Special Issue "Pharmacoepidemiology in Vaccine: Generating the Real-World Data to Promote Vaccine Safety and Uptake"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines and Society".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Ju-Young Shin
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
Interests: pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacovigilance; adverse event following immunization; signal detection
Dr. Ju Hwan Kim
Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU),Suwon 16419, Korea
Interests: pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacovigilance; adverse event following immunization; signal detection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are currently living in a post-vaccine era where historically known communicable and life-threatening infectious diseases are in under control by an effective immunization strategy. In 2018, approximately 86% of the world’s children received vaccines that would protect them against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles, which consequently prevented 2 to 3 million deaths. With the vaccines being recognized as an efficacious, efficient and cost-effective disease prevention strategy, many countries implement nationwide immunization program or campaign to achieve near perfect vaccine coverage rates. Recently, however, vaccine safety came under scrutiny, which is inevitable given the number of individuals receiving vaccines around the world. Given the rarity of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs), they often go undetected due to limited sample size or only affecting a subpopulation with limited representation in the clinical trials. In efforts to address this issue, researchers are utilizing post-marketing surveillance data to generate real-world data to promote vaccine safety. Meanwhile, it is also imperative to grasp a growing anti-vaccine movement that leads to vaccine hesitancy. To confront this resistance to vaccines, a more precise understanding of the factors, both at individual- and community-levels, that affect vaccine hesitancy would be essential for well-being of the global public health.

This special issue titled as “Pharmacoepidemiology in vaccine: Generating the real-world data to promote vaccine safety and uptake” will introduce the readers of the Journal a pharmacoepidemiologic approach to address vaccine safety and hesitancy. Specifically, this issue encompasses the following areas of research:

(1) identifying unsuspected AEFIs by applying novel statistical methods in post-marketing surveillance data;

(2) conducting observational study for casual inference on the safety of vaccine(s);

(3) describing interventions or strategies to combat vaccine hesitancy.

Manuscripts that address any of these research areas are welcome for submission. Manuscripts will follow standard Journal peer-review procedures, and those accepted for publication will appear in this special issue.

Prof. Ju-Young Shin
Dr. Ju Hwan Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pharmacoepidemiology
  • pharmacovigilance
  • adverse event following immunization
  • signal detection

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination during the First Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma: A Cohort Study of the French National Health Insurance Database
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040722 - 02 Dec 2020
Abstract
Purpose: Infections are frequent and often result in serious complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Prophylactic vaccination is recommended for influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), and Hemophilus influenzaeb (Hib). The aims of this study were to measure the vaccination [...] Read more.
Purpose: Infections are frequent and often result in serious complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Prophylactic vaccination is recommended for influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), and Hemophilus influenzaeb (Hib). The aims of this study were to measure the vaccination rates within 24 months after the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and to identify factors associated with vaccine use. Methods: MM patients were selected through the French national health insurance database from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. Patients with a previous history of MM were excluded. Results: Vaccination rates against influenza, SP, and Hib among 22,831 newly diagnosed MM patients were, respectively, 28.5%, 10.3%, and 1.4%. Only 0.7% received all three vaccines. Factors associated with vaccination were young age, male gender, an absence of comorbidity, a history of higher medication and vaccine consumption, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and the use of pneumocystis prophylaxis. Conclusion: The low rates of vaccination indicate the need to improve physician and MM patient adherence and education regarding vaccination. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Measuring the Benefits of Mass Vaccination Programs in the United States
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040561 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
Since the late 1940s, mass vaccination programs in the USA have contributed to the significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. To assist the evaluation of the benefits of mass vaccination programs, the number of individuals who would have suffered death or [...] Read more.
Since the late 1940s, mass vaccination programs in the USA have contributed to the significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. To assist the evaluation of the benefits of mass vaccination programs, the number of individuals who would have suffered death or permanent disability in the USA in 2014, had mass vaccination never been implemented, was estimated for measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B, varicella, and human papillomavirus (HPV). The estimates accounted for mortality and morbidity trends observed for these infections prior to mass vaccination and the impact of advances in standard of living and health care. The estimates also considered populations with and without known factors leading to an elevated risk of permanent injury from infection. Mass vaccination prevented an estimated 20 million infections and 12,000 deaths and permanent disabilities in 2014, including 10,800 deaths and permanent disabilities in persons at elevated risk. Though 9000 of the estimated prevented deaths were from liver cirrhosis and cancer, mass vaccination programs have not, at this point, shown empirical impacts on the prevalence of those conditions. Future studies can refine these estimates, assess the impact of adjusting estimation assumptions, and consider additional risk factors that lead to heightened risk of permanent harm from infection. Full article

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Reconstitution-related vaccine preparation errors in South Korea: A National Physician and Nurses Survey
Authors: Young-Hwa Lee; Young June Choe; Yong-Ho Oh; Hong-Won Oh; Rebecca Harris (TBC);

Background: Medication errors are an important preventable public health problem. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (IOM, 2000) identified medication errors as the most common type of error in health care. Vaccine-related errors (VRE) result from errors in vaccine preparation, handling, storage or administration. Such errors can result in adverse events or vaccine failure. They are preventable and detract from the overall benefit of the immunization program. The identification and correction of these incorrect immunization practices is of great importance. Several vaccines are available in either ready-to-use fully-liquid formats or formats requiring reconstitution, which require different preparatory steps. Simplified vaccine preparation steps may save time and reduce potential VREs. Vaccines could be administered significantly quicker using a fully liquid vaccine compared to a non-fully liquid combination vaccine requiring reconstitution. South Korea, with its 50 million population and 400 thousand sized birth-cohort annually, has a strong immunization program that has both breadth and depth of coverage and is looking to expand further. South Korea is a high performer on immunization, reaching nearly 100% coverage for the majority of vaccines in their schedule. Currently, several vaccines requiring reconstitution are in use in South Korea. The national and local focus has now shifted to providing better vaccines with high-quality delivery to the population: with better safety and fewer VREs. In this study, we aim to assess physicians' and nurses' experience of VREs in South Korea, focusing on reconstitution issues, and to understand the barriers and facilitators to prevent such VREs.

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