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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 1 (January 2014), Pages 1-1377

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Open AccessEditorial Molecules Best Paper Award 2014
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1375-1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011375
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
Molecules instituted some years ago a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published each year in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the third “Molecules Best Paper
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Molecules instituted some years ago a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published each year in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the third “Molecules Best Paper Award” for 2014. The winners were chosen by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2010. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately. [...] Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Gao, W., et al. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethyl-furfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems. Molecules 2013, 18, 7675-7685
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1370-1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011370
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
We have recently been made aware by Prof. Mark Mascal (University of California Davis) and the Molecules Editorial Offices of some errors and omissions in the Introduction section of our recent paper. [...] Full article
Open AccessLetter Comment on Gao, W., et al. “Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems”, Molecules 2013, 18, 7675-7685
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1367-1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011367
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
In a recent paper entitled “Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems,” published in Molecules [1], Gao and coworkers describe the use of a biphasic aq. HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 reagent for the preparation of CMF
[...] Read more.
In a recent paper entitled “Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems,” published in Molecules [1], Gao and coworkers describe the use of a biphasic aq. HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 reagent for the preparation of CMF from various feedstocks. The maximum yield (46.8%) was obtained from fructose by reaction at 45 °C for 20 h. While sucrose gave a similar yield, the same reaction with glucose and cellulose gave 7.3% and 7.8% yields, respectively. Remarkably, the same process applied to Kraft pulp and powdered wood samples gave between 16.0% and 31.4% CMF, based on sugar content. Looking to the Experimental section for insight into this unusual outcome, the statement, “the procedure of treating lignocellulose sample (Table 6) was almost the same as the carbohydrate, except adding the selected simple 1.0 mg each trial [sic] appears, which is difficult to interpret. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics of Neutral Polymer Bonding Agent (NPBA) as Revealed by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1353-1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011353
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 3 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3024 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neutral polymer bonding agent (NPBA) is one of the most promising polymeric materials, widely used in nitrate ester plasticized polyether (NEPE) propellant as bonding agent. The structure and dynamics of NPBA under different conditions of temperatures and sample processing are comprehensively investigated by
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Neutral polymer bonding agent (NPBA) is one of the most promising polymeric materials, widely used in nitrate ester plasticized polyether (NEPE) propellant as bonding agent. The structure and dynamics of NPBA under different conditions of temperatures and sample processing are comprehensively investigated by solid state NMR (SSNMR). The results indicate that both the main chain and side chain of NPBA are quite rigid below its glass transition temperature (Tg). In contrast, above the Tg, the main chain remains relatively immobilized, while the side chains become highly flexible, which presumably weakens the interaction between bonding agent and the binder or oxidant fillers and in turn destabilizes the high modulus layer formed around the oxidant fillers. In addition, no obvious variation is found for the microstructure of NPBA upon aging treatment or soaking with acetone. These experimental results provide useful insights for understanding the structural properties of NPBA and its interaction with other constituents of solid composite propellants under different processing and working conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR of Proteins and Small Biomolecules)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1344-1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011344
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2954 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm
[...] Read more.
Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle EGF Receptor-Dependent Mechanism May be Involved in the Tamm–Horsfall Glycoprotein-Enhanced PMN Phagocytosis via Activating Rho Family and MAPK Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1328-1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011328
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2797 | PDF Full-text (2126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous studies showed that urinary Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) potently enhanced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) phagocytosis. However, the domain structure(s), signaling pathway and the intracellular events responsible for THP-enhanced PMN phagocytosis remain to be elucidated. THP was purified from normal human urine. The human
[...] Read more.
Our previous studies showed that urinary Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) potently enhanced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) phagocytosis. However, the domain structure(s), signaling pathway and the intracellular events responsible for THP-enhanced PMN phagocytosis remain to be elucidated. THP was purified from normal human urine. The human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 was induced to differentiate into PMNs by all-trans retinoid acid. Pretreatment with different MAPK and PI3K inhibitors was used to delineate signaling pathways in THP-enhanced PMN phagocytosis. Phosphorylation of molecules responsible for PMN phagocytosis induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), THP, or human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) was evaluated by western blot. A p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, effectively inhibited both spontaneous and LPS- and THP-induced PMN phagocytosis. Both THP and LPS enhanced the expression of the Rho family proteins Cdc42 and Rac that may lead to F-actin re-arrangement. Further studies suggested that THP and EGF enhance PMN and differentiated HL-60 cell phagocytosis in a similar pattern. Furthermore, the EGF receptor inhibitor GW2974 significantly suppressed THP- and EGF-enhanced PMN phagocytosis and p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in differentiated HL-60 cells. We conclude that EGF receptor-dependent signaling may be involved in THP-enhanced PMN phagocytosis by activating Rho family and MAP kinase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligosaccharides and Glyco-Conjugates)
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Open AccessCommunication Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Ursolic Acid and Derivatives
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1317-1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011317
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 3307 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ursolic acid, an important bioactive compound, was isolated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Sambucus australis. In order to develop bioactive ursolic acid derivatives, two semi-synthetic compounds were obtained through modification at C-3. The antibacterial activity of the ursolic acid and
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Ursolic acid, an important bioactive compound, was isolated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Sambucus australis. In order to develop bioactive ursolic acid derivatives, two semi-synthetic compounds were obtained through modification at C-3. The antibacterial activity of the ursolic acid and its derivatives was investigated. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), against twelve bacterial strains. The influence of ursolic acid and its derivatives on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycosides antibiotics neomycin, amikacin, kanamycin and gentamicin was evaluated. The most representative synergistic effect was observed by 3β-formyloxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid at the concentration of 64 μg/mL in combination with kanamycin against Escherichia coli (27), a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate from sputum, with reduction of MIC value from 128 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL. Ursolic acid and its derivatives were examined for their radical scavenger activity using the DPPH assay, and showed significant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Structures, Vibrational Spectra, and Fungicidal Activity of 1,5-Diaryl-3-oxypyrazoles
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1302-1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011302
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
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Abstract
The aryloxypyrazole structure is present in a number of bioactive molecules. Four 1,5-diaryl-3-oxypyrazoles containing benzoyl (I), thiazolidinethione (II and III) or per-O-acetylated glucopyranosyl (IV) moieties were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds I and
[...] Read more.
The aryloxypyrazole structure is present in a number of bioactive molecules. Four 1,5-diaryl-3-oxypyrazoles containing benzoyl (I), thiazolidinethione (II and III) or per-O-acetylated glucopyranosyl (IV) moieties were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds I and II crystallize in a triclinic P-1 system, whereas III and IV crystallize in an orthorhombic Pbca and a monoclinic P21 space groups, respectively. The dihedral angles between the two benzene rings of the pyrazole are 61.33° (I), 62.87° (II), 57.09° (III) and 70.25° (IV). The structures were stabilized by classical intra- (C-H···S for II and III, C-H···O for IV) and intermolecular (C-H···O for I and IV) H-bonds, as well as intermolecular C-H···π stacking interactions. The theoretical FTIR results showed good agreement with the experimental data. Compounds IV, II and III showed moderate fungicidal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Gibberella zeae. The structure-activity relationships were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 4-Methoxybenzoylhydrazones and Evaluation of Their Antiglycation Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1286-1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011286
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2607 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of 4-methoxybenzoylhydrazones 130 was synthesized and the structures of the synthetic derivatives elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds showed a varying degree of antiglycation activity, with IC50 values ranging between 216.52 and 748.71 µM, when compared to a
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A series of 4-methoxybenzoylhydrazones 130 was synthesized and the structures of the synthetic derivatives elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds showed a varying degree of antiglycation activity, with IC50 values ranging between 216.52 and 748.71 µM, when compared to a rutin standard (IC50 = 294.46 ± 1.50 µM). Compounds 1 (IC50 = 216.52 ± 4.2 µM), 3 (IC50 = 289.58 ± 2.64 µM), 6 (IC50 = 227.75 ± 0.53 µM), 7 (IC50 = 242.53 ± 6.1) and 11 (IC50 = 287.79 ± 1.59) all showed more activity that the standard, and these compounds have the potential to serve as possible leads for drugs to inhibit protein glycation in diabetic patients. A preliminary SAR study was performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Oxidized Fatty Acids as Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecules
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1273-1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011273
Received: 26 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2847 | PDF Full-text (1196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses
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Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to “listen” and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi. This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle by an Ethyl Acetate Subfraction Separated from Polygonum cuspidatum Root and Its Major Component, Emodin
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1258-1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011258
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3081 | PDF Full-text (1623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The
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Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Secondary Metabolites from Xylaria sp. cfcc 87468
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1250-1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011250
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2641 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new isocoumarin glycoside, 3R-(+)-5-O-[6'-O-acetyl]-α-D-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxymellein (1), and a new phenylethanol glycoside, (−)-phenylethyl-8-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranoside (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Xylaria sp. cfcc 87468,
[...] Read more.
A new isocoumarin glycoside, 3R-(+)-5-O-[6'-O-acetyl]-α-D-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxymellein (1), and a new phenylethanol glycoside, (−)-phenylethyl-8-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranoside (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Xylaria sp. cfcc 87468, together with five known steroids, β-sitosterol (3), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4), ergosterol (5), (22E)-cholesta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (6), and 4α-methyl- ergosta-8(14),24(28)-dien-3β-ol (7). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by MS, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and the circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Construction of the 1,2-Dialkenylcyclohexane Framework via Ireland-Claisen Rearrangement and Intramolecular Barbier Reaction: Application to the Synthesis of (±)-Geijerone and a Diastereoisomeric Mixture with Its 5-Epimer
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1238-1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011238
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2446 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The elemene-type terpenoids, which possess various biological activities, contain a syn- or anti-1,2-dialkenylcyclohexane framework. An efficient synthetic route to the syn- and anti-1,2-dialkenylcyclohexane core and its application in the synthesis of (±)-geijerone and its diastereomer is reported. Construction of
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The elemene-type terpenoids, which possess various biological activities, contain a syn- or anti-1,2-dialkenylcyclohexane framework. An efficient synthetic route to the syn- and anti-1,2-dialkenylcyclohexane core and its application in the synthesis of (±)-geijerone and its diastereomer is reported. Construction of the syn- and anti-1,2-dialkenyl moiety was achieved via Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of the (E)-allylic ester, and the cyclohexanone moiety was derived from the iodoaldehyde via intramolecular Barbier reaction. The synthetic strategy allows rapid access to various epimers and analogues of elemene-type products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Tetrahydrohonokiol Derivates and Their Evaluation for Cytotoxic Activity against CCRF-CEM Leukemia, U251 Glioblastoma and HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1223-1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011223
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3011 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biphenyl neolignans such as honokiol and magnolol, which are the major active constituents of the Asian medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, are known to exert a multitude of pharmacological and biological activities. Among these, cytotoxic and tumor growth inhibitory activity against various tumour
[...] Read more.
Biphenyl neolignans such as honokiol and magnolol, which are the major active constituents of the Asian medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, are known to exert a multitude of pharmacological and biological activities. Among these, cytotoxic and tumor growth inhibitory activity against various tumour cell lines are well-documented. To further elucidate the cytotoxic effects of honokiol derivatives, derivatizations were performed using tetrahydrohonokiol as a scaffold. The derivatizations comprised the introduction of functional groups, e.g., nitro and amino groups, as well as alkylation. This way, 18 derivatives, of which 13 were previously undescribed compounds, were evaluated against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, U251 glioblastoma and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The results revealed no significant cytotoxic effects in any of the three tested cell lines at a test concentration of 10 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of 24 Antidepressant Drugs and Their Metabolites in Wastewater by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1212-1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011212
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2682 | PDF Full-text (913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antidepressants are a new kind of pollutants being increasingly found in wastewater. In this study, a fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of 24 antidepressant drugs and six of their metabolites in
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Antidepressants are a new kind of pollutants being increasingly found in wastewater. In this study, a fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of 24 antidepressant drugs and six of their metabolites in wastewater. This is the first time that the antidepressant residues in wastewater of Beijing (China) were systematically reported. A solid-phase extraction process was performed with 3 M cation disk, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry measurements. The chromatographic separation and mass parameters were optimized in order to achieve suitable retention time and good resolution for analytes. All compounds were satisfactorily determined in one single injection within 20 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, and extraction recovery were validated. The LOQ for analytes were ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 ng/mL. The determination coefficients were more than 0.99 within the tested concentration range (0.1–25 ng/mL), and the recovery rate for each target compound was ranged from 81.2% to 118% at 1 ng/mL. This new developed method was successfully applied to analysis the samples collected from Beijing municipal wastewater treatment plants. At least ten target antidepressants were found in all samples and the highest mean concentration of desmethylvenlafaxin was up to 415.6 ng/L. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Anticholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Quaternary Alkaloids from Tinospora crispa
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1201-1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011201
Received: 1 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3003 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the
[...] Read more.
Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the isolation of one new protoberberine alkaloid, 4,13-dihydroxy-2,8,9-trimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinolizinium (1), along with six known alkaloids—dihydrodiscretamine (2), columbamine (3), magnoflorine (4), N-formylannonaine (5), N-formylnornuciferine (6), and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7). The seven compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two known alkaloids, namely, dihydrodiscretamine and columbamine are reported for the first time for this plant. The compounds were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman’s method. In the AChE inhibition assay, only columbamine (3) showed strong activity with IC50 48.1 µM. The structure–activity relationships derived from these results suggest that the quaternary nitrogen in the skeleton has some effect, but that a high degree of methoxylation is more important for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Human Plasma and Its Application to a Bioequivalence Study
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1189-1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011189
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 25 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3316 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sensitive, reliable and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human plasma. Acitretin was used as the internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction of 500 μL plasma with methyl tert
[...] Read more.
A sensitive, reliable and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human plasma. Acitretin was used as the internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction of 500 μL plasma with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ATRA and the IS were chromatographed on a HyPURITY C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature set at 40 °C. The mobile phase was consisted of 40% phase A (MTBE–methanol–acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) and 60% phase B (water–methanol–acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 301.4 → 123.1 for ATRA and m/z 326.9 → 177.1 for IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.45–217.00 ng/mL (r ≥ 0.999) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.45 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions values were below 8% relative standard deviation and the accuracy was from 98.98% to 106.19% in terms of relative error. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of ATRA in Chinese healthy volunteers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Sesquilignan Glucoside from Uraria sinensis
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1178-1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011178
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2917 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new sesquilignan glucoside, urariasinoside A (1), together with eight known compounds, including two lignans, a sesquilignan, a dilignan, and four flavonoid derivatives were isolated from the aerial parts of Uraria sinensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of
[...] Read more.
A new sesquilignan glucoside, urariasinoside A (1), together with eight known compounds, including two lignans, a sesquilignan, a dilignan, and four flavonoid derivatives were isolated from the aerial parts of Uraria sinensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Compound 1 was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity activity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, SW480, and BEAS-2B cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazines with Coumarin Moieties and Their Antioxidative and Antifungal Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1163-1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011163
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3014 | PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of newly disubstituted (compounds 4a,b) and trisubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazines 5al with various substituents was prepared utilizing different thiosemicarbazides and 3-α-bromoacetylcoumarins as starting compounds. The structures of the synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazines are elucidated and confirmed utilizing the corresponding analytical
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A series of newly disubstituted (compounds 4a,b) and trisubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazines 5al with various substituents was prepared utilizing different thiosemicarbazides and 3-α-bromoacetylcoumarins as starting compounds. The structures of the synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazines are elucidated and confirmed utilizing the corresponding analytical and spectroscopic data. All of the new thiadiazine derivatives were tested for their antioxidant activity, employing different antioxidant assays (DPPH scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, power reducing activity). Compounds 5b, 5f, 5j and 4b were proven to be the best DPPH radical scavengers, while compounds 5h and 5j have shown the best iron chelating activity. Thiadiazine derivatives were also tested on their antifungal activity against four mycotoxicogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides. The best antifungal against A. flavus was proven to be compound 5e, while compounds 4a and 5c were the best antifungals on A. ochraceus, and compound 5g showed the best antifungal activity on F. verticillioides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1150-1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011150
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3348 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3at by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2ak as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This
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An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3at by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2ak as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Gold Nanoparticles Decorated with Mannose-6-phosphate Analogues
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1120-1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011120
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3737 | PDF Full-text (715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a) synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b) introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia
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Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a) synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b) introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia reaction, or the thiol-ene reaction under ultrasound activation. With the resulting compounds in hand, gold nanoparticles could be functionalized with various carbohydrate derivatives (glycoconjugates) and then tested for angiogenic activity. It was observed that the length and flexibility of the spacer separating the sugar analogue from the nanoparticle have little influence on the biological response. One particular nanoparticle system substantially inhibits blood vessel growth in contrast to activation by the corresponding monomeric glycoconjugate, thereby demonstrating the importance of multivalency in angiogenic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Structure, Analysis and Properties of Glycolipids)
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Open AccessReview Invasive Fungal Infections in the ICU: How to Approach, How to Treat
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1085-1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011085
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 3 January 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 9266 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated
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Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated candidiasis. During the last decades rare pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Fusarium species and Scedosporium have also emerged. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. Besides blood cultures, several laboratory tests have been developed in the hope of facilitating an earlier detection of infection. The antifungal armamentarium has also been expanded allowing a treatment choice tailored to individual patients’ needs. The physician can choose among the old class of polyenes, the older and newer azoles and the echinocandins. Factors related to patient’s clinical situation and present co-morbidities, local epidemiology data and purpose of treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive, empiric or definitive) should be taken into account for the appropriate choice of antifungal agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungals)
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Open AccessArticle Concerted Halogen Bonding and Orthogonal Metal-Halogen Interactions in Dimers of Lithium Formamidinate and Halogenated Formamidines: An ab Initio Study
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1069-1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011069
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 6 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3293 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dimers of lithium formamidinate, CH(NH)2Li, and halogenated formamidines, HN=CHNHX, (X=Cl, Br, or I) are used as model systems to investigate simultaneous N-X···N and N-Li···N interactions, in tandem with orthogonal Li···X interactions. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations for the dimers are examined
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Dimers of lithium formamidinate, CH(NH)2Li, and halogenated formamidines, HN=CHNHX, (X=Cl, Br, or I) are used as model systems to investigate simultaneous N-X···N and N-Li···N interactions, in tandem with orthogonal Li···X interactions. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations for the dimers are examined with the MP2 method and the M06-2X hybrid functional and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set (the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set is used for the iodine atom). Both methods predict the formation of a planar structure of C2v symmetry, regardless of the identity of the halogen atom. In this structure, the identities of the constituent monomers are essentially lost. Accordingly, the N-X···N interactions emerge as a rather symmetric quasi-linear N···X···N, where the covalent N-X bond in the halogenated formamidine is replaced by a partly covalent N···X interaction. Formation of the C2v structure is also driven by a fairly linear N···Li···N interaction parallel to the N···X···N interaction, and a Li···X interaction orthogonal to both the N···X···N and N···Li···N interactions. The strength of the interactions increases with the size of the halogen. The robustness of the interactions suggests that the dimers studied here or suitable analogues may find diverse applications including their use as novel polymeric synthons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1060-1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011060
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3102 | PDF Full-text (894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury
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Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs). The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of the Goat Meat by-Product “Sarapatel”
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1047-1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011047
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2499 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Goat “sarapatel” is a product made from blood and viscera. For the first time, the microbiological and nutritional quality of “sarapatel” samples (n = 48) sold under different conditions (in street markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets under refrigeration, frozen or at room
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Goat “sarapatel” is a product made from blood and viscera. For the first time, the microbiological and nutritional quality of “sarapatel” samples (n = 48) sold under different conditions (in street markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets under refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) was evaluated. Goat “sarapatel” is a nutritive food, with each 100 g providing, on average, 72 g of moisture, 2 g of ash, 18 g of protein, 9 g of lipids, 2 g of carbohydrates, 282 mg of cholesterol, and high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids. The analysis of the “sarapatel” samples shows that none of them contain Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes. High counts (>104) of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and sulfite-reducing Clostridium were detected, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was found in 31.25% of samples. The storage conditions evaluated (refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) did not affect the physicochemical quality of the “sarapatel”; however, the unsatisfactory microbiological quality indicates that it is necessary to improve the health-sanitary aspects of the processing and sale of this product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Anti-Fatigue Effects of Some Benzamide Derivatives
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1034-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011034
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3135 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of benzamide derivatives such as 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylcarbonyl) piperidine (1-BCP) were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoic acids with piperidine, morpholine or pyrrolidine using a novel method. The crystals of these benzamide derivatives were obtained by recrystallization. Structures of target and intermediate
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A series of benzamide derivatives such as 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylcarbonyl) piperidine (1-BCP) were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoic acids with piperidine, morpholine or pyrrolidine using a novel method. The crystals of these benzamide derivatives were obtained by recrystallization. Structures of target and intermediate compounds were determined via FT-IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography of select examples. The crystal structures of these compounds have potential applications to identify the binding site for allosteric modulators of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor. The anti-fatigue effects of the benzamide derivatives in weight-loaded forced swimming mice were investigated in a swimming endurance capacity test used as an indicator of fatigue. The swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the b3, d3, and e3 groups than in the caffeine group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, b3, d3 and e3 enhanced the forced swimming capacity of mice. The mechanism of the anti-fatigue effects will be studied in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of 2'-13C-L-Histidine Starting from 13C-Thiocyanate: Synthetic Access to Any Site-Directed Stable Isotope Enriched L-Histidine
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1023-1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011023
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 15 January 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2386 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
1-Benzyl-2-(methylthio)-imidazole-5-ketone is obtained in a few simple steps starting from thiocyanate and glycine amide (glycin). Subsequent treatment with diethyl phosphorocyanidate and functional group manipulations gives 1-benzyl-5-chloromethyl-imidazolium chloride. This compound is converted under mild O’Donnell conditions into the corresponding L-histidine derivative. After deprotection L-histidine
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1-Benzyl-2-(methylthio)-imidazole-5-ketone is obtained in a few simple steps starting from thiocyanate and glycine amide (glycin). Subsequent treatment with diethyl phosphorocyanidate and functional group manipulations gives 1-benzyl-5-chloromethyl-imidazolium chloride. This compound is converted under mild O’Donnell conditions into the corresponding L-histidine derivative. After deprotection L-histidine is obtained in good yield and 99% enantiomeric excess. 2'-13C-L-Histidine has been obtained via this new scheme with high (99%) 13C incorporation starting with commercially available 13C- thiocyanate. This synthetic scheme allows access to any isotopomer of L-histidine and many other biologically important imidazole derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Coupling Bioorthogonal Chemistries with Artificial Metabolism: Intracellular Biosynthesis of Azidohomoalanine and Its Incorporation into Recombinant Proteins
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 1004-1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19011004
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5218 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper, we present a novel, “single experiment” methodology based on genetic engineering of metabolic pathways for direct intracellular production of non-canonical amino acids from simple precursors, coupled with expanded genetic code. In particular, we engineered the intracellular biosynthesis of L-azidohomoalanine from
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In this paper, we present a novel, “single experiment” methodology based on genetic engineering of metabolic pathways for direct intracellular production of non-canonical amino acids from simple precursors, coupled with expanded genetic code. In particular, we engineered the intracellular biosynthesis of L-azidohomoalanine from O-acetyl-L-homoserine and NaN3, and achieved its direct incorporation into recombinant target proteins by AUG codon reassignment in a methionine-auxotroph E. coli strain. In our system, the host’s methionine biosynthetic pathway was first diverted towards the production of the desired non-canonical amino acid by exploiting the broad reaction specificity of recombinant pyridoxal phosphate-dependent O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Then, the expression of the target protein barstar, accompanied with efficient L-azidohomoalanine incorporation in place of L-methionine, was accomplished. This work stands as proof-of-principle and paves the way for additional work towards intracellular production and site-specific incorporation of biotechnologically relevant non-canonical amino acids directly from common fermentable sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioorthogonal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 992-1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19010992
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3026 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina) fed
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The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids)
Open AccessArticle EPR Spectroscopy of a Clinically Active (1:2) Copper(II)-Histidine Complex Used in the Treatment of Menkes Disease: A Fourier Transform Analysis of a Fluid CW-EPR Spectrum
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 980-991; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19010980
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 26 December 2013 / Published: 15 January 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5397 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Redox active transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper) have been implicated in the etiology of many oxidative stress-related diseases including also neurodegenerative disorders. Unbound copper can catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals) via Fenton reaction/Haber–Weiss chemistry and therefore, under physiological
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Redox active transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper) have been implicated in the etiology of many oxidative stress-related diseases including also neurodegenerative disorders. Unbound copper can catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals) via Fenton reaction/Haber–Weiss chemistry and therefore, under physiological conditions, free copper is potentially toxic and very rarely exists inside cells. Copper(II) bound to the aminoacid L-histidine represents a species discovered in blood in the mid 60s and since then extensive research on this complex was carried out. Copper bound to L-histidine represents an exchangeable pool of copper(II) in equilibrium with the most abundant blood plasma protein, human serum albumin. The structure of this complex, in aqueous solution, has been a subject of many studies and reviews, however without convincing success. The significance of the (1:2) copper(II)-L-histidine complex at physiological pH documents its therapeutic applications in the treatment of Menkes disease and more recently in the treatment of infantile hypertrophic cardioencephalomyopathy. While recently the (1:2) Cu(II)-L-His complex has been successfully crystallized and the crystal structure was solved by X-ray diffraction, the structure of the complex in fluid solution at physiological pH is not satisfactorily known. The aim of this paper is to study the (1:2) Cu(II)-L-histidine complex at low temperatures by X-band and S-band EPR spectroscopy and at physiological pH at room temperature by Fourier transform CW-EPR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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