial effect of the ethanolic extract [...] Read more.
Background: The red-complex bacteria are one of the most significant complexes found simultaneously in subgingival plaque next to the periodontal pocket. The current antibacterial treatment is not adequate, and multidrug resistance to it is developing. Henceforth, the antibacterial effect of the ethanolic extract of Nepeta deflersiana was put to test against red-complex bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: Well diffusion and micro broth dilution procedure by Alamar blue were applied to assess the zone of inhibition (ZOI), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Anti-virulence efficacies of the plant extract that comprise of adherence and formation of biofilms were examined by the process of adherence and biofilm production assay. Results: The crude extract of Nepeta deflersiana exhibited significant inhibitory outcome against periodontopathic bacteria with noteworthy MIC (0.78–3.12 mg/mL), inhibitory zone (12–20 mm), as well as MBC (3.12–12.50 mg/mL). The N. deflersiana extract inhibited bacterial adhesion ranging from 41% to 52%, 53% to 66%, and 60% to 79% at the given MIC × 0.5, MIC × 1, and MIC × 2 in succession. Substantial suppression was also developed in the biofilm production of the investigated periodontopathic strains following exposure to numerous concentrations of N. deflersianan extract for a period of 24 and 48 h. Conclusion: These outcomes divulge a new concept that N. deflersiana extract can be utilized to manufacture valuable antibacterial compounds to treat chronic and acute periodontitis. This identifies N. deflersiana as an essential natural source for future drug development. Full article
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21 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Larvicidal Activity of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives: Investigating Alternative Products for Aedes aegypti L. Control
by Marianna O. Araújo, Yunierkis Pérez-Castillo, Louise H. G. Oliveira, Fabíola C. Nunes and Damião P. de Sousa
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010061 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits the virus that causes dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and in several regions of the planet represents a vector of great clinical importance. In terms of mortality and morbidity, infections caused by Ae. aegypti are among [...] Read more.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits the virus that causes dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and in several regions of the planet represents a vector of great clinical importance. In terms of mortality and morbidity, infections caused by Ae. aegypti are among the most serious arthropod transmitted viral diseases. The present study investigated the larvicidal potential of seventeen cinnamic acid derivatives against fourth stage Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvicide assays were performed using larval mortality rates to determine lethal concentration (LC50). Compounds containing the medium alkyl chains butyl cinnamate (7) and pentyl cinnamate (8) presented excellent larvicidal activity with LC50 values of around 0.21–0.17 mM, respectively. While among the derivatives with aryl substituents, the best LC50 result was 0.55 mM for benzyl cinnamate (13). The tested derivatives were natural compounds and in pharmacology and antiparasitic studies, many have been evaluated using biological models for environmental and toxicological safety. Molecular modeling analyses suggest that the larvicidal activity of these compounds might be due to a multi-target mechanism of action involving inhibition of a carbonic anhydrase (CA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC2), and two sodium-dependent cation-chloride co-transporters (CCC2 e CCC3). Full article
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16 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Mode of Action of the Daucus carota Essential Oil Active Compounds against Campylobacter jejuni and Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Luc Dedieu, Jean Michel Brunel, Vanina Lorenzi, Alain Muselli, Liliane Berti and Jean Michel Bolla
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5448; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225448 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Today, an alarming rise of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans resulting from consuming Campylobacter-tainted foods is being observed. One of the solutions for mitigating this issue may be the antibacterial activity of essential oils. In the present research, we propose to study the [...] Read more.
Today, an alarming rise of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans resulting from consuming Campylobacter-tainted foods is being observed. One of the solutions for mitigating this issue may be the antibacterial activity of essential oils. In the present research, we propose to study the antibacterial activity against Campylobacter and other Gram-negative bacteria of Daucus carota essential oil and its active molecules. In addition, a few chemically synthesized molecules such as (E)-methylisoeugenol, Elemicin, and eugenol were also studied. The results showed that the essential oil itself and its most active component, (E)-methylisoeugenol, exhibited bactericidal effects. Similar effects were detected using purified and chemically synthesized molecules. Also, it was observed that the Daucus carota essential oil and its active molecules affected intracellular potassium and intracellular ATP contents in Campylobacter cells. Inhibition of the membrane bound FOF1-ATPase was also observed. Eventually, for the first time, the efflux mechanism of active molecules of Daucus carota essential oil was also identified in gamma proteobacteria and its specific antibacterial activity against Campylobacter jejuni was associated with the lack of this efflux mechanism in this species. Full article
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12 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
The Inhibitory Activity of Anthraquinones against Pathogenic Protozoa, Bacteria, and Fungi and the Relationship to Structure
by Mendel Friedman, Alexander Xu, Rani Lee, Daniel N. Nguyen, Tina A. Phan, Sabrina M. Hamada, Rima Panchel, Christina C. Tam, Jong H. Kim, Luisa W. Cheng and Kirkwood M. Land
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133101 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5333
Abstract
Plant-derived anthraquinones were evaluated in cell assays for their inhibitory activities against the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis human strain G3 that causes the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis in women, Tritrichomonas foetus bovine strain D1 that causes sexually transmitted diseases in farm animals (bulls, [...] Read more.
Plant-derived anthraquinones were evaluated in cell assays for their inhibitory activities against the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis human strain G3 that causes the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis in women, Tritrichomonas foetus bovine strain D1 that causes sexually transmitted diseases in farm animals (bulls, cows, and pigs), Tritrichomonas foetus-like strain C1 that causes diarrhea in domestic animals (cats and dogs), and bacteria and fungi. The anthraquinones assessed for their inhibitory activity were anthraquinone, aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone), anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone), chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone), and rhein (1,8-dihydroxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone). Their activities were determined in terms of IC50 values, defined as the concentration that inhibits 50% of the cells under the test conditions and calculated from linear dose response plots for the parasitic protozoa, and zone of inhibition for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The results show that the different substituents on the anthraquinone ring seem to influence the relative potency. Analysis of the structure–activity relationships in protozoa indicates that the aloe-emodin and chrysazin with the highest biological activities merit further study for their potential to help treat the diseases in women and domestic and farm animals. Emodin also exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The suggested mechanism of action and the additional reported beneficial biological properties of anthraquinones suggest that they have the potential to ameliorate a broad spectrum of human diseases. Full article
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19 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
Foliar Application of Bio-Stimulants Enhancing the Production and the Toxicity of Origanum majorana Essential Oils Against Four Rice Seed-Borne Fungi
by Abeer A. Mohamed, Mervat El-Hefny, Nader A. El-Shanhorey and Hayssam M. Ali
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102363 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
In the present study, the enhancement of the production of Origanum majorana essential oils (EOs) was studied by treating plants with ascorbic acid (AA) and tryptophan (Trp) at concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L and Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) at 2.5%, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the enhancement of the production of Origanum majorana essential oils (EOs) was studied by treating plants with ascorbic acid (AA) and tryptophan (Trp) at concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L and Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) at 2.5%, 5% and 10% as foliar applications during the seasons 2018–2019. The toxicities of the EOs were assayed against four seed-borne fungi (Bipolaris orzyae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium verticilliodies and F. graminearum) isolated from rice grains (Oryzae sativa). Vegetative growth parameters and EO production were enhanced by the application of AA, Trp and MLE in both seasons. Analysis of the EOs by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the main chemical constituents were terpineol (cis-β-(1-terpinenol)), terpinen-4-ol, 4-thujanol (sabinene hydrate), α-terpineol, cymene and sabinene. The highest fungal mycelial growth inhibition (FMGI) percentages against F. verticilliodies were 94.57% and 92.63% as MLE at 5% and 10%, respectively, was applied to plants and 85.60% and 82.19% against F. graminearum as Trp was applied to plants at 300 and 200 mg/L, respectively. EOs from the treated plant with MLE (10%) observed the highest FMGI (84.46%) against B. oryzae, and EOs from plants treated with AA as foliar application at 300 and 200 mg/L showed the highest FMGI values of 81.11% and 81.85%, respectively, against the growth of C. lunata. Application of EOs extracted from plants treated with Trp, AA and MLE at 300 mg/L, 300 mg/L and 10%, respectively, or untreated plants to rice seeds inhibited or decreased the fungal infection percentage from 82.5% (naturally infected grains) to 1.75%, 10.5%, 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the extracted EOs affected by the foliar application of O. majorana plants with Trp, AA, and MLE could be useful as a biofungicide against rice seed-borne fungi. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 634 KiB  
Review
Vegetable Extracts and Nutrients Useful in the Recovery from Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review on Clinical Trials
by Hammad Ullah, Alessandro Di Minno, Cristina Santarcangelo, Haroon Khan, Jianbo Xiao, Carla Renata Arciola and Maria Daglia
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082272 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7042
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections affect almost half of the world’s population, with gradually increasing incidence in developed countries. Eradication of H. pylori may provide significant benefits to the affected individual by healing a number of gastrointestinal and extra-digestive disorders. But [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections affect almost half of the world’s population, with gradually increasing incidence in developed countries. Eradication of H. pylori may provide significant benefits to the affected individual by healing a number of gastrointestinal and extra-digestive disorders. But due to increased microbial resistance and lack of patient adherence to the therapy, the eradication rate of H. pylori is below 80% with current pharmacological therapies. The usage of botanicals for their therapeutic purposes and medicinal properties have been increased in last decades. They can be use as alternative H. pylori treatments, especially against drug-resistant strains. Epidemiological studies have revealed that people with lower vegetable and micronutrient intake may be at increased risk of H. pylori infection. We have undertaken a review of clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of vegetable extracts and micronutrients in patients with H. pylori. Various databases, such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, were searched for the articles published in English. A total of 24 clinical studies (15 for vegetable extracts and 9 for micronutrients) were selected to be reviewed and summarized in this article. Vegetable extracts (Broccoli sprouts, curcumin, Burdock complex, and Nigella sativa) and micronutrients (vitamin C and E) were not found to be as effective as single agents in H. pylori eradication, rather their efficacy synergized with conventional pharmacological therapies. Conversely, GutGard was found to be significantly effective as a single agent when compared to placebo control. Full article
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17 pages, 2004 KiB  
Review
Role of Nutraceuticals in COVID-19 Mediated Liver Dysfunction
by Mohammed Sikander, Shabnam Malik, Anyssa Rodriguez, Murali M. Yallapu, Acharan S. Narula, Sanjaya K. Satapathy, Vijian Dhevan, Subhash C. Chauhan and Meena Jaggi
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5905; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245905 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4914
Abstract
COVID-19 is known as one of the deadliest pandemics of the century. The rapid spread of this deadly virus at incredible speed has stunned the planet and poses a challenge to global scientific and medical communities. Patients with COVID-19 are at an increased [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is known as one of the deadliest pandemics of the century. The rapid spread of this deadly virus at incredible speed has stunned the planet and poses a challenge to global scientific and medical communities. Patients with COVID-19 are at an increased risk of co-morbidities associated with liver dysfunction and injury. Moreover, hepatotoxicity induced by antiviral therapy is gaining importance and is an area of great concern. Currently, alternatives therapies are being sought to mitigate hepatic damage, and there has been growing interest in the research on bioactive phytochemical agents (nutraceuticals) due to their versatility in health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Therefore, this review provides information and summarizes the juncture of antiviral, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective nutraceuticals that can be useful during the management of COVID-19. Full article
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23 pages, 4888 KiB  
Review
Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions
by Mohammad A. I. Al-Hatamleh, Ma’mon M. Hatmal, Kamran Sattar, Suhana Ahmad, Mohd Zulkifli Mustafa, Marcelo De Carvalho Bittencourt and Rohimah Mohamud
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215017 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 12283
Abstract
The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite [...] Read more.
The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite the established antimicrobial and immune-boosting potency described for honey, to date there is still a lack of evidence about its potential role amid COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the previously explored antiviral effects and phytochemical components of honey, we review here evidence for its role as a potentially effective natural product against COVID-19. Although some bioactive compounds in honey have shown potential antiviral effects (i.e., methylglyoxal, chrysin, caffeic acid, galangin and hesperidinin) or enhancing antiviral immune responses (i.e., levan and ascorbic acid), the mechanisms of action for these compounds are still ambiguous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work exclusively summarizing all these bioactive compounds with their probable mechanisms of action as antiviral agents, specifically against SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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25 pages, 865 KiB  
Review
Natural Compounds for Wood Protection against Fungi—A Review
by Magdalena Broda
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3538; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153538 - 2 Aug 2020
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 13335
Abstract
Wood is a renewable, versatile material with multiple applications and the largest terrestrial pool of sequestered carbon. However, it is susceptible to degradation, mainly caused by wood-decaying fungi. Since several traditional wood preservatives have been banned owing to their detrimental effects on humans [...] Read more.
Wood is a renewable, versatile material with multiple applications and the largest terrestrial pool of sequestered carbon. However, it is susceptible to degradation, mainly caused by wood-decaying fungi. Since several traditional wood preservatives have been banned owing to their detrimental effects on humans and the environment, extending the lifespan of wood products using new generation natural preservatives is an imperative from the perspectives of human health and environmental protection. Several natural compounds of plant and animal origin have been tested for their fungicidal properties, including essential oils, tannins, wood extractives, alkaloids, propolis or chitosan; and their enormous potential in wood protection has been shown. Although they are not free of limitations, the potential methods to overcome their drawbacks and enhance their bioactivity already exist, such as co-impregnation with different polymers, cross-linkers, metal chelators or antioxidants. The presence of the discrepancies between laboratory tests and the field performance, as well as legislation-related problems resulting from the lack of standards defining the quality and performance of natural protective formulations, however, create an urgent need for further thorough research and arrangements. The collaboration with other industries interested in the utilisation of natural active compounds will reduce the associated costs, thus, will facilitate the successful implementation of alternative antifungal agents. Full article
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