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Phytochemicals of Apple Pomace as Prospect Bio-Fungicide Agents against Mycotoxigenic Fungal Species—In Vitro Experiments

1
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
2
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
3
I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Maidan Voli 1, 46001 Ternopil, Ukraine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060361
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Abstract

The phytochemical constituents of apple waste were established as potential antifungal agents against four crops pathogens, specifically, Botrytis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Petriella setifera, and Neosartorya fischeri. Crude, purified extracts and fractions of apple pomace were tested in vitro to evaluate their antifungal and antioxidant properties. The phytochemical constituents of the tested materials were mainly represented by phloridzin and quercetin derivatives, as well as previously undescribed in apples, monoterpene–pinnatifidanoside D. Its structure was confirmed by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses. The fraction containing quercetin pentosides possessed the highest antioxidant activity, while the strongest antifungal activity was exerted by a fraction containing phloridzin. Sugar moieties differentiated the antifungal activity of quercetin glycosides. Quercetin hexosides possessed stronger antifungal activity than quercetin pentosides. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; Fusarium sp., Botrytis sp., apple pomace; phloridzin; quercetin glycosides; pinnatifidanoside D mycotoxins; Fusarium sp., Botrytis sp., apple pomace; phloridzin; quercetin glycosides; pinnatifidanoside D
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Oleszek, M.; Pecio, Ł.; Kozachok, S.; Lachowska-Filipiuk, Ż.; Oszust, K.; Frąc, M. Phytochemicals of Apple Pomace as Prospect Bio-Fungicide Agents against Mycotoxigenic Fungal Species—In Vitro Experiments. Toxins 2019, 11, 361.

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