Next Article in Journal
Autophagy and Apoptosis Interact to Modulate T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells
Previous Article in Journal
The Individual and Combined Effects of the Cyanotoxins, Anatoxin-a and Microcystin-LR, on the Growth, Toxin Production, and Nitrogen Fixation of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Algae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Combined Effect of Light and Temperature on the Production of Saxitoxins in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains
Open AccessArticle

Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake

1
Department of Chemistry, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010044
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have experienced unexplained health issues. Microseira wollei (basionym Lyngbya wollei) was found at two of 15 sites in Butterfield Lake and analyzed for microcystins, anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). Only PSTs and trace levels of anatoxin-a were detected in these samples. This is the first published report of PSTs within a New York State lake. To evaluate the environmental and temporal drivers leading to the observed toxicity, PST content at the two sites was examined in detail. There were distinct differences in the total PST content, filament nutrient, filament chlorophyll, and relationship to environmental drivers between the sites, as well as distinct differences in the total PST content measured using different analytical techniques. A multivariate model containing site, temperature, and filament chlorophyll explained 85% of the variation in PSTs observed over the growing season. This work emphasizes the importance of proper site selection and choice of analytical technique in the development of monitoring programs to protect lake users from the occurrence of benthic cyanobacteria toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: freshwater cyanotoxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; Microseira; Lyngbya freshwater cyanotoxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; Microseira; Lyngbya
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, Z.J.; Martin, R.M.; Wei, B.; Wilhelm, S.W.; Boyer, G.L. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake. Toxins 2019, 11, 44.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop