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Special Issue "Environmental Drivers of Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxin Dynamics"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 11 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Petra M. Visser

Department of Freshwater and Marine Ecology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Dedmer B. Van de Waal

Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Phone: +31 317 473 553

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms pose an eminent threat to human and ecosystem health. Toxicity of blooms depends on a range of factors across multiple scales from community down to the cellular level. Specifically, it depends on the total biomass of toxic species, the identity of these species and associated toxin compounds, the abundance of toxic genotypes, the cellular quantities of toxins in these genotypes, and the toxin analogue composition. Environmental factors, both abiotic and biotic, are known to alter different aspects of bloom toxin contents. For instance, studies in marine and freshwater harmful algal or cyanobacterial species have reported effects of resource concentrations (nutrients, light, inorganic carbon, iron, etc.) and trophic interactions (e.g. zooplankton exudates, allelopathic compounds) on biomass build-up, genotype composition, cellular toxin content, expression of toxin genes, and toxin composition of the bloom. Here, we aim at collecting recent studies that cover any of the above aspects determining bloom toxicity across taxonomic groups and ecosystems to provide an integrated view on key environmental drivers underlying toxin dynamics in harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms.

Dr. Petra M. Visser
Dr. Dedmer B. van de Waal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • HABs
  • eutrophication
  • phycotoxins
  • cyanotoxins
  • blooms
  • phytoplankton
  • benthic
  • marine
  • freshwater
  • toxin production

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Development of an Indirect Quantitation Method to Assess Ichthyotoxic B-Type Prymnesins from Prymnesium parvum
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Harmful algal blooms of Prymnesium parvum have recurrently been associated with the killing of fish. The causative ichthyotoxic agents of this haptophyte are believed to be prymnesins, a group of supersized ladder-frame polyether compounds currently divided into three types. Here, the development of [...] Read more.
Harmful algal blooms of Prymnesium parvum have recurrently been associated with the killing of fish. The causative ichthyotoxic agents of this haptophyte are believed to be prymnesins, a group of supersized ladder-frame polyether compounds currently divided into three types. Here, the development of a quantitative method to assess the molar sum of prymnesins in water samples and in algal biomass is reported. The method is based on the derivatization of the primary amine group and subsequent fluorescence detection using external calibrants. The presence of prymnesins in the underivatized sample should be confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The method is currently only partly applicable to water samples due to the low amounts that are present. The growth and cellular toxin content of two B-type producing strains were monitored in batch cultures eventually limited by an elevated pH. The cellular toxin contents varied by a factor of ~2.5 throughout the growth cycle, with the highest amounts found in the exponential growth phase and the lowest in the stationary growth/death phases. The strain K-0081 contained ~5 times more toxin than K-0374. Further investigations showed that the majority of prymnesins were associated with the biomass (89% ± 7%). This study provides the basis for further investigations into the toxicity and production of prymnesins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Drivers of Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxin Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Production of Cyanotoxins by Microcystis aeruginosa Mediates Interactions with the Mixotrophic Flagellate Cryptomonas
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eutrophication of inland waters is expected to increase the frequency and severity of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Toxin-production associated with HABs has negative effects on human health and aquatic ecosystem functioning. Despite evidence that flagellates can ingest toxin-producing cyanobacteria, interactions between members of [...] Read more.
Eutrophication of inland waters is expected to increase the frequency and severity of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Toxin-production associated with HABs has negative effects on human health and aquatic ecosystem functioning. Despite evidence that flagellates can ingest toxin-producing cyanobacteria, interactions between members of the microbial loop are underestimated in our understanding of the food web and algal bloom dynamics. Physical and allelopathic interactions between a mixotrophic flagellate (Cryptomonas sp.) and two strains of a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were investigated in a full-factorial experiment in culture. The maximum population growth rate of the mixotroph (0.25 day−1) occurred during incubation with filtrate from toxic M. aeruginosa. Cryptomonas was able to ingest toxic and non-toxic M. aeruginosa at maximal rates of 0.5 and 0.3 cells day−1, respectively. The results establish that although Cryptomonas does not derive benefits from co-incubation with M. aeruginosa, it may obtain nutritional supplement from filtrate. We also provide evidence of a reduction in cyanotoxin concentration (microcystin-LR) when toxic M. aeruginosa is incubated with the mixotroph. Our work has implications for “trophic upgrading” within the microbial food web, where cyanobacterivory by nanoflagellates may improve food quality for higher trophic levels and detoxify secondary compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Drivers of Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxin Dynamics)
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