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Open AccessArticle

Combined Effect of Light and Temperature on the Production of Saxitoxins in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains

1
Laboratory of Ecology and Physiology of Phytoplankton, Department of Plant Biology, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, Brazil
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 05508000 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010038
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium that can tolerate a wide range of light and temperature. Due to climatic changes, the interaction between light and temperature is studied in aquatic systems, but no study has addressed the effect of both variables on the saxitoxins production. This study evaluated the combined effect of light and temperature on saxitoxins production and cellular quota in C. raciborskii. Experiments were performed with three C. raciborskii strains in batch cultures under six light intensities (10, 40, 60, 100, 150, and 500 μmol of photons m−2 s−1) and four temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30 °C). The growth of C. raciborskii strains was limited at lower temperatures and the maximum growth rates were obtained under higher light combined with temperatures equal or above 20 °C, depending on the strain. In general, growth was highest at 30 °C at the lower light intensities and equally high at 25 °C and 30 °C under higher light. Highest saxitoxins concentration and cell-quota occurred at 25 °C under high light intensities, but were much lower at 30 °C. Hence, increased temperatures combined with sufficient light will lead to higher C. raciborskii biomass, but blooms could become less toxic in tropical regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; saxitoxins; intraspecific variability cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; saxitoxins; intraspecific variability
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Mesquita, M.C.B.; Lürling, M.; Dorr, F.; Pinto, E.; Marinho, M.M. Combined Effect of Light and Temperature on the Production of Saxitoxins in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains. Toxins 2019, 11, 38.

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