Special Issue "Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kay Van Damme
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology (FFWT), Mendel University, Zemedelska 1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
2. Centre for Academic Heritage and Archives & Ghent University Botanical Garden, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: nature conservation; freshwater biology; evolution; Socotra
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alexey A. Kotov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Leninsky Prospect 33, Moscow 119071, Russia
Interests: phylogeography; freshwater biodiversity; taxonomy; quaternary paleontology; cladocera

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquatic ecosystems globally are under increasing pressure from human activities and global warming, either directly or indirectly. Primary research focusing on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is key to prioritising interventions in order to safeguard life in and around water. In order to stimulate research on the fascinating world that thrives under water, we invite you to submit your best work to our Special Issue, entitled “Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems”.

For this topical collection, we will select high-quality research articles related to life in aquatic ecosystems, including species richness, biology, biogeography, evolution, ecology, systematics, plasticity, genomics, threats, and conservation. Covering both invertebrate and vertebrate groups, we will accept review papers as well as primary research articles that include original data and high-quality analysis. The focus area is primarily, but not restricted to, Eurasia. Data providing a context for the evolutionary history of aquatic biota or the current global richness in a group or papers that indicate the presence and effects of threats are encouraged. This Special Issue aims to provide a basic resource for researchers interested in the current processes and baseline of aquatic diversity as well as long-term trends, forecasting, and potential solutions to challenges.

The two Guest Editors have over 25 years of experience in the field and are primarily interested in the diversity and evolution of waterfleas, a pivotal group in freshwater ecosystems around the world.

Authors may contact the Guest Editors before submitting their manuscript to see if the work would be suitable for this special issue.

Dr. Kay Van Damme
Prof. Dr. Alexey A. Kotov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquatic ecosystems
  • biodiversity
  • biogeography
  • evolution
  • invasive species
  • (meta)genomics
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • species richness
  • taxonomy and systematics
  • threats and conservation

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Three New Species of Placoneis Mereschkowsky (Bacillariophyceae: Cymbellales) with Comments on Cryptic Diversity in the P. elginensis—Group
Water 2021, 13(22), 3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223276 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Using genetic markers 18S V4 rDNA and rbcL and morphological investigation of the diatom genus Placoneis, we described three new species. The new species, Placoneis baikaloelginensis sp. nov., Placoneis subundulata sp. nov., Placoneis neohambergii sp. nov. were isolated from Russia (Lake Baikal) [...] Read more.
Using genetic markers 18S V4 rDNA and rbcL and morphological investigation of the diatom genus Placoneis, we described three new species. The new species, Placoneis baikaloelginensis sp. nov., Placoneis subundulata sp. nov., Placoneis neohambergii sp. nov. were isolated from Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam (waterbodies of Cát Tiên National Park (Đồng Nai Province) and Khánh Hòa Province). We examine relationships within the Cymbellales and show that the genera Placoneis, Paraplaconeis and Geissleria are phylogenetically independent. We discuss the importance of careful identification of strains used for phylogenetic analysis and we show the history of identification of several different Placoneis elginensis strains. After careful identification of Placoneis elginensis vouchers, we found that we have a few independent species. The question of cryptic or pseudocryptic species in this context is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
The Holocene History of the Diatom Community in a Small Water Body on Shemya Island (Aleutian Arc, USA): The Influence of Global and Local Environmental Changes
Water 2021, 13(21), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213134 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
A diatom analysis of a peat deposit from Shemya Island (Aleutian Arc, USA) is performed, and the dynamics of the diatom community are described. According to the radiocarbon dating, the formation of the deposit began 9300 cal. years BP. Principal component analysis made [...] Read more.
A diatom analysis of a peat deposit from Shemya Island (Aleutian Arc, USA) is performed, and the dynamics of the diatom community are described. According to the radiocarbon dating, the formation of the deposit began 9300 cal. years BP. Principal component analysis made it possible to relate the dynamics of the diatom community to certain environmental conditions and the factors that influenced the coastal ecosystems during its formation. The following factors (predictors) were considered: the influence of age, zoo- and anthropogenic effects, and changes in climatic conditions. Sea level change was the main driver of the diatom community in the studied water body having a continuous direct and indirect influence on the studied small water body, i.e., by bird colony formation and more humid and coastal conditions. Since 3000–2000 cal. years BP, the anthropogenic factor (hunting depression of the bird colony) also became significant. During the whole water body lifetime and following peat formation, the diatom community was influenced by groups of factors: global factors (e.g., sea level rise) caused gradual change of local factors, which resulted in smooth shifts in community. In contrast, local factor influence (bird colony rise and fall due to human activity) caused abrupt and transient shifts. We can hypothesize that the relatively stable global environmental conditions in the Late Holocene were an auspicious background to see abrupt changes due to influence of the zoogenic and anthropogenic factors. We believe that further works on the material from other islands will make it possible to form a general picture of changes in the diatom communities in the Holocene and interpret it in connection with climatic changes in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Genetic Signature of a Past Anthropogenic Transportation of a Far-Eastern Endemic Cladoceran (Crustacea: Daphniidae) to the Volga Basin
Water 2021, 13(18), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182589 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Most studies of water flea (Crustacea: Cladocera) invasions are concentrated on a few taxa with an obvious harmful influence on native ecosystems, while our knowledge of cases of anthropogenic introduction with not-so-obvious consequences, in most other taxa, is poor. We found in the [...] Read more.
Most studies of water flea (Crustacea: Cladocera) invasions are concentrated on a few taxa with an obvious harmful influence on native ecosystems, while our knowledge of cases of anthropogenic introduction with not-so-obvious consequences, in most other taxa, is poor. We found in the Volga basin (European Russia) a population that contained D. curvirostris Eylmann, 1887 and its hybrids with D. korovchinskyi Kotov et al. 2021. The latter taxon is endemic to the Far East and it has appeared in the Volga basin as a result of past human-mediated transportation. The population from Bakhilovo is represented by two strongly different groups of the COI haplotypes belonging, respectively, to (1) D. curvirostris and (2) D. korovchinskyi. We detected SNPs in the position 60 of the HSP-90ex3 locus and in the 195 positions of 28S rRNA locus, which differentiate two species. Part of the specimens from Bakhilovo belonged to D. curvirostris s.str., demonstrating homozygote SNP sites in two loci, but two specimens had heterozygote SNP sites in both nuclear loci. They belong to D. curvirostris x korovchinskyi hybrids. Most morphological traits of the females were characteristic of D. curvirostris. We found in some specimens some characters which could suggest their hybrid status, but this opinion is a hypothesis only, which needs to be checked on more ample material. The exact hybrid system in this pond is not known. Moreover, we have no evidences of sexual reproduction of the hybrids; they could reproduce by parthenogenesis only as is known for hybrids of the D. pulex group, or continuously crossing with parents like some members of D. longispina group. However, poor parental D. korovchinskyi was not detected in the pond either morphologically or genetically. The exact vector of its past anthropogenic transportation to the Volga is unknown. Most probably, just ephippia of D. korovchinskyi were translocated replaced from the Khabarovsk Territory to the Samara Area somehow. This is the first report on hybrids within the D. curvirostris species complex. Here, we demonstrated that accurate studies with deep resolution increase the number of revealed cryptic invasions. We expect that the number of revealed cases of cryptic interspecific invasions will grow rapidly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Diversity, Distribution, and Habitat Occurrence of the Diaptomid Copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda: Diaptomidae) in Freshwater Ecosystems of Thailand
Water 2021, 13(17), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172381 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
The diversity, distribution, and checklist of diaptomid copepods from various freshwater ecosystems throughout Thailand are presented, based on data from our biodiversity projects during 1993–2019 and literature reviews. Thailand has one of the most diversified diaptomid fauna in the world, with 42 species [...] Read more.
The diversity, distribution, and checklist of diaptomid copepods from various freshwater ecosystems throughout Thailand are presented, based on data from our biodiversity projects during 1993–2019 and literature reviews. Thailand has one of the most diversified diaptomid fauna in the world, with 42 species identified from 2150 localities (4962 samples). Mongolodiaptomus has the highest species richness with ten species, followed by Tropodiaptomus with seven species. Among these, eight taxa (Arctodiaptomus sp., Mongolodiaptomus pectinidactylus, Neodiaptomus meggitti, Tropodiaptomus hebereri, T. lanaonus, T. oryzanus, T. ruttneri, and Paradiaptomus greeni) are new to the fauna of Thailand. The rare P. greeni, which predominantly occurs in Africa, is also a new record for Southeast Asia. The most frequently encountered species were Mongolodiaptomus botulifer, Phyllodiaptomus praedictus, M. calcarus, M. dumonti, M. malaindosinensis, Vietodiaptomus blachei, Phyllodiaptomus christineae, Eodiaptomus sanoamuangae, Neodiaptomus yangtsekiangensis, E. draconisignivomi, T. vicinus, and Heliodiaptomus elegans. Twelve species appear to be endemic to Thailand, and eight species occur only in the countries belonging to the lower Mekong River Basin (Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam). The uniqueness of the Thai diaptomids is a high degree of co-occurrence of four to seven species in the same localities. Comments on the taxonomic status of the species recorded are provided. In addition, the taxonomic validity of Mongolodiaptomus malaindosinensis is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Unexpected Diversity of Feeding Modes among Chisel-Mouthed Ethiopian Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae)
Water 2021, 13(17), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172345 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Trophic resource partitioning is one of the main drivers of adaptive radiation. The evolutionary diversification of large African barbs, the genus Labeobarbus, seems to be related to mouth polymorphism. The chisel-mouthed or scraping phenotype has repeatedly evolved within Labeobarbus. At least [...] Read more.
Trophic resource partitioning is one of the main drivers of adaptive radiation. The evolutionary diversification of large African barbs, the genus Labeobarbus, seems to be related to mouth polymorphism. The chisel-mouthed or scraping phenotype has repeatedly evolved within Labeobarbus. At least five ecomorphs with a scraping mouth morphology were detected in the waters of the Ethiopian Highlands and can be provisionally classified into two groups: (i) “Varicorhinus”-like, and (ii) “Smiling”-like. Previously, all Labeobarbus with a scraping-mouth morphology were considered to be periphyton feeders. Using data on morphology, diet and stable isotope ratios (C and N), we addressed the question: does a scraping-mouth morphology predict feeding on periphyton? Our study revealed that five scraper ecomorphs exhibited three main feeding modes: (i) periphyton-eating, (ii) herbivory–detritivory, and (iii) insectivory. Two cases of the parallel divergence of sympatric ecomorphs with distinct feeding modes (herbivory–detritivory vs. insectivory) were revealed in two geographically isolated basins. A significant difference in δ15N values was detected among sympatric scraper ecomorphs. A periphytonophagous scraper was rich in δ15N values that are comparable with those in sympatric piscivorous fish. This data sheds light on the possibility of the utilization of periphyton as a protein-rich food by fishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Crustaceans in the Meiobenthos and Plankton of the Thermokarst Lakes and Polygonal Ponds in the Lena River Delta (Northern Yakutia, Russia): Species Composition and Factors Regulating Assemblage Structures
Water 2021, 13(14), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141936 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Information about invertebrates in the low-flow water bodies of northeastern Siberia is far from complete. In particular, little is known about crustaceans—one of the main components of meiobenthic and zooplanktonic communities. An open question is which environmental factors significantly affect the crustaceans in [...] Read more.
Information about invertebrates in the low-flow water bodies of northeastern Siberia is far from complete. In particular, little is known about crustaceans—one of the main components of meiobenthic and zooplanktonic communities. An open question is which environmental factors significantly affect the crustaceans in different taxonomic and ecological groups? Based on the data collected on the zooplankton and meiobenthos in the tundra ponds in the southern part of the Lena River Delta, analysis of the crustacean taxocene structure was performed. In total, 59 crustacean species and taxa were found. Five of these are new for the region. The species richness was higher in the large thermokarst lakes than in the small water bodies, and the abundance was higher in small polygonal ponds than in the other water bodies. Variations in the Cladocera assemblages were mainly affected by the annual differences in the water temperature; non-harpacticoid copepods were generally determined by hydrochemical factors; and for Harpacticoida, the macrophyte composition was significant. Three types of the crustacean assemblages characteristic of different stages of tundra lake development were distinguished. The hypothesis that the formation of crustacean taxocenes in the Lena River Delta is mainly determined by two types of ecological filters, temperature and local features of the water body, was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Unsupervised Machine Learning and Data Mining Procedures Reveal Short Term, Climate Driven Patterns Linking Physico-Chemical Features and Zooplankton Diversity in Small Ponds
Water 2021, 13(9), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091217 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Machine Learning (ML) is an increasingly accessible discipline in computer science that develops dynamic algorithms capable of data-driven decisions and whose use in ecology is growing. Fuzzy sets are suitable descriptors of ecological communities as compared to other standard algorithms and allow the [...] Read more.
Machine Learning (ML) is an increasingly accessible discipline in computer science that develops dynamic algorithms capable of data-driven decisions and whose use in ecology is growing. Fuzzy sets are suitable descriptors of ecological communities as compared to other standard algorithms and allow the description of decisions that include elements of uncertainty and vagueness. However, fuzzy sets are scarcely applied in ecology. In this work, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, fuzzy c-means and association rules mining were applied to assess the factors influencing the assemblage composition and distribution patterns of 12 zooplankton taxa in 24 shallow ponds in northern Italy. The fuzzy c-means algorithm was implemented to classify the ponds in terms of taxa they support, and to identify the influence of chemical and physical environmental features on the assemblage patterns. Data retrieved during 2014 and 2015 were compared, taking into account that 2014 late spring and summer air temperatures were much lower than historical records, whereas 2015 mean monthly air temperatures were much warmer than historical averages. In both years, fuzzy c-means show a strong clustering of ponds in two groups, contrasting sites characterized by different physico-chemical and biological features. Climatic anomalies, affecting the temperature regime, together with the main water supply to shallow ponds (e.g., surface runoff vs. groundwater) represent disturbance factors producing large interannual differences in the chemistry, biology and short-term dynamic of small aquatic ecosystems. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms and fuzzy sets may help in catching such apparently erratic differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Habitat-Diversity Relations between Sessile Macrobenthos and Benthic Copepods in the Rocky Shores of a Marine Protected Area
Water 2021, 13(8), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081020 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
In rocky shore systems, sessile macrobenthic assemblages may act as “ecosystem engineers” for many smaller benthic organisms. Thus, the influence of macrobenthic coverage on the diversity and assemblage structure of the harpacticoid copepod fauna was investigated in the rocky shores of a Marine [...] Read more.
In rocky shore systems, sessile macrobenthic assemblages may act as “ecosystem engineers” for many smaller benthic organisms. Thus, the influence of macrobenthic coverage on the diversity and assemblage structure of the harpacticoid copepod fauna was investigated in the rocky shores of a Marine Protect Area (MPA) in the Ligurian Sea (NW, Mediterranean Sea). Two sampling sites were investigated in two seasons at three different depths on both sub-vertical and inclined reefs. A total of 61 species of copepods mainly represented by Miraciidae, Laophontidae, Longipediidae and Thalestridae were found. The complex micro-topography of these substrata provided a wide variety of niches for many species with different lifestyles that suggests the important role of rocky shores to ensure the functioning of coastal ecosystems. The harpacticoid assemblage structure seemed mainly influenced by season and depth. The temporal spread observed is likely one of the underlying mechanisms of niche segregation that allows many species to co-occur in this specific environment along with a subordinate spatial segregation corresponding to the depth gradient. The results seem to support the hypothesis that the different species composition of the “ecosystem engineer” (and consequently its structure changes) are relevant in structuring the copepod assemblages. The comparison with previous data on general meiofauna underlines that higher surrogacy of the taxonomic identification could be used to study rocky shore communities, but the rich diversity that these systems host can only be understood at the lower taxonomic levels. The same holds for future evaluations of impact of environmental changes (including MPA regulations) on meiofaunal assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
The First Insight into the Patterns of Size and Shape Variation of a Microcerberid Isopod
Water 2021, 13(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040515 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
Cryptic species are a biological phenomenon only recently recognized due to progress in molecular studies. They pose a significant challenge to conventional taxonomic work since these species manifest low morphological differences, but considerable genetic disparity. New taxonomic methods are in development but have [...] Read more.
Cryptic species are a biological phenomenon only recently recognized due to progress in molecular studies. They pose a significant challenge to conventional taxonomic work since these species manifest low morphological differences, but considerable genetic disparity. New taxonomic methods are in development but have yet to be tested for many animal groups. Isopods belonging to the suborder Microcerberidea are one such group. The Asian microcerberid isopod, Coxicerberus fukudai (Ito, 1974), is a major component of marine interstitial fauna with suspected cryptic species inhabiting Japan and Korea. We chose six Korean populations with high molecular interpopulations divergence and applied 2D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to cephalic sensilla, pleonal points, and male pleopod II. This quantitative approach allowed us to study interpopulation size and shape variations, morphospace structure, and whether the morphological pattern mirrored the genetic species. We determined that a high degree of interpopulation size variation significantly influences shape changes. Once we removed the allometric effect, the size-corrected male pleopod II shape variations yielded a new species, C. jangsaensis sp. nov. At the same time, we were able to resolve the C. fukadai species complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Diversity and Structure of Pelagic Zooplankton (Crustacea, Rotifera) in NE Poland
Water 2021, 13(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040456 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
This study presents the diversity and structure of pelagic zooplankton in north-eastern Poland. The research was conducted in 47 lakes with different trophic conditions in the middle of summer. Samples were collected close to the deepest part of the lakes to avoid the [...] Read more.
This study presents the diversity and structure of pelagic zooplankton in north-eastern Poland. The research was conducted in 47 lakes with different trophic conditions in the middle of summer. Samples were collected close to the deepest part of the lakes to avoid the diverse benthic and littoral zones. We found 119 zooplankton species of which 32 were Cladocera, 16 were Cyclopoida, 4 were Calanoida, and 67 were Rotifera. We determined which species occurred most frequently in the region, as well as the species that were characteristic of different trophic conditions. We also recorded the presence of eight cold-adapted species which some of them are considered as glacial relicts (e.g., Eurytemora lacustris, Heterocope appendiculata, Cyclops lacustris). Our research revealed potential glacial refugia for planktonic species in 14 lakes of NE Poland. Our study suggests that the presence of stenotherm species may be an excellent indicator of the ecological status of deep lakes and could be considered in lake monitoring programs. Furthermore, we did not find Bythotrephes longimanus which has been reported from Poland. Instead, we found that B. brevimanus was the most common representative of the genus in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
A Review of Recently Discovered Remains of the Pleistocene Branchiopods (Anostraca, Notostraca) from NE Siberia and Arctic Canada
Water 2021, 13(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030280 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
In this study, we examine, identify, and discuss fossil remains of large branchiopod crustaceans collected from six sites across the Beringian region (north-eastern Asia and north-western North America). Eggs and mandibles from Anostraca and Notostraca, as well as a notostracan telson fragment and [...] Read more.
In this study, we examine, identify, and discuss fossil remains of large branchiopod crustaceans collected from six sites across the Beringian region (north-eastern Asia and north-western North America). Eggs and mandibles from Anostraca and Notostraca, as well as a notostracan telson fragment and a possible notostracan second maxilla, were collected from both paleosediment samples and also from large mammal hair. The remains of large branchiopods and other species that are limited to seasonally astatic aquatic habitats (temporary wetlands) could be useful indicator organisms of paleoecological conditions. Different recent large branchiopod species have very different ecological preferences, with each species limited to specific geochemical component tolerance ranges regarding various salinity, cation, and gypsum concentrations. Our purpose is to bring the potential usefulness of these common fossil organisms to the attention of paleoecologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Integrated Taxonomy for Halistemma Species from the Northwest Pacific Ocean
Water 2020, 12(11), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113283 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 717
Abstract
During a survey of the siphonophore community in the Kuroshio Extension, Northwest Pacific Ocean, a new Halistemma Huxley, 1859 was described using integrated molecular and morphological approaches. The Halistemma isabu sp. nov. nectophore is most closely related morphologically to H. striata Totton, [...] Read more.
During a survey of the siphonophore community in the Kuroshio Extension, Northwest Pacific Ocean, a new Halistemma Huxley, 1859 was described using integrated molecular and morphological approaches. The Halistemma isabu sp. nov. nectophore is most closely related morphologically to H. striata Totton, 1965 and H. maculatum Pugh and Baxter, 2014. These species can be differentiated by their nectosac shape, thrust block size, ectodermal cell patches and ridge patterns. The new species’ bracts are divided into two distinct types according to the number of teeth. Type A bracts are more closely related to ventral bracts in H. foliacea (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833) while Type B bracts are more similar to H. rubrum (Vogt, 1852). Each type differs, however, from the proximal end shape, distal process and bracteal canal. Both of the new species’ morphological type and phylogenetic position within the genus Halistemma are supported by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated DNA dataset (mtCOI, 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA). Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to the taxonomy of siphonophores showed a clear delimitation of the new species from the congeners. Halistemma isabu sp. nov. is distributed with the congeners H. rubrum, H. cupulifera, H. foliacea and H. striata in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Pleistocene Branchiopods (Cladocera, Anostraca) from Transbaikalian Siberia Demonstrate Morphological and Ecological Stasis
Water 2020, 12(11), 3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113063 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Pleistocene water bodies have been studied using the paleolimnological approach, which traces environmental changes using particular subfossils as ecological proxies, rather than analysis of the paleocommunities themselves. Within a given taphocoenosis, the presence and quantity of animals are related to environmental conditions rather [...] Read more.
Pleistocene water bodies have been studied using the paleolimnological approach, which traces environmental changes using particular subfossils as ecological proxies, rather than analysis of the paleocommunities themselves. Within a given taphocoenosis, the presence and quantity of animals are related to environmental conditions rather than to community types where relationships between taxa are stabilized during their long-term co-occurrence and are (at least partially) more important than the particular environmental conditions at the time of deposition, which may have experienced significant seasonal and inter-seasonal variations. Here, we analyze Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of two paleolocalities in the Transbaikalian Region of Russia: Urtuy (MIS3) and Nozhiy (older than 1.5 million years). Cladocerans Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) magna, D. (C.) similis, D. (Daphnia) pulex, Ceriodaphnia pulchella-reticulata, C. laticaudata, Simocephalus sp., Moina cf. brachiata, M. macropopa clade, Chydorus cf. sphaericus, Capmtocercus sp. and anostracans Branchinecta cf. paludosa, and Streptocephalus (Streptocephalus) sp. are found in two localities. With the exception of the last taxon, which now occurs in the southern Holarctic, all other taxa inhabit the Transbaikalian Region. Within Eurasia, the steppe zone has the greatest diversity of large branchiopods and a high diversity of some cladocerans, such as subgenus Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) and Moina sp. Here we demonstrated that the branchiopod community in shallow steppe water bodies has been unchanged since at least the Pleistocene, demonstrating long-term morphological and ecological stasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Review

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Review
Fresh- and Brackish-Water Cold-Tolerant Species of Southern Europe: Migrants from the Paratethys That Colonized the Arctic
Water 2021, 13(9), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091161 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Analysis of zoogeographic, paleogeographic, and molecular data has shown that the ancestors of many fresh- and brackish-water cold-tolerant hydrobionts of the Mediterranean region and the Danube River basin likely originated in East Asia or Central Asia. The fish genera Gasterosteus, Hucho, [...] Read more.
Analysis of zoogeographic, paleogeographic, and molecular data has shown that the ancestors of many fresh- and brackish-water cold-tolerant hydrobionts of the Mediterranean region and the Danube River basin likely originated in East Asia or Central Asia. The fish genera Gasterosteus, Hucho, Oxynoemacheilus, Salmo, and Schizothorax are examples of these groups among vertebrates, and the genera Magnibursatus (Trematoda), Margaritifera, Potomida, Microcondylaea, Leguminaia, Unio (Mollusca), and Phagocata (Planaria), among invertebrates. There is reason to believe that their ancestors spread to Europe through the Paratethys (or the proto-Paratethys basin that preceded it), where intense speciation took place and new genera of aquatic organisms arose. Some of the forms that originated in the Paratethys colonized the Mediterranean, and overwhelming data indicate that representatives of the genera Salmo, Caspiomyzon, and Ecrobia migrated during the Miocene from the region of the modern Caspian through the Araks Strait, which existed at that time. From the Ponto-Caspian and the Mediterranean regions, noble salmon, three-spined stickleback, European pearl mussel, seals, and mollusks of the genus Ecrobia spread to the Atlantic Ocean and colonized the Subarctic and Arctic regions of Europe and North America. Our study indicates that the area of the former Paratethys retains its significance as a center of origin of new species and genera and that it has been the starting point of migration “corridors” up to the present time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Cold-water relicts in Southern Europe are invaders from Paratethys

Artamonova V.S., Bolotov I.N., Vinarski M.V., Makhrov A.A.

 

Sitting in a 'thermal prison': the adaptation to extreme habitats helps to explain the phylogeographic patterns in freshwater pulmonate snails

Vinarski M.V, Bolotov I.N, Bespalaya Y., et al.

 

Cryptic invasion of Chydorus sphaericus (Crustacea: Chydoridae) to Australia

Karabanov D.P., Bekker E.E., Shiel R.J., Kotov A.A.

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