Next Issue
Volume 17, July
Previous Issue
Volume 17, May
 
 
entropy-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Entropy, Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2015) – 43 articles , Pages 3518-4484

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
9523 KiB  
Article
Modeling Soil Moisture Profiles in Irrigated Fields by the Principle of Maximum Entropy
by Vikalp Mishra, Walter L. Ellenburg, Osama Z. Al-Hamdan, Josh Bruce and James F. Cruise
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4454-4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064454 - 23 Jun 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6613
Abstract
Vertical soil moisture profiles based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME) were validated using field and model data and applied to guide an irrigation cycle over a maize field in north central Alabama (USA). The results demonstrate that a simple two-constraint entropy [...] Read more.
Vertical soil moisture profiles based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME) were validated using field and model data and applied to guide an irrigation cycle over a maize field in north central Alabama (USA). The results demonstrate that a simple two-constraint entropy model under the assumption of a uniform initial soil moisture distribution can simulate most soil moisture profiles that occur in the particular soil and climate regime that prevails in the study area. The results of the irrigation simulation demonstrated that the POME model produced a very efficient irrigation strategy with minimal losses (about 1.9% of total applied water). However, the results for finely-textured (silty clay) soils were problematic in that some plant stress did develop due to insufficient applied water. Soil moisture states in these soils fell to around 31% of available moisture content, but only on the last day of the drying side of the irrigation cycle. Overall, the POME approach showed promise as a general strategy to guide irrigation in humid environments, such as the Southeastern United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Hydrology)
Show Figures

1582 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Keller–Segel Model with a Fractional Derivative without Singular Kernel
by Abdon Atangana and Badr Saad T. Alkahtani
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4439-4453; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064439 - 23 Jun 2015
Cited by 252 | Viewed by 8422
Abstract
Using some investigations based on information theory, the model proposed by Keller and Segel was extended to the concept of fractional derivative using the derivative with fractional order without singular kernel recently proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio. We present in detail the existence [...] Read more.
Using some investigations based on information theory, the model proposed by Keller and Segel was extended to the concept of fractional derivative using the derivative with fractional order without singular kernel recently proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio. We present in detail the existence of the coupled-solutions using the fixed-point theorem. A detailed analysis of the uniqueness of the coupled-solutions is also presented. Using an iterative approach, we derive special coupled-solutions of the modified system and we present some numerical simulations to see the effect of the fractional order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wavelets, Fractals and Information Theory I)
Show Figures

2141 KiB  
Article
Detecting Chronotaxic Systems from Single-Variable Time Series with Separable Amplitude and Phase
by Gemma Lancaster, Philip T. Clemson, Yevhen F. Suprunenko, Tomislav Stankovski and Aneta Stefanovska
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4413-4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064413 - 23 Jun 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5125
Abstract
The recent introduction of chronotaxic systems provides the means to describe nonautonomous systems with stable yet time-varying frequencies which are resistant to continuous external perturbations. This approach facilitates realistic characterization of the oscillations observed in living systems, including the observation of transitions in [...] Read more.
The recent introduction of chronotaxic systems provides the means to describe nonautonomous systems with stable yet time-varying frequencies which are resistant to continuous external perturbations. This approach facilitates realistic characterization of the oscillations observed in living systems, including the observation of transitions in dynamics which were not considered previously. The novelty of this approach necessitated the development of a new set of methods for the inference of the dynamics and interactions present in chronotaxic systems. These methods, based on Bayesian inference and detrended fluctuation analysis, can identify chronotaxicity in phase dynamics extracted from a single time series. Here, they are applied to numerical examples and real experimental electroencephalogram (EEG) data. We also review the current methods, including their assumptions and limitations, elaborate on their implementation, and discuss future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Equations and Causal Structures from Observations)
Show Figures

1303 KiB  
Article
Intransitivity in Theory and in the Real World
by Alexander Y. Klimenko
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4364-4412; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064364 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 8424
Abstract
This work considers reasons for and implications of discarding the assumption of transitivity—the fundamental postulate in the utility theory of von Neumann and Morgenstern, the adiabatic accessibility principle of Caratheodory and most other theories related to preferences or competition. The examples of intransitivity [...] Read more.
This work considers reasons for and implications of discarding the assumption of transitivity—the fundamental postulate in the utility theory of von Neumann and Morgenstern, the adiabatic accessibility principle of Caratheodory and most other theories related to preferences or competition. The examples of intransitivity are drawn from different fields, such as law, biology and economics. This work is intended as a common platform that allows us to discuss intransitivity in the context of different disciplines. The basic concepts and terms that are needed for consistent treatment of intransitivity in various applications are presented and analysed in a unified manner. The analysis points out conditions that necessitate appearance of intransitivity, such as multiplicity of preference criteria and imperfect (i.e., approximate) discrimination of different cases. The present work observes that with increasing presence and strength of intransitivity, thermodynamics gradually fades away leaving space for more general kinetic considerations. Intransitivity in competitive systems is linked to complex phenomena that would be difficult or impossible to explain on the basis of transitive assumptions. Human preferences that seem irrational from the perspective of the conventional utility theory, become perfectly logical in the intransitive and relativistic framework suggested here. The example of competitive simulations for the risk/benefit dilemma demonstrates the significance of intransitivity in cyclic behaviour and abrupt changes in the system. The evolutionary intransitivity parameter, which is introduced in the Appendix, is a general measure of intransitivity, which is particularly useful in evolving competitive systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy, Utility, and Logical Reasoning)
Show Figures

424 KiB  
Article
Information Geometry Formalism for the Spatially Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation
by Bertrand Lods and Giovanni Pistone
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4323-4363; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064323 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5157
Abstract
Information Geometry generalizes to infinite dimension by modeling the tangent space of the relevant manifold of probability densities with exponential Orlicz spaces. We review here several properties of the exponential manifold on a suitable set Ɛ of mutually absolutely continuous densities. We study [...] Read more.
Information Geometry generalizes to infinite dimension by modeling the tangent space of the relevant manifold of probability densities with exponential Orlicz spaces. We review here several properties of the exponential manifold on a suitable set Ɛ of mutually absolutely continuous densities. We study in particular the fine properties of the Kullback-Liebler divergence in this context. We also show that this setting is well-suited for the study of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation if Ɛ is a set of positive densities with finite relative entropy with respect to the Maxwell density. More precisely, we analyze the Boltzmann operator in the geometric setting from the point of its Maxwell’s weak form as a composition of elementary operations in the exponential manifold, namely tensor product, conditioning, marginalization and we prove in a geometric way the basic facts, i.e., the H-theorem. We also illustrate the robustness of our method by discussing, besides the Kullback-Leibler divergence, also the property of Hyvärinen divergence. This requires us to generalize our approach to Orlicz–Sobolev spaces to include derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropic Aspects in Statistical Physics of Complex Systems)
Show Figures

552 KiB  
Review
Concurrence Measurement for the Two-Qubit Optical and Atomic States
by Lan Zhou and Yu-Bo Sheng
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4293-4322; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064293 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6388
Abstract
Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence [...] Read more.
Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence for a two-qubit system. Second, we explain the approaches of the concurrence measurement in both a linear and a nonlinear optical system. Third, we introduce some protocols for measuring the concurrence of the atomic entanglement system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Information)
Show Figures

8771 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Physical and Maximum-Entropy Landslide Susceptibility Model
by Jerry Davis and Leonhard Blesius
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4271-4292; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064271 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 6241
Abstract
The clear need for accurate landslide susceptibility mapping has led to multiple approaches. Physical models are easily interpreted and have high predictive capabilities but rely on spatially explicit and accurate parameterization, which is commonly not possible. Statistical methods can include other factors influencing [...] Read more.
The clear need for accurate landslide susceptibility mapping has led to multiple approaches. Physical models are easily interpreted and have high predictive capabilities but rely on spatially explicit and accurate parameterization, which is commonly not possible. Statistical methods can include other factors influencing slope stability such as distance to roads, but rely on good landslide inventories. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model has been widely and successfully used in species distribution mapping, because data on absence are often uncertain. Similarly, knowledge about the absence of landslides is often limited due to mapping scale or methodology. In this paper a hybrid approach is described that combines the physically-based landslide susceptibility model “Stability INdex MAPping” (SINMAP) with MaxEnt. This method is tested in a coastal watershed in Pacifica, CA, USA, with a well-documented landslide history including 3 inventories of 154 scars on 1941 imagery, 142 in 1975, and 253 in 1983. Results indicate that SINMAP alone overestimated susceptibility due to insufficient data on root cohesion. Models were compared using SINMAP stability index (SI) or slope alone, and SI or slope in combination with other environmental factors: curvature, a 50-m trail buffer, vegetation, and geology. For 1941 and 1975, using slope alone was similar to using SI alone; however in 1983 SI alone creates an Areas Under the receiver operator Curve (AUC) of 0.785, compared with 0.749 for slope alone. In maximum-entropy models created using all environmental factors, the stability index (SI) from SINMAP represented the greatest contributions in all three years (1941: 48.1%; 1975: 35.3; and 1983: 48%), with AUC of 0.795, 0822, and 0.859, respectively; however; using slope instead of SI created similar overall AUC values, likely due to the combined effect with plan curvature indicating focused hydrologic inputs and vegetation identifying the effect of root cohesion. The combined approach––using either stability index or slope––highlights the importance of additional environmental variables in modeling landslide initiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Hydrology)
Show Figures

2473 KiB  
Article
New Hyperbolic Function Solutions for Some Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation Arising in Mathematical Physics
by Haci Mehmet Baskonus and Hasan Bulut
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4255-4270; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064255 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6019
Abstract
In this study, we investigate some new analytical solutions to the (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Dispersive Modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional cubic Klein–Gordon equation by using the generalized Kudryashov method. After we submitted the general properties of the generalized Kudryashov [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate some new analytical solutions to the (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Dispersive Modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional cubic Klein–Gordon equation by using the generalized Kudryashov method. After we submitted the general properties of the generalized Kudryashov method in Section 2, we applied this method to these problems to obtain some new analytical solutions, such as rational function solutions, exponential function solutions and hyperbolic function solutions in Section 3. Afterwards, we draw two- and three-dimensional surfaces of analytical solutions by using Wolfram Mathematica 9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Complexity)
Show Figures

1656 KiB  
Article
Natural Gradient Flow in the Mixture Geometry of a Discrete Exponential Family
by Luigi Malagò and Giovanni Pistone
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4215-4254; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064215 - 18 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5636
Abstract
In this paper, we study Amari’s natural gradient flows of real functions defined on the densities belonging to an exponential family on a finite sample space. Our main example is the minimization of the expected value of a real function defined on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study Amari’s natural gradient flows of real functions defined on the densities belonging to an exponential family on a finite sample space. Our main example is the minimization of the expected value of a real function defined on the sample space. In such a case, the natural gradient flow converges to densities with reduced support that belong to the border of the exponential family. We have suggested in previous works to use the natural gradient evaluated in the mixture geometry. Here, we show that in some cases, the differential equation can be extended to a bigger domain in such a way that the densities at the border of the exponential family are actually internal points in the extended problem. The extension is based on the algebraic concept of an exponential variety. We study in full detail a toy example and obtain positive partial results in the important case of a binary sample space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information, Entropy and Their Geometric Structures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

992 KiB  
Article
Sliding-Mode Synchronization Control for Uncertain Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Time Delay
by Haorui Liu and Juan Yang
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4202-4214; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064202 - 18 Jun 2015
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5222
Abstract
Specifically setting a time delay fractional financial system as the study object, this paper proposes a single controller method to eliminate the impact of model uncertainty and external disturbances on the system. The proposed method is based on the stability theory of Lyapunov [...] Read more.
Specifically setting a time delay fractional financial system as the study object, this paper proposes a single controller method to eliminate the impact of model uncertainty and external disturbances on the system. The proposed method is based on the stability theory of Lyapunov sliding-mode adaptive control and fractional-order linear systems. The controller can fit the system state within the sliding-mode surface so as to realize synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed single integral, sliding-mode control method can control the time delay fractional power system to realize chaotic synchronization, with strong robustness to external disturbance. The controller is simple in structure. The proposed method was also validated by numerical simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory, Probability and Statistics)
Show Figures

750 KiB  
Article
Contribution to Transfer Entropy Estimation via the k-Nearest-Neighbors Approach
by Jie Zhu, Jean-Jacques Bellanger, Huazhong Shu and Régine Le Bouquin Jeannès
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4173-4201; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064173 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7434
Abstract
This paper deals with the estimation of transfer entropy based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method. To this end, we first investigate the estimation of Shannon entropy involving a rectangular neighboring region, as suggested in already existing literature, and develop [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the estimation of transfer entropy based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method. To this end, we first investigate the estimation of Shannon entropy involving a rectangular neighboring region, as suggested in already existing literature, and develop two kinds of entropy estimators. Then, applying the widely-used error cancellation approach to these entropy estimators, we propose two novel transfer entropy estimators, implying no extra computational cost compared to existing similar k-NN algorithms. Experimental simulations allow the comparison of the new estimators with the transfer entropy estimator available in free toolboxes, corresponding to two different extensions to the transfer entropy estimation of the Kraskov–Stögbauer–Grassberger (KSG) mutual information estimator and prove the effectiveness of these new estimators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transfer Entropy)
Show Figures

848 KiB  
Article
2D Anisotropic Wavelet Entropy with an Application to Earthquakes in Chile
by Orietta Nicolis and Jorge Mateu
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4155-4172; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064155 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5852
Abstract
We propose a wavelet-based approach to measure the Shannon entropy in the context of spatial point patterns. The method uses the fully anisotropic Morlet wavelet to estimate the energy distribution at different directions and scales. The spatial heterogeneity and complexity of spatial point [...] Read more.
We propose a wavelet-based approach to measure the Shannon entropy in the context of spatial point patterns. The method uses the fully anisotropic Morlet wavelet to estimate the energy distribution at different directions and scales. The spatial heterogeneity and complexity of spatial point patterns is then analyzed using the multiscale anisotropic wavelet entropy. The efficacy of the approach is shown through a simulation study. Finally, an application to the catalog of earthquake events in Chile is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wavelet Entropy: Computation and Applications)
Show Figures

1339 KiB  
Article
General and Local: Averaged k-Dependence Bayesian Classifiers
by Limin Wang, Haoyu Zhao, Minghui Sun and Yue Ning
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4134-4154; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064134 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5027
Abstract
The inference of a general Bayesian network has been shown to be an NP-hard problem, even for approximate solutions. Although k-dependence Bayesian (KDB) classifier can construct at arbitrary points (values of k) along the attribute dependence spectrum, it cannot identify the changes of [...] Read more.
The inference of a general Bayesian network has been shown to be an NP-hard problem, even for approximate solutions. Although k-dependence Bayesian (KDB) classifier can construct at arbitrary points (values of k) along the attribute dependence spectrum, it cannot identify the changes of interdependencies when attributes take different values. Local KDB, which learns in the framework of KDB, is proposed in this study to describe the local dependencies implicated in each test instance. Based on the analysis of functional dependencies, substitution-elimination resolution, a new type of semi-naive Bayesian operation, is proposed to substitute or eliminate generalization to achieve accurate estimation of conditional probability distribution while reducing computational complexity. The final classifier, averaged k-dependence Bayesian (AKDB) classifiers, will average the output of KDB and local KDB. Experimental results on the repository of machine learning databases from the University of California Irvine (UCI) showed that AKDB has significant advantages in zero-one loss and bias relative to naive Bayes (NB), tree augmented naive Bayes (TAN), Averaged one-dependence estimators (AODE), and KDB. Moreover, KDB and local KDB show mutually complementary characteristics with respect to variance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inductive Statistical Methods)
Show Figures

1264 KiB  
Article
The Non-Equilibrium Statistical Distribution Function for Electrons and Holes in Semiconductor Heterostructures in Steady-State Conditions
by Krzysztof Jόzwikowska, Alina Jόzwikowska and Michał Nietopiel
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4110-4133; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064110 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5460
Abstract
The main goal of this work is to determine a statistical non-equilibrium distribution function for the electron and holes in semiconductor heterostructures in steady-state conditions. Based on the postulates of local equilibrium, as well as on the integral form of the weighted Gyarmati’s [...] Read more.
The main goal of this work is to determine a statistical non-equilibrium distribution function for the electron and holes in semiconductor heterostructures in steady-state conditions. Based on the postulates of local equilibrium, as well as on the integral form of the weighted Gyarmati’s variational principle in the force representation, using an alternative method, we have derived general expressions, which have the form of the Fermi–Dirac distribution function with four additional components. The physical interpretation of these components has been carried out in this paper. Some numerical results of a non-equilibrium distribution function for an electron in HgCdTe structures are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
Show Figures

331 KiB  
Article
Losing Information Outside the Horizon
by Samir D. Mathur
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4083-4109; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064083 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4501
Abstract
Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond) the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once [...] Read more.
Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond) the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once the system is too close to the horizon it does not have enough energy to send its information back because the information carrying quanta would get redshifted to a point where they get confused with Hawking radiation. If one attempts to turn the infalling system around and bring it back to infinity for observation then it will experience Unruh radiation from the required acceleration. This radiation can excite the bits in the system carrying the information, thus reducing the fidelity of this information. We find the radius where the information is essentially lost in this way, noting that this radius depends on the energy gap (and coupling) of the system. We look for some universality by using the highly degenerate BPS ground states of a quantum gravity theory (string theory) as our information storage device. For such systems one finds that the critical distance to the horizon set by Unruh radiation is the geometric mean of the black hole radius and the radius of the extremal hole with quantum numbers of the BPS bound state. Overall, the results suggest that information in gravity theories should be regarded not as a quantity contained in a system, but in terms of how much of this information is accessible to another observer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Spacetime)
Show Figures

443 KiB  
Article
Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent Light
by Marcos Curty, Marc Jofre, Valerio Pruneri and Morgan W. Mitchell
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4064-4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064064 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7200
Abstract
Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element [...] Read more.
Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett–Brassard 1984 (BB84) polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse) is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cryptography)
Show Figures

285 KiB  
Article
A Penalized Likelihood Approach to Parameter Estimation with Integral Reliability Constraints
by Barry Smith, Steven Wang, Augustine Wong and Xiaofeng Zhou
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4040-4063; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064040 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4908
Abstract
Stress-strength reliability problems arise frequently in applied statistics and related fields. Often they involve two independent and possibly small samples of measurements on strength and breakdown pressures (stress). The goal of the researcher is to use the measurements to obtain inference on reliability, [...] Read more.
Stress-strength reliability problems arise frequently in applied statistics and related fields. Often they involve two independent and possibly small samples of measurements on strength and breakdown pressures (stress). The goal of the researcher is to use the measurements to obtain inference on reliability, which is the probability that stress will exceed strength. This paper addresses the case where reliability is expressed in terms of an integral which has no closed form solution and where the number of observed values on stress and strength is small. We find that the Lagrange approach to estimating constrained likelihood, necessary for inference, often performs poorly. We introduce a penalized likelihood method and it appears to always work well. We use third order likelihood methods to partially offset the issue of small samples. The proposed method is applied to draw inferences on reliability in stress-strength problems with independent exponentiated exponential distributions. Simulation studies are carried out to assess the accuracy of the proposed method and to compare it with some standard asymptotic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inductive Statistical Methods)
729 KiB  
Article
Generalized Boundary Conditions for the Time-Fractional Advection Diffusion Equation
by Yuriy Povstenko
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 4028-4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17064028 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5147
Abstract
The different kinds of boundary conditions for standard and fractional diffusion and advection diffusion equations are analyzed. Near the interface between two phases there arises a transition region which state differs from the state of contacting media owing to the different material particle [...] Read more.
The different kinds of boundary conditions for standard and fractional diffusion and advection diffusion equations are analyzed. Near the interface between two phases there arises a transition region which state differs from the state of contacting media owing to the different material particle interaction conditions. Particular emphasis has been placed on the conditions of nonperfect diffusive contact for the time-fractional advection diffusion equation. When the reduced characteristics of the interfacial region are equal to zero, the conditions of perfect contact are obtained as a particular case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex and Fractional Dynamics)
Show Figures

347 KiB  
Article
Entropy, Information Theory, Information Geometry and Bayesian Inference in Data, Signal and Image Processing and Inverse Problems
by Ali Mohammad-Djafari
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3989-4027; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063989 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 8034
Abstract
The main content of this review article is first to review the main inference tools using Bayes rule, the maximum entropy principle (MEP), information theory, relative entropy and the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence, Fisher information and its corresponding geometries. For each of these tools, [...] Read more.
The main content of this review article is first to review the main inference tools using Bayes rule, the maximum entropy principle (MEP), information theory, relative entropy and the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence, Fisher information and its corresponding geometries. For each of these tools, the precise context of their use is described. The second part of the paper is focused on the ways these tools have been used in data, signal and image processing and in the inverse problems, which arise in different physical sciences and engineering applications. A few examples of the applications are described: entropy in independent components analysis (ICA) and in blind source separation, Fisher information in data model selection, different maximum entropy-based methods in time series spectral estimation and in linear inverse problems and, finally, the Bayesian inference for general inverse problems. Some original materials concerning the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and, in particular, the variational Bayesian approximation (VBA) methods are also presented. VBA is used for proposing an alternative Bayesian computational tool to the classical Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We will also see that VBA englobes joint maximum a posteriori (MAP), as well as the different expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms as particular cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information, Entropy and Their Geometric Structures)
3901 KiB  
Article
Most Likely Maximum Entropy for Population Analysis with Region-Censored Data
by Youssef Bennani, Luc Pronzato and Maria João Rendas
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3963-3988; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063963 - 11 Jun 2015
Viewed by 5201
Abstract
The paper proposes a new non-parametric density estimator from region-censored observations with application in the context of population studies, where standard maximum likelihood is affected by over-fitting and non-uniqueness problems. It is a maximum entropy estimator that satisfies a set of constraints imposing [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a new non-parametric density estimator from region-censored observations with application in the context of population studies, where standard maximum likelihood is affected by over-fitting and non-uniqueness problems. It is a maximum entropy estimator that satisfies a set of constraints imposing a close fit to the empirical distributions associated with the set of censoring regions. The degree of relaxation of the data-fit constraints is chosen, such that the likelihood of the inferred model is maximal. In this manner, the estimator is able to overcome the singularity of the non-parametric maximum likelihood estimator and, at the same time, maintains a good fit to the observations. The behavior of the estimator is studied in a simulation, demonstrating its superior performance with respect to the non-parametric maximum likelihood and the importance of carefully choosing the degree of relaxation of the data-fit constraints. In particular, the predictive performance of the resulting estimator is better, which is important when the population analysis is done in the context of risk assessment. We also apply the estimator to real data in the context of the prevention of hyperbaric decompression sickness, where the available observations are formally equivalent to region-censored versions of the variables of interest, confirming that it is a superior alternative to non-parametric maximum likelihood in realistic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information, Entropy and Their Geometric Structures)
Show Figures

1775 KiB  
Article
Personal Information Leaks with Automatic Login in Mobile Social Network Services
by Jongwon Choi, Haehyun Cho and Jeong Hyun Yi
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3947-3962; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063947 - 10 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7739
Abstract
To log in to a mobile social network service (SNS) server, users must enter their ID and password to get through the authentication process. At that time, if the user sets up the automatic login option on the app, a sort of security [...] Read more.
To log in to a mobile social network service (SNS) server, users must enter their ID and password to get through the authentication process. At that time, if the user sets up the automatic login option on the app, a sort of security token is created on the server based on the user’s ID and password. This security token is called a credential. Because such credentials are convenient for users, they are utilized by most mobile SNS apps. However, the current state of credential management for the majority of Android SNS apps is very weak. This paper demonstrates the possibility of a credential cloning attack. Such attacks occur when an attacker extracts the credential from the victim’s smart device and inserts it into their own smart device. Then, without knowing the victim’s ID and password, the attacker can access the victim’s account. This type of attack gives access to various pieces of personal information without authorization. Thus, in this paper, we analyze the vulnerabilities of the main Android-based SNS apps to credential cloning attacks, and examine the potential leakage of personal information that may result. We then introduce effective countermeasures to resolve these problems. Full article
Show Figures

545 KiB  
Article
Entropy-Based Privacy against Profiling of User Mobility
by Alicia Rodriguez-Carrion, David Rebollo-Monedero, Jordi Forné, Celeste Campo, Carlos Garcia-Rubio, Javier Parra-Arnau and Sajal K. Das
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3913-3946; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063913 - 10 Jun 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7400
Abstract
Location-based services (LBSs) flood mobile phones nowadays, but their use poses an evident privacy risk. The locations accompanying the LBS queries can be exploited by the LBS provider to build the user profile of visited locations, which might disclose sensitive data, such as [...] Read more.
Location-based services (LBSs) flood mobile phones nowadays, but their use poses an evident privacy risk. The locations accompanying the LBS queries can be exploited by the LBS provider to build the user profile of visited locations, which might disclose sensitive data, such as work or home locations. The classic concept of entropy is widely used to evaluate privacy in these scenarios, where the information is represented as a sequence of independent samples of categorized data. However, since the LBS queries might be sent very frequently, location profiles can be improved by adding temporal dependencies, thus becoming mobility profiles, where location samples are not independent anymore and might disclose the user’s mobility patterns. Since the time dimension is factored in, the classic entropy concept falls short of evaluating the real privacy level, which depends also on the time component. Therefore, we propose to extend the entropy-based privacy metric to the use of the entropy rate to evaluate mobility profiles. Then, two perturbative mechanisms are considered to preserve locations and mobility profiles under gradual utility constraints. We further use the proposed privacy metric and compare it to classic ones to evaluate both synthetic and real mobility profiles when the perturbative methods proposed are applied. The results prove the usefulness of the proposed metric for mobility profiles and the need for tailoring the perturbative methods to the features of mobility profiles in order to improve privacy without completely loosing utility. Full article
Show Figures

604 KiB  
Article
General Hyperplane Prior Distributions Based on Geometric Invariances for Bayesian Multivariate Linear Regression
by Udo Von Toussaint
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3898-3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063898 - 10 Jun 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4520
Abstract
Based on geometric invariance properties, we derive an explicit prior distribution for the parameters of multivariate linear regression problems in the absence of further prior information. The problem is formulated as a rotationally-invariant distribution of \(L\)-dimensional hyperplanes in \(N\) dimensions, and the associated [...] Read more.
Based on geometric invariance properties, we derive an explicit prior distribution for the parameters of multivariate linear regression problems in the absence of further prior information. The problem is formulated as a rotationally-invariant distribution of \(L\)-dimensional hyperplanes in \(N\) dimensions, and the associated system of partial differential equations is solved. The derived prior distribution generalizes the already known special cases, e.g., 2D plane in three dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information, Entropy and Their Geometric Structures)
Show Figures

5792 KiB  
Article
A Colour Image Encryption Scheme Using Permutation-Substitution Based on Chaos
by Xing-Yuan Wang, Ying-Qian Zhang and Xue-Mei Bao
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3877-3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063877 - 9 Jun 2015
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5586
Abstract
An encryption scheme for colour images using a spatiotemporal chaotic system is proposed. Initially, we use the R, G and B components of a colour plain-image to form a matrix. Then the matrix is permutated by using zigzag path scrambling. The resultant matrix [...] Read more.
An encryption scheme for colour images using a spatiotemporal chaotic system is proposed. Initially, we use the R, G and B components of a colour plain-image to form a matrix. Then the matrix is permutated by using zigzag path scrambling. The resultant matrix is then passed through a substitution process. Finally, the ciphered colour image is obtained from the confused matrix. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is both secure and practical, which make it suitable for encrypting colour images of any size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Chaos Theory and Complex Networks)
Show Figures

1684 KiB  
Article
Radial Wavelet Neural Network with a Novel Self-Creating Disk-Cell-Splitting Algorithm for License Plate Character Recognition
by Rong Cheng, Yanping Bai, Hongping Hu and Xiuhui Tan
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3857-3876; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063857 - 9 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
In this paper, a novel self-creating disk-cell-splitting (SCDCS) algorithm is proposed for training the radial wavelet neural network (RWNN) model. Combining with the least square (LS) method which determines the linear weight coefficients, SCDCS can create neurons adaptively on a disk according to [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel self-creating disk-cell-splitting (SCDCS) algorithm is proposed for training the radial wavelet neural network (RWNN) model. Combining with the least square (LS) method which determines the linear weight coefficients, SCDCS can create neurons adaptively on a disk according to the distribution of input data and learning goals. As a result, a disk map is made for input data as well as a RWNN model with proper architecture and parameters can be decided for the recognition task. The proposed SCDCS-LS based RWNN model is employed for the recognition of license plate characters. Compared to the classical radial-basis-function (RBF) network with K-means clustering and LS, the proposed model can make a better recognition performance even with fewer neurons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Complexity)
Show Figures

398 KiB  
Article
The Fisher Information as a Neural Guiding Principle for Independent Component Analysis
by Rodrigo Echeveste, Samuel Eckmann and Claudius Gros
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3838-3856; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063838 - 9 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6155
Abstract
The Fisher information constitutes a natural measure for the sensitivity of a probability distribution with respect to a set of parameters. An implementation of the stationarity principle for synaptic learning in terms of the Fisher information results in a Hebbian self-limiting learning rule [...] Read more.
The Fisher information constitutes a natural measure for the sensitivity of a probability distribution with respect to a set of parameters. An implementation of the stationarity principle for synaptic learning in terms of the Fisher information results in a Hebbian self-limiting learning rule for synaptic plasticity. In the present work, we study the dependence of the solutions to this rule in terms of the moments of the input probability distribution and find a preference for non-Gaussian directions, making it a suitable candidate for independent component analysis (ICA). We confirm in a numerical experiment that a neuron trained under these rules is able to find the independent components in the non-linear bars problem. The specific form of the plasticity rule depends on the transfer function used, becoming a simple cubic polynomial of the membrane potential for the case of the rescaled error function. The cubic learning rule is also an excellent approximation for other transfer functions, as the standard sigmoidal, and can be used to show analytically that the proposed plasticity rules are selective for directions in the space of presynaptic neural activities characterized by a negative excess kurtosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theoretic Incentives for Cognitive Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

1274 KiB  
Article
On the Detection of Fake Certificates via Attribute Correlation
by Xiaojing Gu and Xingsheng Gu
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3806-3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063806 - 8 Jun 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6187
Abstract
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, SSL, are important cryptographic protocol suites on the Internet. They both implement public key certificates and rely on a group of trusted certificate authorities (i.e., CAs) for peer authentication. Unfortunately, the most recent research reveals that, [...] Read more.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, SSL, are important cryptographic protocol suites on the Internet. They both implement public key certificates and rely on a group of trusted certificate authorities (i.e., CAs) for peer authentication. Unfortunately, the most recent research reveals that, if any one of the pre-trusted CAs is compromised, fake certificates can be issued to intercept the corresponding SSL/TLS connections. This security vulnerability leads to catastrophic impacts on SSL/TLS-based HTTPS, which is the underlying protocol to provide secure web services for e-commerce, e-mails, etc. To address this problem, we design an attribute dependency-based detection mechanism, called SSLight. SSLight can expose fake certificates by checking whether the certificates contain some attribute dependencies rarely occurring in legitimate samples. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate SSLight and successfully confirm that SSLight can detect the vast majority of fake certificates issued from any trusted CAs if they are compromised. As a real-world example, we also implement SSLight as a Firefox add-on and examine its capability of exposing existent fake certificates from DigiNotar and Comodo, both of which have made a giant impact around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics)
Show Figures

2747 KiB  
Article
General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler
by Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño, Miguel Angel Olivares-Robles and Igor Loboda
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3787-3805; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063787 - 8 Jun 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4951
Abstract
In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM [...] Read more.
In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE) properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
Show Figures

2540 KiB  
Article
Learning a Flexible K-Dependence Bayesian Classifier from the Chain Rule of Joint Probability Distribution
by Limin Wang and Haoyu Zhao
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3766-3786; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063766 - 8 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5463
Abstract
As one of the most common types of graphical models, the Bayesian classifier has become an extremely popular approach to dealing with uncertainty and complexity. The scoring functions once proposed and widely used for a Bayesian network are not appropriate for a Bayesian [...] Read more.
As one of the most common types of graphical models, the Bayesian classifier has become an extremely popular approach to dealing with uncertainty and complexity. The scoring functions once proposed and widely used for a Bayesian network are not appropriate for a Bayesian classifier, in which class variable C is considered as a distinguished one. In this paper, we aim to clarify the working mechanism of Bayesian classifiers from the perspective of the chain rule of joint probability distribution. By establishing the mapping relationship between conditional probability distribution and mutual information, a new scoring function, Sum_MI, is derived and applied to evaluate the rationality of the Bayesian classifiers. To achieve global optimization and high dependence representation, the proposed learning algorithm, the flexible K-dependence Bayesian (FKDB) classifier, applies greedy search to extract more information from the K-dependence network structure. Meanwhile, during the learning procedure, the optimal attribute order is determined dynamically, rather than rigidly. In the experimental study, functional dependency analysis is used to improve model interpretability when the structure complexity is restricted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics)
Show Figures

395 KiB  
Article
Delayed-Compensation Algorithm for Second-Order Leader-Following Consensus Seeking under Communication Delay
by Cheng-Lin Liu and Fei Liu
Entropy 2015, 17(6), 3752-3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/e17063752 - 8 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
In this paper, the leader-following consensus algorithm, which is accompanied with compensations related to neighboring agents’ delayed states, is constructed for second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay. Using frequency-domain analysis, delay-independent and delay-dependent consensus conditions are obtained for second-order agents respectively to converge [...] Read more.
In this paper, the leader-following consensus algorithm, which is accompanied with compensations related to neighboring agents’ delayed states, is constructed for second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay. Using frequency-domain analysis, delay-independent and delay-dependent consensus conditions are obtained for second-order agents respectively to converge to the dynamical leader’s states asymptotically. Simulation illustrates the correctness of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Complexity)
Show Figures

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop