Avian Respiratory Viruses, the Fourth Edition

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 1934

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
Interests: avian coronavirus; pathogenesis; molecular epidemiology of avian viruses; control of avian viruses; innate immune response; cell-mediated immune response; chicken
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The vast majority of disease-causing avian viruses use respiratory mucosa for host entry. Although there are a number of effective disease prevention strategies in place on poultry farms, viruses such as avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and infectious laryngotracheitis virus continue to be major constraints for the sustainability of the poultry industry globally. With a view of the economic and public health importance of avian respiratory viral infections, in this Special Issue we will focus on the most recent research progress in these viral infections, including the evolution of viruses, pathogenesis, virus–host interactions, vaccine development, and the development of novel control measures.

Prof. Dr. Faizal Careem
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • avian influenza virus
  • newcastle disease virus
  • infectious bronchitis virus
  • infectious laryngotracheitis
  • virus evolution
  • pathogenesis
  • virus–host interaction
  • vaccine
  • innate immune response
  • adjuvant
  • avian

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2060 KiB  
Article
Geographical Expansion of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B: First Detection and Molecular Characterization of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B in US Poultry
by Muhammad Luqman, Naveen Duhan, Gun Temeeyasen, Mohamed Selim, Sumit Jangra and Sunil Kumar Mor
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040508 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 992
Abstract
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), classified within the Pneumoviridae family, wreaks havoc on poultry health. It typically causes upper respiratory tract and reproductive tract infections, mainly in turkeys, chickens, and ducks. Four subtypes of AMPV (A, B, C, D) and two unclassified subtypes have been [...] Read more.
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), classified within the Pneumoviridae family, wreaks havoc on poultry health. It typically causes upper respiratory tract and reproductive tract infections, mainly in turkeys, chickens, and ducks. Four subtypes of AMPV (A, B, C, D) and two unclassified subtypes have been identified, of which subtypes A and B are widely distributed across the world. In January 2024, an outbreak of severe respiratory disease occurred on turkey and chicken farms across different states in the US. Metagenomics sequencing of selected tissue and swab samples confirmed the presence of aMPV subtype B. Subsequently, all samples were screened using an aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time RT-PCR kit. Of the 221 farms, 124 (56%) were found to be positive for aMPV-B. All samples were negative for subtype A. Six whole genomes were assembled, five from turkeys and one from chickens; all six assembled genomes showed 99.29 to 99.98% nucleotide identity, indicating a clonal expansion event for aMPV-B within the country. In addition, all six sequences showed 97.74 to 98.58% nucleotide identity with previously reported subtype B sequences, e.g., VCO3/60616, Hungary/657/4, and BR/1890/E1/19. In comparison to these two reference strains, the study sequences showed unique 49–62 amino acid changes across the genome, with maximum changes in glycoprotein (G). One unique AA change from T (Threonine) to I (Isoleucine) at position 153 in G protein was reported only in the chicken aMPV sequence, which differentiated it from turkey sequences. The twelve unique AA changes along with change in polarity of the G protein may indicate that these unique changes played a role in the adaptation of this virus in the US poultry. This is the first documented report of aMPV subtype B in US poultry, highlighting the need for further investigations into its genotypic characterization, pathogenesis, and evolutionary dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses, the Fourth Edition)
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18 pages, 38478 KiB  
Article
Differential Impact of Massachusetts, Canadian 4/91, and California (Cal) 1737 Genotypes of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Infection on Lymphoid Organs of Chickens
by Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Shahnas M. Najimudeen, Motamed E. Mahmoud, Mohamed S. H. Hassan, Rodrigo A. Gallardo and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030326 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces severe economic losses in chicken farms due to the emergence of new variants leading to vaccine breaks. The studied IBV strains belong to Massachusetts (Mass), Canadian 4/91, and California (Cal) 1737 genotypes that are prevalent globally. This study [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces severe economic losses in chicken farms due to the emergence of new variants leading to vaccine breaks. The studied IBV strains belong to Massachusetts (Mass), Canadian 4/91, and California (Cal) 1737 genotypes that are prevalent globally. This study was designed to compare the impact of these three IBV genotypes on primary and secondary lymphoid organs. For this purpose, one-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were inoculated with Mass, Canadian 4/91, or Cal 1737 IBV variants, keeping a mock-infected control. We examined the IBV replication in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. The molecular, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations revealed significant differences in lesion scores and viral distribution in these immune organs. In addition, we observed B-cell depletion in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen with a significant elevation of T cells in these organs. Further studies are required to determine the functional consequences of IBV replication in lymphoid organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses, the Fourth Edition)
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