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Viruses 2018, 10(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100553

Roles of orf60a and orf61 in Development of Bacteriophages λ and Φ24B

1
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
3
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kładki 24, 80-822 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
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Abstract

The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence the regulation of phage development. This report defines specific roles for orf60a and orf61 in bacteriophage λ and Φ24B, a specific Shiga toxin-converting phage with clinical relevance. We observed that mutant phages bearing deletions of orf60a and orf61 impaired two central aspects of phage development: the lysis-versus-lysogenization decision and prophage induction. These effects were more pronounced for phage Φ24B than for λ. Surprisingly, adsorption of phage Φ24B on Escherichia coli host cells was less efficient in the absence of either orf60a or orf61. We conclude that these open reading frames (ORFs) play important, but not essential, roles in the regulation of lambdoid phage development. Although phages can propagate without these ORFs in nutrient media, we suggest that they may be involved in the regulatory network, ensuring optimization of phage development under various environmental conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: lambdoid phages; Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophage; regulation of bacteriophage development; the exo-xis region lambdoid phages; Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophage; regulation of bacteriophage development; the exo-xis region
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dydecka, A.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Bloch, S.; Topka, G.; Necel, A.; Donaldson, L.W.; Węgrzyn, G.; Węgrzyn, A. Roles of orf60a and orf61 in Development of Bacteriophages λ and Φ24B. Viruses 2018, 10, 553.

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