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Open AccessReview

Biological Control of Citrus Postharvest Phytopathogens

Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), 13490-970 Cordeiropolis, SP, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 460;
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
PDF [1648 KB, uploaded 6 August 2019]


Citrus are vulnerable to the postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, which are responsible for the green mold, blue mold, and sour rot post-harvest disease, respectively. The widespread economic losses in citriculture caused by these phytopathogens are minimized with the use of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil, thiabendazole, pyrimethanil, and fludioxonil, which are mainly employed as control agents and may have harmful effects on human health and environment. To date, numerous non-chemical postharvest treatments have been investigated for the control of these pathogens. Several studies demonstrated that biological control using microbial antagonists and natural products can be effective in controlling postharvest diseases in citrus, as well as the most used commercial fungicides. Therefore, microbial agents represent a considerably safer and low toxicity alternative to synthetic fungicides. In the present review, these biological control strategies as alternative to the chemical fungicides are summarized here and new challenges regarding the development of shelf-stable formulated biocontrol products are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; post-harvest phytopathogen; Penicillium digitatum; Penicillium italicum; Geothrichum citri-aurantii biological control; post-harvest phytopathogen; Penicillium digitatum; Penicillium italicum; Geothrichum citri-aurantii

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Moraes Bazioli, J.; Belinato, J.R.; Costa, J.H.; Akiyama, D.Y.; Pontes, J.G.M.; Kupper, K.C.; Augusto, F.; de Carvalho, J.E.; Fill, T.P. Biological Control of Citrus Postharvest Phytopathogens. Toxins 2019, 11, 460.

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