Special Issue "Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mar Rodriguez Jovita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Hygiene and Safety, Meat and Meat Products Research Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avenida de las Ciencias s/n 10003-Caceres, Spain
Interests: Technological and toxicological evaluation of microorganisms in meat products, Strategies to control toxigenic moulds, Real-time PCR methods to quantify microorganisms and analyse gene expression
Dr. Félix Núñez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Hygiene and Safety, Meat and Meat Products Research Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
Interests: - Technological and toxicological evaluation of microorganisms in meat products;
- Strategies to control toxigenic moulds in meat products;
- Mechanisms of action of antifungal agents against toxigenic moulds.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contamination of foods and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic fungi is a concerning issue. Moulds naturally present in foods can produce mycotoxins and contaminate foodstuffs under favourable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH and nutrient availability.

Mycotoxins are, in general, stable molecules, which are difficult to remove from foods once they have been produced. Therefore, the prevention of mycotoxins contamination is one of the main goals of the agriculture and food industries.

Chemical control or decontamination techniques may be quite efficient. However, the more sustainable and restricted use of fungicides, the lack of efficiency in some foods, and the consumers demand of chemical residue-free foods require new approaches. Therefore, food safety demands permanent research efforts for exploring new strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination.

This Special Issue focuses on describing effective strategies to minimise the presence of major and emerging mycotoxins in both animal and vegetable foods, with particular interest but not limited to the following:

a) Biocontrol strategies including microorganism producers of antifungal compounds, or those that are able to compete for space and nutrients;

b) Detoxification technologies such as chemical removal, physical binding, or biological degradation of mycotoxins;

c) Use of plants and plant extracts to inhibit fungal growth or mycotoxin production;

d) Improved packaging materials and storage;

e) Mechanisms of action of antifungal agents;

f) Review articles about this topic.

Prof. Mar Rodriguez
Dr. Félix Núñez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Emerging mycotoxins
  • Food and feed
  • Biocontrol
  • Biological detoxification
  • Chemical detoxification
  • Physical detoxification
  • Improved packaging materials
  • Improved storing

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Zearalenone Biodegradation by the Combination of Probiotics with Cell-Free Extracts of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Mycotoxin-Alleviating Effect on Pig Production Performance
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100552 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
In order to remove zearalenone (ZEA) detriment—Bacillus subtilis, Candida utilis, and cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were used to degrade ZEA in this study. The orthogonal experiment in vitro showed that the ZEA degradation rate was 92.27% (p < [...] Read more.
In order to remove zearalenone (ZEA) detriment—Bacillus subtilis, Candida utilis, and cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were used to degrade ZEA in this study. The orthogonal experiment in vitro showed that the ZEA degradation rate was 92.27% (p < 0.05) under the conditions that Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis SP1, and Bacillus subtilis SP2 were mixed together at 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.0%. When cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were combined with the above probiotics at a ratio of 2:1 to make mycotoxin-biodegradation preparation (MBP), the ZEA degradation rate reached 95.15% (p < 0.05). In order to further investigate the MBP effect on relieving the negative impact of ZEA for pig production performance, 120 young pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 3 replicates in each group and 8 pigs for each replicate. Group A was given the basal diet with 86.19 μg/kg ZEA; group B contained 300 μg/kg ZEA without MBP addition; and groups C, D, and E contained 300 μg/kg ZEA added with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% MBP, respectively. The results showed that MBP addition was able to keep gut microbiota stable. ZEA concentrations in jejunal contents in groups A and D were 89.47% and 80.07% lower than that in group B (p < 0.05), indicating that MBP was effective in ZEA biodegradation. In addition, MBP had no significant effect on pig growth, nutrient digestibility, and the relative mRNA abundance of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) genes in ovaries and the uterus (p > 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Detoxification of the Fumonisin Mycotoxins in Maize: An Enzymatic Approach
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090523 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Enzymatic detoxification has become a promising approach for control of mycotoxins postharvest in grains through modification of chemical structures determining their toxicity. In the present study fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87) (FUMzyme®; BIOMIN, Tulln, Austria), hydrolysing fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins by [...] Read more.
Enzymatic detoxification has become a promising approach for control of mycotoxins postharvest in grains through modification of chemical structures determining their toxicity. In the present study fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87) (FUMzyme®; BIOMIN, Tulln, Austria), hydrolysing fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins by de-esterification, was utilised to develop an enzymatic reduction method in a maize kernel enzyme incubation mixture. Efficacy of the FumD FB reduction method in “low” and “high” FB contaminated home-grown maize was compared by monitoring FB1 hydrolysis to the hydrolysed FB1 (HFB1) product utilising a validated LC-MS/MS analytical method. The method was further evaluated in terms of enzyme activity and treatment duration by assessing enzyme kinetic parameters and the relative distribution of HFB1 between maize kernels and the residual aqueous environment. FumD treatments resulted in significant reduction (≥80%) in “low” (≥1000 U/L, p < 0.05) and “high” (100 U/L, p < 0.05; ≥1000 U/L, p < 0.0001) FB contaminated maize after 1 h respectively, with an approximate 1:1 µmol conversion ratio of FB1 into the formation of HFB1. Enzyme kinetic parameters indicated that, depending on the activity of FumD utilised, a significantly (p < 0.05) higher FB1 conversion rate was noticed in “high” FB contaminated maize. The FumD FB reduction method in maize could find application in commercial maize-based practices as well as in communities utilising home-grown maize as a main dietary staple and known to be exposed above the tolerable daily intake levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Two Garlic-Derived Compounds, Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTS) and Propyl Propane Thiosulfinate (PTSO), on Growth and Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species In Vitro and in Stored Cereals
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090495 - 27 Aug 2019
Abstract
Two garlic-derived compounds, Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTS) and Propyl Propane Thiosulfinate (PTSO), were examined for their efficacy against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. verticillioides). The objectives were to assess the inhibitory effect of these compounds on [...] Read more.
Two garlic-derived compounds, Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTS) and Propyl Propane Thiosulfinate (PTSO), were examined for their efficacy against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. verticillioides). The objectives were to assess the inhibitory effect of these compounds on growth and mycotoxin production in vitro, and in situ in artificially inoculated wheat, oats and maize with one isolate of each respectively, at different water activity (aw) conditions when stored for up to 20 days at 25 °C. In vitro, 200 ppm of either PTS or PTSO reduced fungal growth by 50–100% and mycotoxin production by >90% depending on species, mycotoxin and aw conditions on milled wheat, oats and maize respectively. PTS was generally more effective than PTSO. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) were decreased by 50% with 80 ppm PTSO. One-hundred ppm of PTS reduced DON and ZEN production in wheat stored at 0.93 aw for 20 days, although contamination was still above the legislative limits. Contrasting effects on T-2/HT-2 toxin contamination of oats was found depending on aw, with PTS stimulating production under marginal conditions (0.93 aw), but at 0.95 aw effective control was achieved with 100 ppm. Treatment of stored maize inoculated with F. verticilliodies resulted in a stimulation of total fumonsins in most treatments. The potential use of such compounds for mycotoxin control in stored commodities is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Zearalenone to its Metabolites Hydrolyzed Zearalenone (HZEN) and Decarboxylated Hydrolyzed Zearalenone (DHZEN) Diminishes its Estrogenicity In Vitro and In Vivo
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080481 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN)-degrading enzymes are a promising strategy to counteract the negative effects of this mycotoxin in livestock. The reaction products of such enzymes need to be thoroughly characterized before technological application as a feed additive can be envisaged. Here, we evaluated the estrogenic [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN)-degrading enzymes are a promising strategy to counteract the negative effects of this mycotoxin in livestock. The reaction products of such enzymes need to be thoroughly characterized before technological application as a feed additive can be envisaged. Here, we evaluated the estrogenic activity of the metabolites hydrolyzed zearalenone (HZEN) and decarboxylated hydrolyzed zearalenone (DHZEN) formed by hydrolysis of ZEN by the zearalenone-lactonase Zhd101p. ZEN, HZEN, and DHZEN were tested in two in vitro models, the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay (0.01–500 nM) and an estrogen-sensitive yeast bioassay (1–10,000 nM). In addition, we compared the impact of dietary ZEN (4.58 mg/kg) and equimolar dietary concentrations of HZEN and DHZEN on reproductive tract morphology as well as uterine mRNA and microRNA expression in female piglets (n = 6, four weeks exposure). While ZEN increased cell proliferation and reporter gene transcription, neither HZEN nor DHZEN elicited an estrogenic response, suggesting that these metabolites are at least 50–10,000 times less estrogenic than ZEN in vitro. In piglets, HZEN and DHZEN did not increase vulva size or uterus weight. Moreover, RNA transcripts altered upon ZEN treatment (EBAG9, miR-135a-5p, miR-187-3p and miR-204-5p) were unaffected by HZEN and DHZEN. Our study shows that both metabolites exhibit markedly reduced estrogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and thus provides an important basis for further evaluation of ZEN-degrading enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat with Superheated Steam and Its Effects on Wheat Quality
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070414 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly found mycotoxin in scabbed wheat. In order to reduce the DON concentration in scabbed wheat with superheated steam (SS) and explore the feasibility to use the processed wheat as crisp biscuit materials, wheat kernels were treated with [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly found mycotoxin in scabbed wheat. In order to reduce the DON concentration in scabbed wheat with superheated steam (SS) and explore the feasibility to use the processed wheat as crisp biscuit materials, wheat kernels were treated with SS to study the effects of SS processing on DON concentration and the quality of wheat. Furthermore, the wheat treated with SS were used to make crisp biscuits and the texture qualities of biscuits were measured. The results showed that DON in wheat kernels could be reduced by SS effectively. Besides, the reduction rate raised significantly with the increase of steam temperature and processing time and it was also affected significantly by steam velocity. The reduction rate in wheat kernels and wheat flour could reach 77.4% and 60.5% respectively. In addition, SS processing might lead to partial denaturation of protein and partial gelatinization of starch, thus affecting the rheological properties of dough and pasting properties of wheat flour. Furthermore, the qualities of crisp biscuits were improved at certain conditions of SS processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemicals of Apple Pomace as Prospect Bio-Fungicide Agents against Mycotoxigenic Fungal Species—In Vitro Experiments
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060361 - 20 Jun 2019
Abstract
The phytochemical constituents of apple waste were established as potential antifungal agents against four crops pathogens, specifically, Botrytis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Petriella setifera, and Neosartorya fischeri. Crude, purified extracts and fractions of apple pomace were tested in vitro to evaluate their [...] Read more.
The phytochemical constituents of apple waste were established as potential antifungal agents against four crops pathogens, specifically, Botrytis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Petriella setifera, and Neosartorya fischeri. Crude, purified extracts and fractions of apple pomace were tested in vitro to evaluate their antifungal and antioxidant properties. The phytochemical constituents of the tested materials were mainly represented by phloridzin and quercetin derivatives, as well as previously undescribed in apples, monoterpene–pinnatifidanoside D. Its structure was confirmed by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses. The fraction containing quercetin pentosides possessed the highest antioxidant activity, while the strongest antifungal activity was exerted by a fraction containing phloridzin. Sugar moieties differentiated the antifungal activity of quercetin glycosides. Quercetin hexosides possessed stronger antifungal activity than quercetin pentosides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Cold Plasma Treatment as an Alternative for Ochratoxin A Detoxification and Inhibition of Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Roasted Coffee
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060337 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by mycotoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus and Penicillium spp.) is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The use of cold plasma to inhibit toxin-producing microorganisms in coffee could be an important alternative to avoid proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi. Roasted coffee [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by mycotoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus and Penicillium spp.) is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The use of cold plasma to inhibit toxin-producing microorganisms in coffee could be an important alternative to avoid proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi. Roasted coffee samples were artificially inoculated with A. westerdijikiae, A. steynii, A. versicolor, and A. niger, and incubated at 27 °C over 21 days for OTA production. Samples were cold plasma treated at 30 W input power and 850 V output voltage with helium at 1.5 L/min flow. OTA production in coffee was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS). After 6 min of treatment with cold plasma, fungi were completely inhibited (4 log reduction). Cold plasma reduces 50% of OTA content after 30 min of treatment. Toxicity was estimated for extracts of artificially contaminated roasted coffee samples using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Toxicity for untreated roasted coffee was shown to be “toxic”, while toxicity for cold plasma treated coffee was reduced to “slightly toxic”. These results suggested that cold plasma may be considered as an alternative method for the degradation and reduction of toxin production by mycotoxigenic fungi in the processing of foods and feedstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Zearalenone (ZEN)-Detoxifying Bacillus in Animal Feed Decontamination through Fermentation
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060330 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin which can cause loss in animal production. The aim of this study was to screen Bacillus strains for their ZEN detoxification capability and use a fermentation process to validate their potential application in the feed industry. In [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin which can cause loss in animal production. The aim of this study was to screen Bacillus strains for their ZEN detoxification capability and use a fermentation process to validate their potential application in the feed industry. In the high-level ZEN-contaminated maize (5 mg·kg−1) fermentation test, B2 strain exhibited the highest detoxification rate, removing 56% of the ZEN. However, B2 strain was not the strain with the highest ZEN detoxification in the culturing media. When B2 grew in TSB medium with ZEN, it had higher bacterial numbers, lactic acid, acetic acid, total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen. The ZEN-contaminated maize fermented by B2 strain had better fermentation characteristics (lactic acid > 110 mmol·L−1; acetic acid < 20 mmol·L−1; pH < 4.5) than ZEN-free maize. Furthermore, B2 also had detoxification capabilities toward aflatoxins B1, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin. Our study demonstrated differences in screening outcome between bacterial culturing conditions and the maize fermentation process. This is important for the feed industry to consider when choosing a proper method to screen candidate isolates for the pretreatment of ZEN-contaminated maize. It appears that using the fermentation process to address the ZEN-contaminated maize problem in animal feed is a reliable choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Antifungal and Antimycotoxigenic Device Containing Allyl Isothiocyanate for Silo Fumigation
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030137 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of the bioactive compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against Aspergillus flavus (8111 ISPA) aflatoxins (AFs) producer and Penicillium verrucosum (D-01847 VTT) ochratoxin A (OTA) producer on corn, barley, and wheat. The experiments were [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of the bioactive compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against Aspergillus flavus (8111 ISPA) aflatoxins (AFs) producer and Penicillium verrucosum (D-01847 VTT) ochratoxin A (OTA) producer on corn, barley, and wheat. The experiments were carried out initially in a simulated silo system for laboratory scale composed of glass jars (1 L). Barley and wheat were contaminated with P. verrucosum and corn with A. flavus. The cereals were treated with a hydroxyethylcellulose gel disk to which 500 µL/L of AITC were added; the silo system was closed and incubated for 30 days at 21 °C. After that, simulated silos of 100 L capacity were used. Barley, wheat, and corn were contaminated under the same conditions as the previous trial and treated with disks with 5 mL of AITC, closed and incubated for 90 days at 21 °C. In both cases, the control test did not receive any antifungal treatment. The growth of the inoculated fungi and the reduction in the formation of AFs and OTA were determined. In the lab scale silo system, complete inhibition of fungal growth at 30 days has been observed. In corn, the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was 98.5%. In the 100 L plastic drums, a significant reduction in the growth of A. flavus was observed, as well as the OTA formation in wheat (99.5%) and barley (92.0%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Degradation of Deoxynivalenol over Dendritic-Like α-Fe2O3 under Visible Light Irradiation
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020105 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium, which is a trichothecene mycotoxin. As the main mycotoxin with high toxicity, wheat, barley, corn and their products are susceptible to contamination of DON. Due to the stability of this mycotoxin, traditional methods [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium, which is a trichothecene mycotoxin. As the main mycotoxin with high toxicity, wheat, barley, corn and their products are susceptible to contamination of DON. Due to the stability of this mycotoxin, traditional methods for DON reduction often require a strong oxidant, high temperature and high pressure with more energy consumption. Therefore, exploring green, efficient and environmentally friendly ways to degrade or reduce DON is a meaningful and challenging issue. Herein, a dendritic-like α-Fe2O3 was successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal synthesis method at 160 °C, which was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that dendritic-like α-Fe2O3 showed superior activity for the photocatalytic degradation of DON in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) and 90.3% DON (initial concentration of 4.0 μg/mL) could be reduced in 2 h. Most of all, the main possible intermediate products were proposed through high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) after the photocatalytic treatment. This work not only provides a green and promising way to mitigate mycotoxin contamination but also may present useful information for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biological Control of Citrus Postharvest Phytopathogens
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080460 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
Citrus are vulnerable to the postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, which are responsible for the green mold, blue mold, and sour rot post-harvest disease, respectively. The widespread economic losses in citriculture caused by these [...] Read more.
Citrus are vulnerable to the postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, which are responsible for the green mold, blue mold, and sour rot post-harvest disease, respectively. The widespread economic losses in citriculture caused by these phytopathogens are minimized with the use of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil, thiabendazole, pyrimethanil, and fludioxonil, which are mainly employed as control agents and may have harmful effects on human health and environment. To date, numerous non-chemical postharvest treatments have been investigated for the control of these pathogens. Several studies demonstrated that biological control using microbial antagonists and natural products can be effective in controlling postharvest diseases in citrus, as well as the most used commercial fungicides. Therefore, microbial agents represent a considerably safer and low toxicity alternative to synthetic fungicides. In the present review, these biological control strategies as alternative to the chemical fungicides are summarized here and new challenges regarding the development of shelf-stable formulated biocontrol products are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessReview
Assorted Methods for Decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Microbial Adsorbents
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060304 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
Aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus which readily colonize crops. AFM1 is secreted in the milk of lactating mammals through the ingestion of feedstuffs contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Therefore, its presence in milk, even in small amounts, [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus which readily colonize crops. AFM1 is secreted in the milk of lactating mammals through the ingestion of feedstuffs contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Therefore, its presence in milk, even in small amounts, presents a real concern for dairy industries and consumers of dairy products. Different strategies can lead to the reduction of AFM1 contamination levels in milk. They include adopting good agricultural practices, decreasing the AFB1 contamination of animal feeds, or using diverse types of adsorbent materials. One of the most effective types of adsorbents used for AFM1 decontamination are those of microbial origin. This review discusses current issues about AFM1 decontamination methods. These methods are based on the use of different bio-adsorbent agents such as bacteria and yeasts to complex AFM1 in milk. Moreover, this review answers some of the raised concerns about the binding stability of the formed AFM1-microbial complex. Thus, the efficiency of the decontamination methods was addressed, and plausible experimental variants were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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