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Open AccessArticle

Zearalenone Biodegradation by the Combination of Probiotics with Cell-Free Extracts of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Mycotoxin-Alleviating Effect on Pig Production Performance

1
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
2
Henan Delin Biological Product Co. Ltd., Xinxiang 453000, China
3
Henan Puai Feed Co. Ltd., Zhoukou 466000, China
4
Henan Guangan Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100552
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
In order to remove zearalenone (ZEA) detriment—Bacillus subtilis, Candida utilis, and cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were used to degrade ZEA in this study. The orthogonal experiment in vitro showed that the ZEA degradation rate was 92.27% (p < 0.05) under the conditions that Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis SP1, and Bacillus subtilis SP2 were mixed together at 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.0%. When cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were combined with the above probiotics at a ratio of 2:1 to make mycotoxin-biodegradation preparation (MBP), the ZEA degradation rate reached 95.15% (p < 0.05). In order to further investigate the MBP effect on relieving the negative impact of ZEA for pig production performance, 120 young pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 3 replicates in each group and 8 pigs for each replicate. Group A was given the basal diet with 86.19 μg/kg ZEA; group B contained 300 μg/kg ZEA without MBP addition; and groups C, D, and E contained 300 μg/kg ZEA added with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% MBP, respectively. The results showed that MBP addition was able to keep gut microbiota stable. ZEA concentrations in jejunal contents in groups A and D were 89.47% and 80.07% lower than that in group B (p < 0.05), indicating that MBP was effective in ZEA biodegradation. In addition, MBP had no significant effect on pig growth, nutrient digestibility, and the relative mRNA abundance of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) genes in ovaries and the uterus (p > 0.05). View Full-Text
Keywords: Zearalenone; biodegradation; probiotics; cell-free extracts of Aspergillus oryzae; pig production performance Zearalenone; biodegradation; probiotics; cell-free extracts of Aspergillus oryzae; pig production performance
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Liu, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, P.; Yin, Q.; Huang, W.; Dang, X.; Lu, F.; Gao, T. Zearalenone Biodegradation by the Combination of Probiotics with Cell-Free Extracts of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Mycotoxin-Alleviating Effect on Pig Production Performance. Toxins 2019, 11, 552.

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