Special Issue "Plant Virus Emergence"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020) | Viewed by 35283

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Department of Plant Pathology, Plant Sciences Building, 1405 Veteran’s Dr., University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Interests: negative-strand RNA viruses; viral interactomes; nuclear proteome; virus ecology
Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, Texas A&M University, 498 Olsen Blvd, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Interests: emaravirus; unfolded protein response; potexvirus; potyvirus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 underscores the need for identifying viruses in wild populations prior to zoonosis for protecting global populations. Similarly, the emergence of plant viruses has consequences for food security and public health. As we approach the 30th anniversary of the first deployment of transgenic virus-resistant crops, we review how effective this technology can be when deployed. Recent global expansion of plant viruses in cultivated and natural environments reminds us that there are still critical questions regarding (i) viral population structure and ecology in non-cultivated plants and their potential for spillover into crops, (ii) climactic and molecular determinants that drive emergence and adaption to new hosts, (iii) strategies for engineering robust resistance and factors limiting their deployment, and (iv) quantitative economics of the impact of plant virus epidemics on public health and sustainable production. How plant virus pandemics occur and are controlled may inform human pandemics, from emergence to dissemination.

Prof. Dr. Michael Goodin
Prof. Dr. Jeanmarie Verchot
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant viruses
  • plant viral resistance
  • viral ecology
  • viral–host interactions
  • plant virus pandemics

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Editorial
In Tribute to Michael Goodin
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010078 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
It is with great sadness and sympathy for his family and the plant virology community that we convey the passing of Michael Goodin unexpectedly in December 2020 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Editorial
Introduction to Special Issue of Plant Virus Emergence
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010055 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1985
Abstract
We are pleased to present in this Special Issue a series of reviews and research studies on the topic of “Plant Virus Emergence” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Article
Development of a New Tomato Torrado Virus-Based Vector Tagged with GFP for Monitoring Virus Movement in Plants
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101195 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2916
Abstract
Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged viruses are basic research tools widely applied in studies concerning molecular determinants of disease during virus infection. Here, we described a new generation of genetically stable infectious clones of tomato torrado virus isolate Kra (ToTVpJL-Kra) that could [...] Read more.
Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged viruses are basic research tools widely applied in studies concerning molecular determinants of disease during virus infection. Here, we described a new generation of genetically stable infectious clones of tomato torrado virus isolate Kra (ToTVpJL-Kra) that could infect Nicotiana benthamiana and Solanum lycopersicum. Importantly, a modified variant of the viral RNA2—with inserted sGFP (forming, together with virus RNA1, into ToTVpJL-KraGFP)—was engineered as well. RNA2 of ToTVpJL-KraGFP was modified by introducing an additional open reading frame (ORF) of sGFP flanked with an amino acid-coding sequence corresponding to the putative virus protease recognition site. Our further analysis revealed that sGFP-tagged ToTV-Kra was successfully passaged by mechanical inoculation and spread systemically in plants. Therefore, the clone might be applied in studying the in vivo cellular, tissue, and organ-level localization of ToTV during infection. By performing whole-plant imaging, followed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy, the presence of the ToTVpJL-KraGFP-derived fluorescence signal was confirmed in infected plants. All this information was verified by sGFP-specific immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. The molecular biology of the torradovirus-plant interaction is still poorly characterized; therefore, the results obtained here opened up new possibilities for further research. The application of sGFP-tagged virus infectious clones and their development method can be used for analyzing plant-virus interactions in a wide context of plant pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Emergence and Full Genome Analysis of Tomato Torrado Virus in South Africa
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101167 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Emerging pests and diseases are a major threat to food production worldwide. In a recent survey, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) was identified on tomato crops in the Limpopo province of South Africa and a first report of the disease was published. In this [...] Read more.
Emerging pests and diseases are a major threat to food production worldwide. In a recent survey, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) was identified on tomato crops in the Limpopo province of South Africa and a first report of the disease was published. In this follow-up study, the full genome sequence of a tomato-infecting isolate of ToTV from South Africa was elucidated. High-throughput sequencing was used to generate the full genome of ToTV infecting tomato crops in South Africa. The longest contig obtained for the RNA-1 and RNA-2 genome of ToTV was comprised of 7420 and 5381 nucleotides (nt), respectively. Blast analysis of the RNA-1 sequence of ToTV from South Africa (ToT-186) matched 99% to a Spanish and Polish isolate; the RNA-2 segment of ToTV from South Africa (ToT-186) matched 99% to ToTV isolates from Italy and Poland, respectively. The information presented in this study will go a long way towards better understanding the emergence and spread of ToTV and devising sustainable management of ToTV diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Transmission of the Bean-Associated Cytorhabdovirus by the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091028 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
The knowledge of genomic data of new plant viruses is increasing exponentially; however, some aspects of their biology, such as vectors and host range, remain mostly unknown. This information is crucial for the understanding of virus–plant interactions, control strategies, and mechanisms to prevent [...] Read more.
The knowledge of genomic data of new plant viruses is increasing exponentially; however, some aspects of their biology, such as vectors and host range, remain mostly unknown. This information is crucial for the understanding of virus–plant interactions, control strategies, and mechanisms to prevent outbreaks. Typically, rhabdoviruses infect monocot and dicot plants and are vectored in nature by hemipteran sap-sucking insects, including aphids, leafhoppers, and planthoppers. However, several strains of a potentially whitefly-transmitted virus, papaya cytorhabdovirus, were recently described: (i) bean-associated cytorhabdovirus (BaCV) in Brazil, (ii) papaya virus E (PpVE) in Ecuador, and (iii) citrus-associated rhabdovirus (CiaRV) in China. Here, we examine the potential of the Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) to transmit BaCV, its morphological and cytopathological characteristics, and assess the incidence of BaCV across bean producing areas in Brazil. Our results show that BaCV is efficiently transmitted, in experimental conditions, by B. tabaci MEAM1 to bean cultivars, and with lower efficiency to cowpea and soybean. Moreover, we detected BaCV RNA in viruliferous whiteflies but we were unable to visualize viral particles or viroplasm in the whitefly tissues. BaCV could not be singly isolated for pathogenicity tests, identification of the induced symptoms, and the transmission assay. BaCV was detected in five out of the seven states in Brazil included in our study, suggesting that it is widely distributed throughout bean producing areas in the country. This is the first report of a whitefly-transmitted rhabdovirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Family Level Phylogenies Reveal Relationships of Plant Viruses within the Order Bunyavirales
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091010 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4122
Abstract
Bunyavirales are negative-sense segmented RNA viruses infecting arthropods, protozoans, plants, and animals. This study examines the phylogenetic relationships of plant viruses within this order, many of which are recently classified species. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), precursor [...] Read more.
Bunyavirales are negative-sense segmented RNA viruses infecting arthropods, protozoans, plants, and animals. This study examines the phylogenetic relationships of plant viruses within this order, many of which are recently classified species. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), precursor glycoprotein (preGP), the nucleocapsid (N) proteins point toward common progenitor viruses. The RdRp of Fimoviridae and Tospoviridae show a close evolutional relationship while the preGP of Fimoviridae and Phenuiviridae show a closed relationship. The N proteins of Fimoviridae were closer to the Phasmaviridae, the Tospoviridae were close to some Phenuiviridae members and the Peribunyaviridae. The plant viral movement proteins of species within the Tospoviridae and Phenuiviridae were more closely related to each other than to members of the Fimoviridae. Interestingly, distal ends of 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions of species within the Fimoviridae shared similarity to arthropod and vertebrate infecting members of the Cruliviridae and Peribunyaviridae compared to other plant virus families. Co-phylogeny analysis of the plant infecting viruses indicates that duplication and host switching were more common than co-divergence with a host species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Can Winged Aphid Abundance Be a Predictor of Cucurbit Aphid-Borne Yellows Virus Epidemics in Melon Crop?
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090911 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Aphid-borne viruses are frequent yield-limiting pathogens in open field vegetable crops. In the absence of curative methods, virus control relies exclusively on measures limiting virus introduction and spread. The efficiency of control measures may greatly benefit from an accurate knowledge of epidemic drivers, [...] Read more.
Aphid-borne viruses are frequent yield-limiting pathogens in open field vegetable crops. In the absence of curative methods, virus control relies exclusively on measures limiting virus introduction and spread. The efficiency of control measures may greatly benefit from an accurate knowledge of epidemic drivers, in particular those linked with aphid vectors. Field experiments were conducted in southeastern France between 2010 and 2019 to investigate the relationship between the epidemics of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) and aphid vector abundance. Winged aphids visiting melon crops were sampled daily to assess the abundance of CABYV vectors (Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae) and CABYV was monitored weekly by DAS-ELISA. Epidemic temporal progress curves were successfully described by logistic models. A systematic search for correlations was undertaken between virus variables including parameters µ (inflection point of the logistic curve) and γ (maximum incidence) and aphid variables computed by aggregating abundances on periods relative either to the planting date, or to the epidemic peak. The abundance of A. gossypii during the first two weeks after planting was found to be a good predictor of CABYV dynamics, suggesting that an early control of this aphid species could mitigate the onset and progress of CABYV epidemics in melon crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
RNAseq Analysis of Rhizomania-Infected Sugar Beet Provides the First Genome Sequence of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus from the USA and Identifies a Novel Alphanecrovirus and Putative Satellite Viruses
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060626 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
“Rhizomania” of sugar beet is a soilborne disease complex comprised of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its plasmodiophorid vector, Polymyxa betae. Although BNYVV is considered the causal agent of rhizomania, additional viruses frequently accompany BNYVV in diseased roots. In an [...] Read more.
“Rhizomania” of sugar beet is a soilborne disease complex comprised of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its plasmodiophorid vector, Polymyxa betae. Although BNYVV is considered the causal agent of rhizomania, additional viruses frequently accompany BNYVV in diseased roots. In an effort to better understand the virus cohort present in sugar beet roots exhibiting rhizomania disease symptoms, five independent RNA samples prepared from diseased beet seedlings reared in a greenhouse or from field-grown adult sugar beet plants and enriched for virus particles were subjected to RNAseq. In all but a healthy control sample, the technique was successful at identifying BNYVV and provided sequence reads of sufficient quantity and overlap to assemble > 98% of the published genome of the virus. Utilizing the derived consensus sequence of BNYVV, infectious RNA was produced from cDNA clones of RNAs 1 and 2. The approach also enabled the detection of beet soilborne mosaic virus (BSBMV), beet soilborne virus (BSBV), beet black scorch virus (BBSV), and beet virus Q (BVQ), with near-complete genome assembly afforded to BSBMV and BBSV. In one field sample, a novel virus sequence of 3682 nt was assembled with significant sequence similarity and open reading frame (ORF) organization to members within the subgenus Alphanecrovirus (genus Necrovirus; family Tombusviridae). Construction of a DNA clone based on this sequence led to the production of the novel RNA genome in vitro that was capable of inducing local lesion formation on leaves of Chenopodium quinoa. Additionally, two previously unreported satellite viruses were revealed in the study; one possessing weak similarity to satellite maize white line mosaic virus and a second possessing moderate similarity to satellite tobacco necrosis virus C. Taken together, the approach provides an efficient pipeline to characterize variation in the BNYVV genome and to document the presence of other viruses potentially associated with disease severity or the ability to overcome resistance genes used for sugar beet rhizomania disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Review
Plant-Based Vaccines: The Way Ahead?
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010005 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5566
Abstract
Severe virus outbreaks are occurring more often and spreading faster and further than ever. Preparedness plans based on lessons learned from past epidemics can guide behavioral and pharmacological interventions to contain and treat emergent diseases. Although conventional biologics production systems can meet the [...] Read more.
Severe virus outbreaks are occurring more often and spreading faster and further than ever. Preparedness plans based on lessons learned from past epidemics can guide behavioral and pharmacological interventions to contain and treat emergent diseases. Although conventional biologics production systems can meet the pharmaceutical needs of a community at homeostasis, the COVID-19 pandemic has created an abrupt rise in demand for vaccines and therapeutics that highlight the gaps in this supply chain’s ability to quickly develop and produce biologics in emergency situations given a short lead time. Considering the projected requirements for COVID-19 vaccines and the necessity for expedited large scale manufacture the capabilities of current biologics production systems should be surveyed to determine their applicability to pandemic preparedness. Plant-based biologics production systems have progressed to a state of commercial viability in the past 30 years with the capacity for production of complex, glycosylated, “mammalian compatible” molecules in a system with comparatively low production costs, high scalability, and production flexibility. Continued research drives the expansion of plant virus-based tools for harnessing the full production capacity from the plant biomass in transient systems. Here, we present an overview of vaccine production systems with a focus on plant-based production systems and their potential role as “first responders” in emergency pandemic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Review
Potato Virus Y Emergence and Evolution from the Andes of South America to Become a Major Destructive Pathogen of Potato and Other Solanaceous Crops Worldwide
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121430 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
The potato was introduced to Europe from the Andes of South America in the 16th century, and today it is grown worldwide; it is a nutritious staple food eaten by millions and underpins food security in many countries. Unknowingly, potato virus Y (PVY) [...] Read more.
The potato was introduced to Europe from the Andes of South America in the 16th century, and today it is grown worldwide; it is a nutritious staple food eaten by millions and underpins food security in many countries. Unknowingly, potato virus Y (PVY) was also introduced through trade in infected potato tubers, and it has become the most important viral pathogen of potato. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed the spread and emergence of strains of PVY, including strains causing economically important diseases in tobacco, tomato and pepper, and that the virus continues to evolve with the relatively recent emergence of new damaging recombinant strains. High-throughput, next-generation sequencing platforms provide powerful tools for detection, identification and surveillance of new PVY strains. Aphid vectors of PVY are expected to increase in incidence and abundance in a warmer climate, which will increase the risk of virus spread. Wider deployment of crop cultivars carrying virus resistance will be an important means of defence against infection. New cutting-edge biotechnological tools such as CRISPR and SIGS offer a means for rapid engineering of resistance in established cultivars. We conclude that in future, human activities and ingenuity should be brought to bear to control PVY and the emergence of new strains in key crops by increased focus on host resistance and factors driving virus evolution and spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Disease Pandemics and Major Epidemics Arising from New Encounters between Indigenous Viruses and Introduced Crops
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121388 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Virus disease pandemics and epidemics that occur in the world’s staple food crops pose a major threat to global food security, especially in developing countries with tropical or subtropical climates. Moreover, this threat is escalating rapidly due to increasing difficulties in controlling virus [...] Read more.
Virus disease pandemics and epidemics that occur in the world’s staple food crops pose a major threat to global food security, especially in developing countries with tropical or subtropical climates. Moreover, this threat is escalating rapidly due to increasing difficulties in controlling virus diseases as climate change accelerates and the need to feed the burgeoning global population escalates. One of the main causes of these pandemics and epidemics is the introduction to a new continent of food crops domesticated elsewhere, and their subsequent invasion by damaging virus diseases they never encountered before. This review focusses on providing historical and up-to-date information about pandemics and major epidemics initiated by spillover of indigenous viruses from infected alternative hosts into introduced crops. This spillover requires new encounters at the managed and natural vegetation interface. The principal virus disease pandemic examples described are two (cassava mosaic, cassava brown streak) that threaten food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and one (tomato yellow leaf curl) doing so globally. A further example describes a virus disease pandemic threatening a major plantation crop producing a vital food export for West Africa (cacao swollen shoot). Also described are two examples of major virus disease epidemics that threaten SSA’s food security (rice yellow mottle, groundnut rosette). In addition, brief accounts are provided of two major maize virus disease epidemics (maize streak in SSA, maize rough dwarf in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions), a major rice disease epidemic (rice hoja blanca in the Americas), and damaging tomato tospovirus and begomovirus disease epidemics of tomato that impair food security in different world regions. For each pandemic or major epidemic, the factors involved in driving its initial emergence, and its subsequent increase in importance and geographical distribution, are explained. Finally, clarification is provided over what needs to be done globally to achieve effective management of severe virus disease pandemics and epidemics initiated by spillover events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Perspective
Homo sapiens: The Superspreader of Plant Viral Diseases
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121462 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
Plant viruses are commonly vectored by flying or crawling animals, such as aphids and beetles, and cause serious losses in major agricultural and horticultural crops. Controlling virus spread is often achieved by minimizing a crop’s exposure to the vector, or by reducing vector [...] Read more.
Plant viruses are commonly vectored by flying or crawling animals, such as aphids and beetles, and cause serious losses in major agricultural and horticultural crops. Controlling virus spread is often achieved by minimizing a crop’s exposure to the vector, or by reducing vector numbers with compounds such as insecticides. A major, but less obvious, factor not controlled by these measures is Homo sapiens. Here, we discuss the inconvenient truth of how humans have become superspreaders of plant viruses on both a local and a global scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Emergence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop