Next Article in Journal
Isolation and Characterization of Poecistasin, an Anti-Thrombotic Antistasin-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Leech Poecilobdella manillensis
Previous Article in Journal
Aptamers and Aptasensors for Highly Specific Recognition and Sensitive Detection of Marine Biotoxins: Recent Advances and Perspectives
Previous Article in Special Issue
Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110428

Accumulation and Elimination Dynamics of the Hydroxybenzoate Saxitoxin Analogues in Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

1
IPMA—Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Av. Brasília, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal
2
CCMAR—Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3
Biology Department and CESAM, Aveiro University, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [975 KB, uploaded 26 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by the ingestion of seafood containing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which are naturally produced by marine dinoflagellates and accumulate in shellfish during algae blooms. Novel PST, designated as hydroxybenzoate analogues (also known as GC toxins), was relatively recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains worldwide. However, to date, there have been no studies examining their accumulation in shellfish. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to G. catenatum for five days and then exposed to a non-toxic diet for 24 h, to investigate the toxin’s accumulation/elimination dynamics. As determined by UHPLC-HILIC-MS/MS, the hydroxybenzoate analogues, GC1 to GC6, comprised 41% of the algae toxin profile and only 9% in mussels. Elimination of GC toxins after 24 h was not evident. This study highlights that a relevant fraction of PST in mussels are not routinely analysed in monitoring programs and that there is a need to better understand the toxicological potential of the hydroxybenzoate analogues, in order to properly address the risk of G. catenatum blooms. View Full-Text
Keywords: saxitoxin; shellfish metabolism; paralytic shellfish poisoning; harmful algal blooms saxitoxin; shellfish metabolism; paralytic shellfish poisoning; harmful algal blooms
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Reis Costa, P.; Braga, A.C.; Turner, A.D. Accumulation and Elimination Dynamics of the Hydroxybenzoate Saxitoxin Analogues in Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Toxins 2018, 10, 428.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top