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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010044

Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake

1
Department of Chemistry, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
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Abstract

Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have experienced unexplained health issues. Microseira wollei (basionym Lyngbya wollei) was found at two of 15 sites in Butterfield Lake and analyzed for microcystins, anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). Only PSTs and trace levels of anatoxin-a were detected in these samples. This is the first published report of PSTs within a New York State lake. To evaluate the environmental and temporal drivers leading to the observed toxicity, PST content at the two sites was examined in detail. There were distinct differences in the total PST content, filament nutrient, filament chlorophyll, and relationship to environmental drivers between the sites, as well as distinct differences in the total PST content measured using different analytical techniques. A multivariate model containing site, temperature, and filament chlorophyll explained 85% of the variation in PSTs observed over the growing season. This work emphasizes the importance of proper site selection and choice of analytical technique in the development of monitoring programs to protect lake users from the occurrence of benthic cyanobacteria toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: freshwater cyanotoxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; Microseira; Lyngbya freshwater cyanotoxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; Microseira; Lyngbya
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Smith, Z.J.; Martin, R.M.; Wei, B.; Wilhelm, S.W.; Boyer, G.L. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake. Toxins 2019, 11, 44.

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