Topical Collection "Mycoviruses"

Editor

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Interests: mycovirus; virus–host interaction; virus replication and expression; virus evolution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am very pleased to invite you to contribute to the ‘Mycoviruses’ Topical Collection in Viruses. This Topical Collection aims to provide an opportunity for fungal virologists to publish their research work in the form of original research articles, short communications and timely reviews and to share their thoughts via commentaries. I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycoviruses
  • population studies
  • mycovirus evolution
  • mycovirus-host interactions
  • RNA silencing

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessCommunication
Description of a Novel Mycovirus in the Phytopathogen Fusarium culmorum and a Related EVE in the Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050523 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 [...] Read more.
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 has a monopartite dsRNA genome of 2898 bp that harbors two large non-overlapping ORFs. A typical -1 slippery motif is found at the end of ORF1, advocating that ORF2 is translated by programmed ribosomal frameshifting. While ORF2 exhibits a conserved replicase domain, ORF1 encodes for an undetermined protein. Interestingly, a hypothetically transcribed gene similar to unirnaviruses ORF1 was found in the genome of Lipomyces starkeyi, presumably resulting from a viral endogenization in this yeast. Conidial isolation and chemical treatment were unsuccessful to obtain a virus-free isogenic line of the fungal host, highlighting a high retention rate for FcV1 but hindering its biological characterization. In parallel, attempt to horizontally transfer FcV1 to another strain of F. culmorum by dual culture failed. Eventually, a screening of other strains of the same fungal species suggests the presence of FcV1 in two other strains from Europe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ORF Ι of Mycovirus SsNSRV-1 is Associated with Debilitating Symptoms of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040456 - 17 Apr 2020
Abstract
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The [...] Read more.
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The integration and expression of ORF Ι led to defects in hyphal tips, vegetative growth, and virulence of the mutant strains of S. sclerotiorum. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to the expression of ORF Ι were identified by transcriptome analysis. In all, 686 DEGs consisted of 267 up-regulated genes and 419 down-regulated genes. DEGs reprogramed by ORF Ι were relevant to secretory proteins, pathogenicity, transcription, transmembrane transport, protein biosynthesis, modification, and metabolism. Alternative splicing was also detected in all mutant strains, but not in hypovirulent strain AH98, which was co-infected by SsNSRV-1 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1). Thus, the integrity of SsNSRV-1 genome may be necessary to protect viral mRNA from splicing and inactivation by the host. Taken together, the results suggested that protein ORF Ι could regulate the transcription, translation, and modification of host genes in order to facilitate viral proliferation and reduce the virulence of the host. Therefore, ORF Ι may be a potential gene used for the prevention of S. sclerotiorum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Strain of Fusarium graminearum Virus 1 Infecting Fusarium graminearum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030357 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors [...] Read more.
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors have not been explored clearly. In this study, we characterized a ssRNA mycovirus in Fusarium graminearum strain HB56-9. The complete nucleotide genome was obtained by combining random sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full genome was 6621-nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. The mycovirus was quite interesting because it shared 95.91% nucleotide identities with previously reported Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain DK21 (FgV1-DK21), while the colony morphology of their fungal hosts on PDA plates were very different. The novel virus was named Fusarium graminearum virus 1 Chinese isolate (FgV1-ch). Like FgV1-DK21, FgV1-ch also contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including one long and three short ORFs. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that FgV1-ch is clustered into a proposed family Fusariviridae. FgV1-ch, unlike FgV1-DK21, had mild or no effects on host mycelial growth, spore production and virulence. The nucleotide differences between FgV1-ch and FgV1-DK21 will help to elucidate the hypovirulence determinants during mycovirus–host interaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Incidence of the First Member of the Genus Mitovirus Identified in the Phytopathogenic Species Fusarium oxysporum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030279 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF encoding an RdRp of 675 amino acid residues, and a 113-nt 3´-UTR. Homology BlastX searches identifies FodMV1 as a novel member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae. As the rest of mitoviruses, the genome of FodMV1 presents a high percentage of A+U (58.8%) and contains a number of UGA codons that encode the amino acid tryptophan rather than acting as stop codons as in the universal genetic code. Another common feature with other mitoviruses is that the 5′- and 3′-UTR regions of FodMV1 can be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Result from phylogenetic analysis place FodMV1 in a different clade than the rest of mitoviruses described in other Fusarium spp. Incidence of FodMV1-infections in the collection of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi isolates analyzed is relatively high. Of particular interest is the fact that FodMV1 has been detected infecting isolates from two geographical areas as distant as Spain and Colombia. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Ourmia-Like Virus Infecting Phoma matteucciicola
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020231 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product [...] Read more.
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codons. Cellular fractionation assay indicated that PmOLV1 RNAs are likely more enriched in mitochondria than in cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmOLV1 is a new member of the genus Penoulivirus (recently proposed) within the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121120 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals [...] Read more.
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment. Full article
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