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Open AccessArticle

Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens

1
Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
3
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121120
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment.
Keywords: saxicolous lichen; ascomycete; chrysovirus; complete genome; confocal microscopy saxicolous lichen; ascomycete; chrysovirus; complete genome; confocal microscopy
MDPI and ACS Style

Petrzik, K.; Koloniuk, I.; Sehadová, H.; Sarkisova, T. Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens. Viruses 2019, 11, 1120.

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