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Molecules, Volume 24, Issue 15 (August-1 2019) – 180 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A new G-(H2L)-Pd heterogeneous catalyst for the Cu-free Sonogashira cross coupling reaction between iodobenzene and phenylacetylene has been prepared via a supramolecular self-assembly process consisting in the spontaneous adsorption, in water at room temperature, of a macrocyclic H2L ligand on graphene (G) (G + H2L = G-(H2L)), followed by decoration of the macrocycle with Pd2+ ions (G-(H2L) + Pd2+ = G-(H2L)-Pd) under the same mild conditions. G-(H2L)-Pd, shows an excellent conversion (90%) of reactants into diphenylacetylene under mild conditions (50 °C, water, aerobic atmosphere, 14 h). The catalyst proved to be reusable for at least four cycles, although decreasing yields down to 50% were observed. View this paper.
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Open AccessReview
Hydrogen Sulfide: Recent Progression and Perspectives for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152857 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3277
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease develops in approximately 40% of diabetic patients and is a major cause of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease develops in approximately 40% of diabetic patients and is a major cause of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), is synthesized in nearly all organs, including the kidney. Though studies on H2S regulation of renal physiology and pathophysiology are still in its infancy, emerging evidence shows that H2S production by renal cells is reduced under disease states and H2S donors ameliorate kidney injury. Specifically, aberrant H2S level is implicated in various renal pathological conditions including diabetic nephropathy. This review presents the roles of H2S in diabetic renal disease and the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of H2S against diabetic renal damage. H2S may serve as fundamental strategies to treat diabetic kidney disease. These H2S treatment modalities include precursors for H2S synthesis, H2S donors, and natural plant-derived compounds. Despite accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests the potential role of the H2S signaling pathway in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, these results need further clinical translation. Expanding understanding of H2S in the kidney may be vital to translate H2S to be a novel therapy for diabetic renal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Compounds and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in the Moisture Capacity and Thermal Stability of Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharides Obtained by Various Drying Processes
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152856 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
We compared the proportions and differences in the polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis (Berkeley) after drying them by various processes, such as 18 °C cold air, 50 °C hot air, and freeze-drying. We also focused on the moisture capacity kinetic parameters of Tremella fuciformis [...] Read more.
We compared the proportions and differences in the polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis (Berkeley) after drying them by various processes, such as 18 °C cold air, 50 °C hot air, and freeze-drying. We also focused on the moisture capacity kinetic parameters of Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides using various thermal analyses, including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric techniques. Erofeev’s kinetic and proto-kinetic equations, utilized for kinetic model simulation, can predict the moisture capacity due to the thermal effect. Among the various drying processes, cold air-drying had the highest molecular weight of 2.41 × 107 Da and a moisture content of 13.05% for Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides. Overall, the freeze-dried products had the best thermal decomposition properties under the conditions of a closed system, with an air or nitrogen atmosphere, and had an excellent moisture capacity of around 35 kJ/kg under a closed system for all samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Phytochemistry of the Cuban Endemic Medicinal Plant Phyllanthus orbicularis: Fideloside, a Novel Bioactive 8-C-glycosyl 2,3-Dihydroflavonol
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152855 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Phyllanthus orbicularis (Phyllanthaceae) is an endemic evergreen tropical plant of Cuba that grows in the western part of the island and is used in traditional medicine as an infusion. The aqueous extract of this plant presents a wide range of pharmacological activitiessuch as [...] Read more.
Phyllanthus orbicularis (Phyllanthaceae) is an endemic evergreen tropical plant of Cuba that grows in the western part of the island and is used in traditional medicine as an infusion. The aqueous extract of this plant presents a wide range of pharmacological activitiessuch as antimutagenic, antioxidant and antiviral effects. Given the many beneficial effects and the great interest in the development of new pharmacological products from natural sources, the aim of this work was to investigate the phytochemistry of this species and to elucidate the structure of the main bioactive principles. Besides the presence of several known polyphenols, the major constituent was hitherto not described. The chemical structure of this compound, here named Fideloside, was elucidated by means of HR-ESIMS/MSn, 1D/2D NMR, FT-IR, and ECD as (2R,3R)-(−)-3’,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside. The compound, as well as the plant aqueous preparations, showed promising bioactive properties, i.e., anti-inflammatory capacity in human explanted monocytes, corroborating future pharmacological use for this new natural C-glycosyl flavanonol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle
X-Ray Crystal Structures and Organogelator Properties of (R)-9-Hydroxystearic Acid
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152854 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
(R)-9-hydroxystearic acid, (R)-9-HSA, is a chiral nonracemic hydroxyacid of natural origin possessing interesting properties as an antiproliferative agent against different cancer types. Considering its potential application for medical and pharmaceutical purposes, the structures and rheological properties of (R)-9-HSA were investigated. [...] Read more.
(R)-9-hydroxystearic acid, (R)-9-HSA, is a chiral nonracemic hydroxyacid of natural origin possessing interesting properties as an antiproliferative agent against different cancer types. Considering its potential application for medical and pharmaceutical purposes, the structures and rheological properties of (R)-9-HSA were investigated. Oscillatory rheology measurements reveal that (R)-9-HSA gels only paraffin oil, with less efficiency and thermal stability than its positional isomer (R)-12-HSA. Conversely, (R)-9-HSA affords crystals from methanol, acetonitrile, and carbon tetrachloride. The single crystal structures obtained both at 293 K and 100 K show non-centrosymmetric twisted carboxylic acid dimers linked at the midchain OHs into long, unidirectional chains of hydrogen bonds, owing to head-tail ordering of the molecules. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments, performed on the solids obtained from different solvents, show the occurrence of polymorphism in paraffin oil and through thermal treatment of the solid from methanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Lipid Solid Mass Fraction and Non-Lipid Solids on Crystallization Behaviors of Model Fats under High Pressure
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152853 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Different fractions of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) in soybean oil (10–30% w/w) and the addition of 1% salt (sodium chloride) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure treatments (HP) on the crystallization behaviors and physical properties of the binary mixtures. [...] Read more.
Different fractions of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) in soybean oil (10–30% w/w) and the addition of 1% salt (sodium chloride) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure treatments (HP) on the crystallization behaviors and physical properties of the binary mixtures. Sample microstructure, solid fat content (SFC), thermal and rheological properties were analyzed and compared against a control sample (crystallized under atmospheric condition). The crystallization temperature (Ts) of all model fats under isobaric conditions increased quadratically with pressure until reaching a pressure threshold. As a result of this change, the sample induction time of crystallization (tc) shifted from a range of 2.74–0.82 min to 0.72–0.43 min when sample crystallized above the pressure threshold under adiabatic conditions. At the high solid mass fraction, the addition of salt reduced the pressure threshold to induce crystallization during adiabatic compression. An increase in pressure significantly reduced mean cluster diameter in relation to the reduction of tc regardless of the solid mass fraction. In contrast, the sample macrostructural properties (SFC, storage modulus) were influenced more significantly by solid mass fractions rather than pressure levels. The creation of lipid gel was observed in the HP samples at 10% FHSBO. The changes in crystallization behaviors indicated that high-pressure treatments were more likely to influence crystallization mechanisms at low solid mass fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis Kinetics for Understanding Materials Behavior)
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Raman Spectroscopy: A Spectroscopic ‘Swiss-Army Knife’”
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2852; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152852 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 976
Abstract
This special issue highlights the astonishingly wide range of scientific studies that use Raman spectroscopy to provide insight [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Spectroscopy: A Spectroscopic 'Swiss-Army Knife')
Open AccessArticle
Rapid Identification of Rainbow Trout Adulteration in Atlantic Salmon by Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Machine Learning
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2851; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152851 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
This study intends to evaluate the utilization potential of the combined Raman spectroscopy and machine learning approach to quickly identify the rainbow trout adulteration in Atlantic salmon. The adulterated samples contained various concentrations (0–100% w/w at 10% intervals) of rainbow trout [...] Read more.
This study intends to evaluate the utilization potential of the combined Raman spectroscopy and machine learning approach to quickly identify the rainbow trout adulteration in Atlantic salmon. The adulterated samples contained various concentrations (0–100% w/w at 10% intervals) of rainbow trout mixed into Atlantic salmon. Spectral preprocessing methods, such as first derivative, second derivative, multiple scattering correction (MSC), and standard normal variate, were employed. Unsupervised algorithms, such as recursive feature elimination, genetic algorithm (GA), and simulated annealing, and supervised K-means clustering (KM) algorithm were used for selecting important spectral bands to reduce the spectral complexity and improve the model stability. Finally, the performances of various machine learning models, including linear regression, nonlinear regression, regression tree, and rule-based models, were verified and compared. The results denoted that the developed GA–KM–Cubist machine learning model achieved satisfactory results based on MSC preprocessing. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction sets (RMSEP) in the test sets were 0.87 and 10.93, respectively. These results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can be used as an effective Atlantic salmon adulteration identification method; further, the developed model can be used for quantitatively analyzing the rainbow trout adulteration in Atlantic salmon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lignan Glycosides from Urena lobata
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2850; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152850 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Four new lignan glycosides; urenalignosides A–D (14), along with 12 known ones (516) were isolated from Urena lobata. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric data (1D and 2D [...] Read more.
Four new lignan glycosides; urenalignosides A–D (14), along with 12 known ones (516) were isolated from Urena lobata. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric data (1D and 2D NMR; IR; CD; and HRESIMS). Compounds 24; 6; 7; 10; and 11 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values in the range of 25.5–98.4 μM (positive control; quercetin; IC50 = 7.2 ± 0.2 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Analysis of Efficiency of Multi-Layer Core-Shell Stationary Phases in the High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Large Biomolecules
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152849 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Modern analytical applications of liquid chromatography require columns with higher and higher efficiencies. In this work, the general rate model (GRM) of chromatography is used for the analysis of the efficiency of core-shell phases having two porous layers with different structures and/or surface [...] Read more.
Modern analytical applications of liquid chromatography require columns with higher and higher efficiencies. In this work, the general rate model (GRM) of chromatography is used for the analysis of the efficiency of core-shell phases having two porous layers with different structures and/or surface chemistries. The solution of the GRM in the Laplace domain allows for the calculation of moments of elution curves (retention time and peak width), which are used for the analysis of the efficiency of bi-layer particles with and without a non-porous core. The results demonstrate that bi-layer structures can offer higher separation power than that of the two layers alone if the inner layer has smaller surface coverage (retentivity) and the pore size and pore diffusion of the outer layer is either equal to or higher than that of the inner layer. Even in the case of core-shell phases, there is an increase in resolution by applying the bi-layer structure; however, we can always find a mono-layer core-shell particle structure with a larger core size that provides better resolution. At the optimal core size, the resolution cannot be further improved by applying a bi-layer structure. However, in case of the most widely produced general-purpose core-shell particles, where the core is ∼70% of the particle diameter, a 15–20% gain of resolution can be obtained by using well-designed and optimized bi-layer core-shell phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicokinetic Study of a Gastroprotective Dose of Capsaicin by HPLC-FLD Method
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152848 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Background: A low dose of capsaicin and its natural homologs and analogs (capsaicinoids) have shown to prevent development of gastric mucosal damage of alcohol and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Based on this experimental observation, a drug development program has been initiated to develop per [...] Read more.
Background: A low dose of capsaicin and its natural homologs and analogs (capsaicinoids) have shown to prevent development of gastric mucosal damage of alcohol and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Based on this experimental observation, a drug development program has been initiated to develop per os applicable capsaicin containing drugs to eliminate gastrointestinal damage caused by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: As a part of this program, a sensitive and selective reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-based method with fluorescence detection has been developed for quantification of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in experimental dog’s plasma. Results: The method was evaluated for a number of validation characteristics (selectivity, repeatability, and intermediate precision, LOD, LOQ, and calibration range). The limit of detection (LOD) was 2 ng/mL and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ng/mL for both capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The method was used for analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the plasma samples obtained after per os administration of low doses (0.1, 0.3, and 0.9 mg/kg bw) of Capsaicin Natural (USP 29) to the experimental animals. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the administered capsaicinoids did not reach the general circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Capsaicin II)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Effects of Commercial Eucalyptus citriodora, Lavandula angustifolia, and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils on Weeds, Crops, and Invasive Species
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2847; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152847 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Background: essential oils are well known for their pharmacological effectiveness as well as their repellent, insecticide, and herbicide activities. The emergence of resistant weeds, due to the overuse of synthetic herbicides, makes it necessary to find natural alternatives for weed control. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: essential oils are well known for their pharmacological effectiveness as well as their repellent, insecticide, and herbicide activities. The emergence of resistant weeds, due to the overuse of synthetic herbicides, makes it necessary to find natural alternatives for weed control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora, Lavandula angustifolia, and Pinus sylvestris, three common commercial essential oils, on weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Lolium multiflorum, and Echinochloa crus-galli), food crops (tomato and cucumber), and the invasive species Nicotiana glauca. Methods: to determine herbicidal effects, essential oils were tested at different concentrations (0.125–1 µL/mL). The index of germination and seedling length data were recorded over 14 days. Results: the in vitro assays showed that L. angustifolia with linalool (38.7 ± 0.1%), 1,8-cineole (26.5 ± 0.1%), and camphor (14.2 ± 0.1%) as the main compounds showed the most phytotoxic effects affecting seed germination in weeds and tomato, and the aforementioned invasive species. L. multiflorum was the most sensitive weed, particularly to lavender essential oil, which decreased the growth of its hypocotyl and radicle by 87.8% and 76.7%, respectively, at a dose of 1 µL/mL. Cucumber was the most resistant food crop, with no significant reduction observed in seed germination and hypocotyl growth with E. citriodora and L. angustifolia essential oils. Conclusions: lavender essential oil represents a promising candidate for the development of effective and safe herbicides in the management of L. multiflorum affecting cucumber crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils in Weed Control and Food Preservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Study of Bitter Di-, Tri- and Tetrapeptides Using Integrated Descriptors
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152846 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
New quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models for bitter peptides were built with integrated amino acid descriptors. Datasets contained 48 dipeptides, 52 tripeptides and 23 tetrapeptides with their reported bitter taste thresholds. Independent variables consisted of 14 amino acid descriptor sets. A bootstrapping soft [...] Read more.
New quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models for bitter peptides were built with integrated amino acid descriptors. Datasets contained 48 dipeptides, 52 tripeptides and 23 tetrapeptides with their reported bitter taste thresholds. Independent variables consisted of 14 amino acid descriptor sets. A bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach was utilized for variable selection. The importance of a variable was evaluated by both variable selecting frequency and standardized regression coefficient. Results indicated model qualities for di-, tri- and tetrapeptides with R2 and Q2 at 0.950 ± 0.002, 0.941 ± 0.001; 0.770 ± 0.006, 0.742 ± 0.004; and 0.972 ± 0.002, 0.956 ± 0.002, respectively. The hydrophobic C-terminal amino acid was the key determinant for bitterness in dipeptides, followed by the contribution of bulky hydrophobic N-terminal amino acids. For tripeptides, hydrophobicity of C-terminal amino acids and the electronic properties of the amino acids at the second position were important. For tetrapeptides, bulky hydrophobic amino acids at N-terminus, hydrophobicity and partial specific volume of amino acids at the second position, and the electronic properties of amino acids of the remaining two positions were critical. In summary, this study not only constructs reliable models for predicting the bitterness in different groups of peptides, but also facilitates better understanding of their structure-bitterness relationships and provides insights for their future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational and Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Polyphenols during Syrah Grapes Maceration: Time versus Temperature Effect
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152845 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored [...] Read more.
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored and the kinetic profile of the maceration was studied by taking samples at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h. The results showed that heat treatment had the most significant effect on the extraction of total polyphenol. A significant loss of anthocyanin content was observed when the maceration was extended beyond eight hours at high temperatures, while longer maceration times seemed to favor the extraction of tannins. A principal component analysis showed that independently of the vinification technique, and for the same grape varieties, different winegrowing regions and harvest years affected the phenolic composition of the grape skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Furocoumarin Content of Fennel—Below the Safety Threshold
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152844 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Furocoumarins are known for their phototoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. These types of compounds have previously been reported from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), a widely used medicinal plant and spice; however, no reliable quantitative data are available on the occurrence of these [...] Read more.
Furocoumarins are known for their phototoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. These types of compounds have previously been reported from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), a widely used medicinal plant and spice; however, no reliable quantitative data are available on the occurrence of these compounds in fennel fruits. For the first time, we report a comprehensive analysis of fennel fruit samples of different origins, representing a wide range of accessions for their furocoumarin content. Psoralene, 5-methoxypsoralene (bergapten), and imperatorin contents of 33 fennel samples were analyzed using a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. When applied at the highest therapeutic dose described in the monograph issued by the European Medicines Agency, the furocoumarin content of the fruits ranged up to 1.22 μg/d, which is below the most restrictive recommendations. Based on our findings, fennel consumption can be considered as safe, at least based on its low furocoumarin content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins and Coumarin Derivatives: From Chemistry to Drug)
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Open AccessArticle
Transepithelial Transport Characteristics of the Cholesterol- Lowing Soybean Peptide, WGAPSL, in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2843; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152843 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that soybean protein and its peptides have cholesterol-lowering activities. However, it is not clear whether these peptides could overcome physiological barriers, such as phase II metabolism in gastrointestinal tract and poor permeability, to reach the blood stream in its [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that soybean protein and its peptides have cholesterol-lowering activities. However, it is not clear whether these peptides could overcome physiological barriers, such as phase II metabolism in gastrointestinal tract and poor permeability, to reach the blood stream in its intact form. Therefore, the transepithelial transport characteristics of soybean peptide Trp-Gly-Ala-Pro-Ser-Leu (WGAPSL) with cholesterol- lowering activity were investigated in Caco-2 cells. In this study; the transepithelial absorption of WGAPSL was studied using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. The results showed that WGAPSL had good stability (83.9% ±1.98%) after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. During the apical (AP) side to basolateral (BL) side transport, WGAPSL was absorbed intact through Caco-2 cell monolayers with apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of 4.4 × 10−8 to 1.2 × 10−8 cm/s. Cytochalasin D loosened the tight junctions of Caco-2 cell monolayers and significantly (p < 0.05) improved the transport process. Sodium azide, wortmannin, and Gly-Pro had minimal effects on transport, demonstrating that the major transport route of WGAPVL was paracellular via tight junctions. Finally, LC-MS analysis showed that Gly-Ala-Pro (GAP) was the important part for the intact absorption of WGAPVL and Trp (W) was the most unstable amino acid residue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Green Extraction of Phenolic Acids from Artemisia argyi Leaves by Tailor-Made Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvents
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152842 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
The Artemisia argyi leaf (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine and food supplement in China and other Asian countries for hundreds of years. Phytochemical studies disclosed that AL contains various bioactive constituents. Among bioactive constituents, phenolic acids have been recognized as [...] Read more.
The Artemisia argyi leaf (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine and food supplement in China and other Asian countries for hundreds of years. Phytochemical studies disclosed that AL contains various bioactive constituents. Among bioactive constituents, phenolic acids have been recognized as the main active compounds in AL. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been focused on extraction method for the bioactive phenolic acids from AL. Nowadays, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging as a new type of green and sustainable solvent for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from natural products. In the present study, an environmentally friendly extraction method based on DESs was established to extract bioactive phenolic acids from ALs. Diverse tailor-made solvents, including binary and ternary DESs, were explored for simultaneous extraction of four phenolic acids (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) from AL. The results indicated that the ternary DES composed of a 2:1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride, malic acid, and urea showed enhanced extraction yields for phenolic acids compared with conventional organic solvents and other DESs. Subsequently, the extraction parameters for the four phenolic acids by selected tailor-made DESs, including liquid–solid ratios, water content (%) in the DESs, and extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology and the optimal extraction conditions were: extraction time, 23.5 min; liquid–solid ratio, 57.5 mL/g (mL of DES/g dry weight of plant material); water content, 54%. The research indicated that DESs were efficient and sustainable green extraction solvents for extraction of bioactive phenolic acids from natural products. Compared to the conventional organic solvents, the DESs have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health-related areas such as food and pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Technology in Nutrition Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Proteasome Activation to Combat Proteotoxicity
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2841; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152841 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Loss of proteome fidelity leads to the accumulation of non-native protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged species: hallmarks of an aged cell. These misfolded and aggregated species are often found, and suggested to be the culpable party, in numerous neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, [...] Read more.
Loss of proteome fidelity leads to the accumulation of non-native protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged species: hallmarks of an aged cell. These misfolded and aggregated species are often found, and suggested to be the culpable party, in numerous neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer’s Diseases (AD). Many strategies for therapeutic intervention in proteotoxic pathologies have been put forth; one of the most promising is bolstering the efficacy of the proteasome to restore normal proteostasis. This strategy is ideal as monomeric precursors and oxidatively damaged proteins, so called “intrinsically disordered proteins” (IDPs), are targeted by the proteasome. This review will provide an overview of disorders in proteins, both intrinsic and acquired, with a focus on susceptibility to proteasomal degradation. We will then examine the proteasome with emphasis on newly published structural data and summarize current known small molecule proteasome activators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteasome Regulators: Activators and Inhibitors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Poly(4-Hydroxybutyrate) Biopolymer
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152840 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
The non-isothermal crystallization of the biodegradable poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). In the first case, Avrami, Ozawa, Mo, Cazé, and Friedman methodologies were applied. The isoconversional approach developed by Vyazovkin allowed [...] Read more.
The non-isothermal crystallization of the biodegradable poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). In the first case, Avrami, Ozawa, Mo, Cazé, and Friedman methodologies were applied. The isoconversional approach developed by Vyazovkin allowed also the determination of a secondary nucleation parameter of 2.10 × 105 K2 and estimating a temperature close to 10 °C for the maximum crystal growth rate. Similar values (i.e., 2.22 × 105 K2 and 9 °C) were evaluated from non-isothermal Avrami parameters. All experimental data corresponded to a limited region where the polymer crystallized according to a single regime. Negative and ringed spherulites were always obtained from the non-isothermal crystallization of P4HB from the melt. The texture of spherulites was dependent on the crystallization temperature, and specifically, the interring spacing decreased with the decrease of the crystallization temperature (Tc). Synchrotron data indicated that the thickness of the constitutive lamellae varied with the cooling rate, being deduced as a lamellar insertion mechanism that became more relevant when the cooling rate increased. POM non-isothermal measurements were also consistent with a single crystallization regime and provided direct measurements of the crystallization growth rate (G). Analysis of the POM data gave a secondary nucleation constant and a bell-shaped G-Tc dependence that was in relative agreement with DSC analysis. All non-isothermal data were finally compared with information derived from previous isothermal analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis Kinetics for Understanding Materials Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Curcumin Prevented Astrocytosis, Microgliosis, and Apoptosis Caused by Acute and Chronic Exposure to Ozone
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152839 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Ozone is the most oxidant tropospheric pollutant gas, causing damage through the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Reactive species induce the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation leading to neuroinflammation characterized by astrocytosis, microgliosis, and apoptotic cell death. There is interest in [...] Read more.
Ozone is the most oxidant tropospheric pollutant gas, causing damage through the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Reactive species induce the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation leading to neuroinflammation characterized by astrocytosis, microgliosis, and apoptotic cell death. There is interest in evaluating the pharmacological activity of natural antioxidants to confer neuroprotection against the damage caused by ozone in highly polluted cities. Curcumin has been proven to exert a protective action in the central nervous system (CNS) of diverse experimental models, with no side effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of curcumin in a preventive and therapeutic manner against the astrocytosis, microgliosis, and apoptosis induced by ozone in rat hippocampus. Fifty Wistar rats were distributed into five experimental groups: The intact control, curcumin fed control, ozone-exposed group, and the preventive and therapeutic groups receiving the curcumin supplementation while exposed to ozone. Ozone caused astrocytosis and microgliosis, as well as apoptosis in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, curcumin was able to decrease the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and apoptotic cell death in both periods of exposure. Therefore, we propose that curcumin could be used as a molecule capable of counteracting the damage caused by ozone in the CNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin)
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Open AccessArticle
How Size Matters: Diversity for Fragment Library Design
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152838 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a major strategy to derive novel lead candidates for various therapeutic targets, as it promises efficient exploration of chemical space by employing fragment-sized (MW < 300) compounds. One of the first challenges in implementing a FBDD approach [...] Read more.
Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a major strategy to derive novel lead candidates for various therapeutic targets, as it promises efficient exploration of chemical space by employing fragment-sized (MW < 300) compounds. One of the first challenges in implementing a FBDD approach is the design of a fragment library, and more specifically, the choice of its size and individual members. A diverse set of fragments is required to maximize the chances of discovering novel hit compounds. However, the exact diversity of a certain collection of fragments remains underdefined, which hinders direct comparisons among different selections of fragments. Based on structural fingerprints, we herein introduced quantitative metrics for the structural diversity of fragment libraries. Structures of commercially available fragments were retrieved from the ZINC database, from which libraries with sizes ranging from 100 to 100,000 compounds were selected. The selected libraries were evaluated and compared quantitatively, resulting in interesting size-diversity relationships. Our results demonstrated that while library size does matter for its diversity, there exists an optimal size for structural diversity. It is also suggested that such quantitative measures can guide the design of diverse fragment libraries under different circumstances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Facing Novel Challenges in Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Encapsulated Phenolics and Carotenoids Isolated from Red Pepper Waste
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152837 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
In order to deactivate the health properties of bioactive compounds, they need to withstand the effects of food processing, their potential release from the food matrix, and remain bio-accessible in the gastrointestinal tract. Bio-actives from different plants are prone to oxidative degradation, and [...] Read more.
In order to deactivate the health properties of bioactive compounds, they need to withstand the effects of food processing, their potential release from the food matrix, and remain bio-accessible in the gastrointestinal tract. Bio-actives from different plants are prone to oxidative degradation, and encapsulation is an effective method in improving their stability. In the present study, red pepper waste (RPW), a by-product of vegetable processing industry, was encapsulated in whey protein using spray and freeze-drying techniques. The aim was to evaluate the effects of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and bioactivity of encapsulated bio-actives, after each digestion step. The results showed that the release of phenolics and carotenoids, as well as antioxidants, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activities are influenced by pH and intestinal fluid, with pH 7.5 exhibited at higher levels. There was a rapid initial release of carotenoids from whey protein matrices, while a more gradual increase of phenolics was observed, reaching around 50% for both encapsulates first at 6 h and 37 °C, and small intestine conditions. The encapsulation of RPW demonstrated a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, and contributed to the increase in bio-accessibility in the gut. Also, the results suggest that encapsulation is an efficient method for valorization of bio-actives from RPW, with improvements in nutrition, color, and bioactive properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Alkaline Black Liquor Recycling on Alkali Combined with Ozone Pretreatment of Corn Stalk
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152836 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
In the early stage, the best conditions for alkali-bound ozone pretreatment were studied. But after treatment, the alkaline black liquor was directly discarded due to the large amount of organic matter, resulting in environmental pollution and waste of resources. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
In the early stage, the best conditions for alkali-bound ozone pretreatment were studied. But after treatment, the alkaline black liquor was directly discarded due to the large amount of organic matter, resulting in environmental pollution and waste of resources. In this paper, the alkaline black liquor was recycled under the optimal pretreatment conditions. The results showed that the number of alkaline black liquor cycles had little effect on hemicellulose content, and had a great influence on cellulose content and lignin content. Through structural characterization of corn stover, it was found that the pretreatment caused structural changes of lignin in straw. However, when the alkaline black liquor was recycled for the fourth time, the ether bond in the side chain of lignin and the covalent bond between the components were not sufficiently destroyed, and the damage to the phenolic hydroxyl group was also weakened. It was indicated that when the alkaline black liquor was recycled for the fourth time, the destruction effect of the alkaline black liquor on the straw was significantly inhibited. Therefore, the optimal circulation time of alkaline black liquor was three times, and the cellulolytic conversion rate was 81.53%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Participates in the Synthesis of Functionalized Coumarin-Fused Pyrazolo[3,4-b]Pyridine from a One-Pot Three-Component Reaction
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152835 - 04 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
A concise and efficient approach to synthesizing coumarin-fused pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine via silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyzed three-component domino reaction under microwave irradiation has been demonstrated. Participation of various alcohols in construction of coumarin derivatives has been described for the first time. Short [...] Read more.
A concise and efficient approach to synthesizing coumarin-fused pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine via silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyzed three-component domino reaction under microwave irradiation has been demonstrated. Participation of various alcohols in construction of coumarin derivatives has been described for the first time. Short reaction time, high yields, one-pot procedure, usage of eco-friendly catalyst, and solvent are the key features of this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Strategies for Heterocycle Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Methylation of the RELA Gene is Associated with Expression of NF-κB1 in Response to TNF-α in Breast Cancer
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152834 - 04 Aug 2019
Viewed by 3745
Abstract
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcriptional factors plays a critical role in inflammation, immunoregulation, cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. This study aims to investigate the role of methylation of genes encoding for the NF-κB family in breast cancer. We analyze the DNA methylation [...] Read more.
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcriptional factors plays a critical role in inflammation, immunoregulation, cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. This study aims to investigate the role of methylation of genes encoding for the NF-κB family in breast cancer. We analyze the DNA methylation status of the NFKB1 gene and the RELA gene in breast cancer using pyrosequencing. The expression of NF-κB1 and RELA proteins is assessed and the level of RNA transcripts in frozen tissue is determined using RT-PCR. There is no statistically significant difference in the methylation status of the NFKB1 and the RELA genes between tumors and normal tissues. The methylation status of the NFKB1 gene and the RELA gene is not significantly associated with the levels of NF-κB1 transcripts in tumor tissues. However, the methylation level of the RELA gene is significantly associated with the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, the level of NF-κB1 transcripts was associated with the levels of TNF-α and IL-4. In tumors with positive TNF-α, the increased methylation level of the RELA gene is significantly associated with the positive expression of NF-κB1 transcripts. These results demonstrate that the level of the RELA gene methylation is related to the levels of NF-κB1 transcripts under the influence of TNF-α. Further study is needed to determine how TNF-α is involved in the methylation of the RELA gene and the subsequent expression of NF-κB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis and In Vitro Screening of Novel Heterocyclic β-d-Gluco- and β-d-Galactoconjugates as Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152833 - 04 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
The development of selective butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors may improve the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease by increasing lower synaptic levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is hydrolysed by acetylcholinesterase, as well as by overexpressed BChE. An increase in the synaptic levels of acetylcholine leads [...] Read more.
The development of selective butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors may improve the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease by increasing lower synaptic levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is hydrolysed by acetylcholinesterase, as well as by overexpressed BChE. An increase in the synaptic levels of acetylcholine leads to normal cholinergic neurotransmission and improved cognitive functions. A series of 14 novel heterocyclic β-d-gluco- and β-d-galactoconjugates were designed and screened for inhibitory activity against BChE. In the kinetic studies, 4 out of 14 compounds showed an inhibitory effect towards BChE, with benzimidazolium and 1-benzylbenzimidazolium substituted β-d-gluco- and β-d-galacto-derivatives in a 10–50 micromolar range. The analysis performed by molecular modelling indicated key residues of the BChE active site, which contributed to a higher affinity toward the selected compounds. Sugar moiety in the inhibitor should enable better blood–brain barrier permeability, and thus increase bioavailability in the central nervous system of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholinesterase Inhibitors)
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Open AccessArticle
MMI-0100 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through Targeting MK2 Pathway
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152832 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Backgrounds: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MMI-0100, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MAPK-activated protein kinase II (MK2), on acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with different doses of MMI-0100 (0.5 and 1 [...] Read more.
Backgrounds: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MMI-0100, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MAPK-activated protein kinase II (MK2), on acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with different doses of MMI-0100 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg per day, six days). The physiological indexes, the parameters for colonic pathological injury and the intensity of inflammatory responses were evaluated by histological staining, quantitative PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining. MMI-0100 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening, and colonic pathological injury, including decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration. MMI-0100 suppressed DSS-induced activation of CD11b+ and F4/80 positive cell, and dramatically decreased the expression of a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, TGF- β, IFN-γ, IL-17A, COX-2 and iNOS. A TUNEL assay showed that MMI-0100 protected against DSS-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with the results of Western blotting assay in apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, BAX, caspase-3. The anti-inflammatory effects of MMI-0100 on DSS-induced colitis were achieved by down-regulating the phosphorylation level of MK2, IκBα and p65 protein. The current study clearly demonstrates a protective role for MMI-0100 in experimental IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Dihydromyricetin from Ampelopsis grossedentata Leaves against Food-Borne Bacteria
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152831 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) has recently attracted increased interest due to its considerable health-promoting activities but there are few reports on its antibacterial activity and mechanism. In this paper, the activity and mechanisms of DMY from Ampelopsis grossedentata leaves against food-borne bacteria are investigated. Moreover, [...] Read more.
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) has recently attracted increased interest due to its considerable health-promoting activities but there are few reports on its antibacterial activity and mechanism. In this paper, the activity and mechanisms of DMY from Ampelopsis grossedentata leaves against food-borne bacteria are investigated. Moreover, the effects of pH, thermal-processing, and metal ions on the antibacterial activity of DMY are also evaluated. The results show that DMY exhibits ideal antibacterial activity on five types of food-borne bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The activities of DMY against bacteria are extremely sensitive to pH, thermal-processing, and metal ions. The morphology of the tested bacteria is changed and damaged more seriously with the exposure time of DMY. Furthermore, the results of the oxidative respiratory metabolism assay and the integrity of the cell membrane and wall tests revealed that the death of bacteria caused by DMY might be due to lysis of the cell wall, leakage of intracellular ingredients, and inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Properties of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
An Explanation about the Use of (S)-Citronellal as a Chiral Derivatizing Agent (CDA) in 1H and 13C NMR for Sec-Butylamine, Methylbenzylamine, and Amphetamine: A Theoretical-Experimental Study
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152830 - 03 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
A chiral derivatizing agent (CDA) with the aldehyde function has been widely used in discriminating chiral amines because of the easy formation of imines under mild conditions. There is a preference for the use of cyclic aldehydes as a CDA since their lower [...] Read more.
A chiral derivatizing agent (CDA) with the aldehyde function has been widely used in discriminating chiral amines because of the easy formation of imines under mild conditions. There is a preference for the use of cyclic aldehydes as a CDA since their lower conformational flexibility favors the differentiation of the diastereoisomeric derivatives. In this study, the imines obtained from the reaction between (S)-citronellal and the chiral amines (sec-butylamine, methylbenzylamine, and amphetamine) were analyzed by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE). Through NOE, it was possible to observe that the ends of the molecules were close, suggesting a quasi-folded conformation. This conformation was confirmed by theoretical calculations that indicated the London forces and the molecular orbitals as main justifications for this conformation. This conformational locking explains the good separation of 13C NMR signals between the diastereomeric imines obtained and, consequently, a good determination of the enantiomeric excess using the open chain (S)-citronellal as a CDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Structure)
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Open AccessReview
Artificial High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles in Cardiovascular Research
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152829 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Lipoproteins are endogenous nanoparticles which are the major transporter of fats and cholesterol in the human body. They play a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of cardiovascular events. Lipoproteins can be modified and manipulated to act as drug delivery systems or nanocarriers [...] Read more.
Lipoproteins are endogenous nanoparticles which are the major transporter of fats and cholesterol in the human body. They play a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of cardiovascular events. Lipoproteins can be modified and manipulated to act as drug delivery systems or nanocarriers for contrast agents. In particular, high density lipoproteins (HDL), which are the smallest class of lipoproteins, can be synthetically engineered either as nascent HDL nanodiscs or spherical HDL nanoparticles. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles are formed by self-assembly of various lipids and apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI). A variety of substances including drugs, nucleic acids, signal emitting molecules, or dyes can be loaded, making them efficient nanocarriers for therapeutic applications or medical diagnostics. This review provides an overview about synthesis techniques, physicochemical properties of rHDL nanoparticles, and structural determinants for rHDL function. We discuss recent developments utilizing either apo-AI or apo-AI mimetic peptides for the design of pharmaceutical rHDL formulations. Advantages, limitations, challenges, and prospects for clinical translation are evaluated with a special focus on promising strategies for the treatment and diagnosis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Nanomedicines and Nanomaterials )
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Open AccessArticle
Variability of Bioactive Glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates and Enzyme Patterns in Horseradish Hairy Root Cultures Initiated from Different Organs
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152828 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Horseradish hairy root cultures are suitable plant tissue organs to study the glucosinolate–myrosinase–isothiocyanate system and also to produce the biologically active isothiocyanates and horseradish peroxidase, widely used in molecular biology. Fifty hairy root clones were isolated after Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection of surface sterilized [...] Read more.
Horseradish hairy root cultures are suitable plant tissue organs to study the glucosinolate–myrosinase–isothiocyanate system and also to produce the biologically active isothiocyanates and horseradish peroxidase, widely used in molecular biology. Fifty hairy root clones were isolated after Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection of surface sterilized Armoracia rusticana petioles and leaf blades, from which 21 were viable after antibiotic treatment. Biomass properties (e.g., dry weight %, daily growth index), glucosinolate content (analyzed by liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)), isothiocyanate and nitrile content (analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)), myrosinase (on-gel detection) and horseradish peroxidase enzyme patterns (on-gel detection and spectrophotometry), and morphological features were examined with multi-variable statistical analysis. In addition to the several positive and negative correlations, the most outstanding phenomenon was many parameters of the hairy root clones showed dependence on the organ of origin. Among others, the daily growth index, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, 3-phenylpropionitrile, indole-3-acetonitrile and horseradish peroxidase values showed significantly higher levels in horseradish hairy root cultures initiated from leaf blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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