Next Article in Journal
Acute Toxicity Assessment: Macroscopic and Ultrastructural Effects in Mice Treated with Oral Tetrodotoxin
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of Zearalenone (ZEN)-Detoxifying Bacillus in Animal Feed Decontamination through Fermentation
Previous Article in Journal
From Snake Venom’s Disintegrins and C-Type Lectins to Anti-Platelet Drugs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of an Antifungal and Antimycotoxigenic Device Containing Allyl Isothiocyanate for Silo Fumigation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Assorted Methods for Decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Microbial Adsorbents

Centre d’Analyses et de Recherche (CAR), Unité de Recherche Technologies et Valorisation agro-Alimentaire (UR-TVA), Faculté des Sciences, Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, Campus des sciences et technologies, Mar Roukos, Matn 1104-2020, Lebanon
Research Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadat Campus, Beirut P.O Box 5, Lebanon
Platform of Research and Analysis in Environmental Sciences (PRASE), Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Hadat Campus, Beirut P.O. Box 6573/14, Lebanon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 304;
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
PDF [336 KB, uploaded 29 May 2019]


Aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus which readily colonize crops. AFM1 is secreted in the milk of lactating mammals through the ingestion of feedstuffs contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Therefore, its presence in milk, even in small amounts, presents a real concern for dairy industries and consumers of dairy products. Different strategies can lead to the reduction of AFM1 contamination levels in milk. They include adopting good agricultural practices, decreasing the AFB1 contamination of animal feeds, or using diverse types of adsorbent materials. One of the most effective types of adsorbents used for AFM1 decontamination are those of microbial origin. This review discusses current issues about AFM1 decontamination methods. These methods are based on the use of different bio-adsorbent agents such as bacteria and yeasts to complex AFM1 in milk. Moreover, this review answers some of the raised concerns about the binding stability of the formed AFM1-microbial complex. Thus, the efficiency of the decontamination methods was addressed, and plausible experimental variants were discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: decontamination; mycotoxins; Aflatoxin M1; milk; binding; stability decontamination; mycotoxins; Aflatoxin M1; milk; binding; stability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Assaf, J.C.; Nahle, S.; Chokr, A.; Louka, N.; Atoui, A.; El Khoury, A. Assorted Methods for Decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Microbial Adsorbents. Toxins 2019, 11, 304.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top