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Toxins 2018, 10(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040141

Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans

Risk Assessment Department, ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety), 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
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Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Abstract

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies. Exposure estimates were based on mouse bioassays except in one study. A significant relationship between exposure to PSTs and severity of symptoms was established by ordinal modelling. The critical minimal dose with a probability higher than 10% of showing symptoms is 0.37 µg STX eq./kg b.w. This means that 10% of the individuals exposed to this dose would have symptoms (without considering the severity of the symptoms). This dose is four-fold lower than the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2009) in the region of 1.5 μg STX eq./kg b.w. This work provides critical doses that could be used as point of departure to update the acute reference dose for STX. This is the first time a dose-symptoms model could be built for marine toxins using epidemiological data. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine biotoxins; PSP; saxitoxin; STX; dose-response; ordinal modelling marine biotoxins; PSP; saxitoxin; STX; dose-response; ordinal modelling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Arnich, N.; Thébault, A. Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans. Toxins 2018, 10, 141.

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