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Special Issue "Paralytic Shellfish Toxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew D. Turner

Cefas, Food Safety Group, Barrack Road, the Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB, United Kingdom
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)1305 206636
Fax: +44 (0)1305 206601
Interests: Shellfish toxins; Marine toxins; Freshwater toxins; Chromatography; Mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) are a highly potent family of neurotoxins, all members of the saxitoxin (STX) family. Saxitoxin, together with a wide range of analogues, accumulate in a large number of aquatic organisms, most notably in bivalve molluscs and have been responsible for human intoxications including fatalities over many years. There is evidence that the geographical extent of PST occurrence may be increasing. In addition to bivalve molluscs, there are potential risks from PST contamination in a wide range of other species including gastropods, echinoderms and crustacean. In parallel with these findings, the methodology used for analysing marine organisms for PST has undergone significant change in recent decades. Further investigations are required to establish the presence of PST and elucidate uptake pathways into a variety of species throughout the world.

This Special Issue aims to report on new findings in the field of this highly important marine toxin, in particular but not exclusively: (i) PST occurrence in new aquatic environments and geographies, (ii) new methods for the quantitation of PST, (iii) new findings concerning the detection of PST in non-bivalve shellfish, (iv) links between toxins, phytoplankton and environmental factors including climatic change, (v) uptake and effects on cetaceans and other mammals, (vi) risk assessment and management related to the presence of PST in edible marine organisms, (vii) PST of freshwater origin, (viii) new PST analogues and/or toxin biotransformation studies, and (ix) therapeutic or novel uses for saxitoxin.

Dr. Andrew D. Turner
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Paralytic shellfish poisoning
  • Saxitoxins
  • Shellfish
  • Marine species
  • Toxicity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have experienced unexplained health issues. Microseira wollei (basionym Lyngbya wollei) was found at two of 15 sites in Butterfield Lake and analyzed for microcystins, anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and paralytic [...] Read more.
Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have experienced unexplained health issues. Microseira wollei (basionym Lyngbya wollei) was found at two of 15 sites in Butterfield Lake and analyzed for microcystins, anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). Only PSTs and trace levels of anatoxin-a were detected in these samples. This is the first published report of PSTs within a New York State lake. To evaluate the environmental and temporal drivers leading to the observed toxicity, PST content at the two sites was examined in detail. There were distinct differences in the total PST content, filament nutrient, filament chlorophyll, and relationship to environmental drivers between the sites, as well as distinct differences in the total PST content measured using different analytical techniques. A multivariate model containing site, temperature, and filament chlorophyll explained 85% of the variation in PSTs observed over the growing season. This work emphasizes the importance of proper site selection and choice of analytical technique in the development of monitoring programs to protect lake users from the occurrence of benthic cyanobacteria toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effect of Light and Temperature on the Production of Saxitoxins in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium that can tolerate a wide range of light and temperature. Due to climatic changes, the interaction between light and temperature is studied in aquatic systems, but no study has addressed the effect of both variables [...] Read more.
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium that can tolerate a wide range of light and temperature. Due to climatic changes, the interaction between light and temperature is studied in aquatic systems, but no study has addressed the effect of both variables on the saxitoxins production. This study evaluated the combined effect of light and temperature on saxitoxins production and cellular quota in C. raciborskii. Experiments were performed with three C. raciborskii strains in batch cultures under six light intensities (10, 40, 60, 100, 150, and 500 μmol of photons m−2 s−1) and four temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30 °C). The growth of C. raciborskii strains was limited at lower temperatures and the maximum growth rates were obtained under higher light combined with temperatures equal or above 20 °C, depending on the strain. In general, growth was highest at 30 °C at the lower light intensities and equally high at 25 °C and 30 °C under higher light. Highest saxitoxins concentration and cell-quota occurred at 25 °C under high light intensities, but were much lower at 30 °C. Hence, increased temperatures combined with sufficient light will lead to higher C. raciborskii biomass, but blooms could become less toxic in tropical regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Accumulation and Elimination Dynamics of the Hydroxybenzoate Saxitoxin Analogues in Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110428
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by the ingestion of seafood containing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which are naturally produced by marine dinoflagellates and accumulate in shellfish during algae blooms. Novel PST, designated as hydroxybenzoate analogues (also known as [...] Read more.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by the ingestion of seafood containing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which are naturally produced by marine dinoflagellates and accumulate in shellfish during algae blooms. Novel PST, designated as hydroxybenzoate analogues (also known as GC toxins), was relatively recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains worldwide. However, to date, there have been no studies examining their accumulation in shellfish. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to G. catenatum for five days and then exposed to a non-toxic diet for 24 h, to investigate the toxin’s accumulation/elimination dynamics. As determined by UHPLC-HILIC-MS/MS, the hydroxybenzoate analogues, GC1 to GC6, comprised 41% of the algae toxin profile and only 9% in mussels. Elimination of GC toxins after 24 h was not evident. This study highlights that a relevant fraction of PST in mussels are not routinely analysed in monitoring programs and that there is a need to better understand the toxicological potential of the hydroxybenzoate analogues, in order to properly address the risk of G. catenatum blooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco)
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent alkaloids of microalgal and cyanobacterial origin, with worldwide distribution. Over the last 20 years, the number of poisoning incidents has declined as a result of the implementation of legislation and monitoring programs based on bivalves. In the [...] Read more.
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent alkaloids of microalgal and cyanobacterial origin, with worldwide distribution. Over the last 20 years, the number of poisoning incidents has declined as a result of the implementation of legislation and monitoring programs based on bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 98 samples from 23 different species belonging to benthic and subtidal organisms, such as echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves, and gastropods. The sampling locations were Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago), and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed using post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detection method. Our main goal was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. After reporting a total of 59 positive results for PSTs with 14 new vectors identified, we verified that some of the amounts exceeded the limit value established in the EU. These results suggest that routine monitoring of saxitoxin and its analogs should be extended to more potential vectors other than bivalves, including other edible organisms, for a better protection of public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted [...] Read more.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies. Exposure estimates were based on mouse bioassays except in one study. A significant relationship between exposure to PSTs and severity of symptoms was established by ordinal modelling. The critical minimal dose with a probability higher than 10% of showing symptoms is 0.37 µg STX eq./kg b.w. This means that 10% of the individuals exposed to this dose would have symptoms (without considering the severity of the symptoms). This dose is four-fold lower than the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2009) in the region of 1.5 μg STX eq./kg b.w. This work provides critical doses that could be used as point of departure to update the acute reference dose for STX. This is the first time a dose-symptoms model could be built for marine toxins using epidemiological data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle Fatal Canine Intoxications Linked to the Presence of Saxitoxins in Stranded Marine Organisms Following Winter Storm Activity
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
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Abstract
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in [...] Read more.
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin. Toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) were detected and quantified using two independent chemical testing methods in samples of all three marine types, with concentrations over 14,000 µg saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg found in one starfish sample. Further evidence for PSP intoxication of the dogs was obtained with the positive identification of PSP toxins in a vomited crab sample from one deceased dog and in gastrointestinal samples collected post mortem from a second affected dog. Together, this is the first report providing evidence of starfish being implicated in a PSP intoxication case and the first report of PSP in canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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