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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020123

Sediments from Arctic Tide-Water Glaciers Remove Coastal Marine Viruses and Delay Host Infection

1
Department of Marine Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
2
Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
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Abstract

Over the past few decades, the Arctic region has been strongly affected by global warming, leading to increased sea surface temperatures and melting of land and sea ice. Marine terminating (tide-water) glaciers are expected to show higher melting and calving rates, with an increase in the input of fine sediment particles in the coastal marine environment. We experimentally investigated whether marine viruses, which drive microbial interactions and biogeochemical cycling are removed from the water column through adsorption to glacier-delivered fine sediments. Ecologically relevant concentrations of 30, 100 and 200 mg·L−1 sediments were added to filtered lysates of 3 cultured algal viruses and to a natural marine bacterial virus community. Total virus removal increased with sediment concentration whereby the removal rate depended on the virus used (up to 88% for an Arctic algal virus), suggesting a different interaction strength with the sediment. Moreover, we observed that the adsorption of viruses to sediment is a reversible process, and that desorbed viruses are still able to infect their respective hosts. Nonetheless, the addition of sediment to infection experiments with the Arctic prasinovirus MpoV-45T substantially delayed host lysis and the production of progeny viruses. We demonstrate that glacier-derived fine sediments have the potency to alter virus availability and consequently, host population dynamics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctic virus; algae; phytoplankton; sediment; glacier; virus adsorption; infection Arctic virus; algae; phytoplankton; sediment; glacier; virus adsorption; infection
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Maat, D.S.; Prins, M.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. Sediments from Arctic Tide-Water Glaciers Remove Coastal Marine Viruses and Delay Host Infection. Viruses 2019, 11, 123.

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