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Open AccessArticle

Development of an Indirect Quantitation Method to Assess Ichthyotoxic B-Type Prymnesins from Prymnesium parvum

1
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads 221, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark
3
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 40, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050251
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Drivers of Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxin Dynamics)
Harmful algal blooms of Prymnesium parvum have recurrently been associated with the killing of fish. The causative ichthyotoxic agents of this haptophyte are believed to be prymnesins, a group of supersized ladder-frame polyether compounds currently divided into three types. Here, the development of a quantitative method to assess the molar sum of prymnesins in water samples and in algal biomass is reported. The method is based on the derivatization of the primary amine group and subsequent fluorescence detection using external calibrants. The presence of prymnesins in the underivatized sample should be confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The method is currently only partly applicable to water samples due to the low amounts that are present. The growth and cellular toxin content of two B-type producing strains were monitored in batch cultures eventually limited by an elevated pH. The cellular toxin contents varied by a factor of ~2.5 throughout the growth cycle, with the highest amounts found in the exponential growth phase and the lowest in the stationary growth/death phases. The strain K-0081 contained ~5 times more toxin than K-0374. Further investigations showed that the majority of prymnesins were associated with the biomass (89% ± 7%). This study provides the basis for further investigations into the toxicity and production of prymnesins. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; haptophyte; phycotoxin; ichthyotoxin; quantitative analysis; HAB; fluorescence detection microalgae; haptophyte; phycotoxin; ichthyotoxin; quantitative analysis; HAB; fluorescence detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Svenssen, D.K.; Binzer, S.B.; Medić, N.; Hansen, P.J.; Larsen, T.O.; Varga, E. Development of an Indirect Quantitation Method to Assess Ichthyotoxic B-Type Prymnesins from Prymnesium parvum. Toxins 2019, 11, 251.

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