Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Agrochemicals and Food Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2023) | Viewed by 15762

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, University of the Peloponnese, Kalamata Campus, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: integrated pest management of insect; biological control; toxicology; insecticide resistance
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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Patras, Nea Ktiria, 30200 Mesolonghi, Greece
Interests: plant parasitic nematodes; entomopathogenic nematodes; plant virus-vector nematodes; plant-nematode interactions; insect-nematode interactions; biological control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Industrial and Fodder Crops, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”—NAGREF, Volos, Greece
Interests: crop protection; aphid-plant interactions; aphid-virus interactions; insecticide resistance; population genetics of aphid and lepidopteran pests

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is designed to publish high-quality review papers in Toxics. The issue will highlight a diverse set of topics related to the effects of pesticides on insects and other Arthropods. The scope of this Special Issue includes but is not limited to the lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides, their impact at the population and/or community level, pesticides’ toxic effects, and ecotoxicology. We are particularly interested in manuscripts that include research articles, review articles, short communications, and opinion articles related to the extended topic of ‘Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods’.

Dr. Panagiotis Skouras
Dr. Eirini Karanastasi
Dr. John T. Margaritopoulos
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ecotoxicology
  • lethal effect
  • sublethal effect
  • long-term toxicity
  • risk assessment
  • pesticides
  • IPM

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 5078 KiB  
Article
ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 Pathways Respond to DNA Damage Induced by Movento® 240SC and Envidor® 240SC Keto-Enol Insecticides in the Germarium of Drosophila melanogaster
by Berenyce González-Marín, María Elena Calderón-Segura and Jeff Sekelsky
Toxics 2023, 11(9), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11090754 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
DNA damage response (DDR) pathways in keto-enol genotoxicity have not been characterized, and few studies have reported genotoxic effects in non-target organisms. The present study shows that concentrations of 11.2, 22.4, 37.3 mg/L of Movento® 240SC and 12.3, 24.6, 41.1 mg/L of [...] Read more.
DNA damage response (DDR) pathways in keto-enol genotoxicity have not been characterized, and few studies have reported genotoxic effects in non-target organisms. The present study shows that concentrations of 11.2, 22.4, 37.3 mg/L of Movento® 240SC and 12.3, 24.6, 41.1 mg/L of Envidor® 240SC for 72 h oral exposure induced DSBs by significantly increasing the percentage of γH2AV expression in regions 2b and 3 from the germarium of wild type females of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R, compared to the control group (0.0 mg/L of insecticides), via confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The comparison between both insecticides’ reveals that only the Envidor® 240SC induces concentration-dependent DNA damage, as well as structural changes in the germarium. We determined that the DDR induced by Movento® 240SC depends on the activation of the ATMtefu, Chk1grp and Chk2lok kinases by significantly increasing the percentage of expression of γH2AV in regions 2b and 3 of the germarium, and that ATRmei−29D and p53dp53 kinases only respond at the highest concentration of 37.3 mg/L of Movento® 240SC. With the Envidor® 240SC insecticide, we determined that the DDR depends on the activation of the ATRmei−29D/Chk1grp and ATMtefu/Chk2lok kinases, and p53dp53 by significantly increasing the percentage of expression of γH2AV in the germarium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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11 pages, 2492 KiB  
Article
Toxicity and Influence of Sublethal Exposure to Sulfoxaflor on the Aphidophagous Predator Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
by Panagiotis J. Skouras, Eirini Karanastasi, Vasilis Demopoulos, Marina Mprokaki, George J. Stathas and John T. Margaritopoulos
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060533 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), the variegated ladybug, is a predator of many insect pests, especially aphids. Sulfoxaflor is a chemical insecticide that can be used to control many sap-feeding insect pests, for instance, plant bugs and aphids, as an alternative to neonicotinoids in different [...] Read more.
Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), the variegated ladybug, is a predator of many insect pests, especially aphids. Sulfoxaflor is a chemical insecticide that can be used to control many sap-feeding insect pests, for instance, plant bugs and aphids, as an alternative to neonicotinoids in different crops. To improve the combination of the H. variegata and sulfoxaflor in an IPM (integrated pest management) program, we studied the ecological toxicity of the insecticide to the coccinellid predator at sublethal and lethal doses. We examined the influence of sulfoxaflor on larvae of H. variegata using exposure doses of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 (maximum recommended field rate (MRFR)), and 96 ng a.i. per insect. In a 15-day toxicity test, we observed decreased adult emergence percentage and survival, as well as an increased hazard quotient. The LD50 (dose causing 50% mortality) of H. variegata due to sulfoxaflor decreased from 97.03 to 35.97 ng a.i. per insect. The total effect assessment indicated that sulfoxaflor could be grouped as slightly harmful for H. variegata. Additionally, most of the life table parameters were significantly decreased after exposure to sulfoxaflor. Overall, the results present a negative influence of sulfoxaflor on H. variegata when applied at the recommended field dose for controlling aphids in Greece, which demonstrates that this insecticide may only be employed with care when used in IPM programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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20 pages, 3277 KiB  
Article
Novel Essential Oils Blend as a Repellent and Toxic Agent against Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes
by Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Rajappan Chandra Satish Kumar, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim, Marcello Nicoletti, V. Sathiyamoorthy, Sabarathinam Sarvesh, Chinnasamy Ragavendran and Marimuthu Govindarajan
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060517 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2788
Abstract
Bio-insecticidal research has focused on long-term vector control using essential oils (EOs). This study examined the larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, and repellent properties of five medicinal herb-based EO formulations (EOFs) on mosquitoes that are vectors of dengue, filariasis, and malaria. EOFs were significantly more toxic [...] Read more.
Bio-insecticidal research has focused on long-term vector control using essential oils (EOs). This study examined the larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, and repellent properties of five medicinal herb-based EO formulations (EOFs) on mosquitoes that are vectors of dengue, filariasis, and malaria. EOFs were significantly more toxic to the larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti with LC50 = 9.23, 12.85, and 14.46 ppm, as well with 10.22, 11.39, and 12.81 ppm, with oviposition active indexes of −0.84, −0.95, and −0.92, respectively. Oviposition-deterrent repellence was found in 91.39%, 94.83%, and 96.09%. EOs and N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were prepared at various concentrations for time duration repellent bioassays (6.25–100 ppm). Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were monitored for 300, 270, and 180 min, respectively. At 100 ppm, EOs and DEET had comparable repellence in terms of test durations. EOF’s primary components d-limonene (12.9%), 2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl, (Z) (12.2%), acetic acid, phenylmethyl ester (19.6%), verbenol (7.6%), and benzyl benzoate (17.4%) may be combined to make a mosquito larvicidal and repellant equivalent to synthetic repellent lotions. In the molecular dynamics simulations, limonene (−6.1 kcal/mol) and benzyl benzoate (−7.5 kcal/mol) had a positive chemical association with DEET (−6.3 kcal/mol) and interacted with the OBP binding pocket with high affinity and stability. This research will help local herbal product manufacturers and the cosmetics industry in developing 100% herbal insect repellent products to combat mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, malaria, and filariasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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16 pages, 3144 KiB  
Article
Detect Cytochrome C Oxidase- and Glutathione-S-Transferase-Mediated Detoxification in a Permethrin-Resistant Population of Lygus lineolaris
by Yu-Cheng Zhu, Yuzhe Du, Jianxiu Yao, Xiaofen F. Liu and Yanhua Wang
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040342 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Frequent sprays on cotton prompted resistance development in the tarnished plant bug (TPB). Knowledge of global gene regulation is highly desirable to better understand resistance mechanisms and develop molecular tools for monitoring and managing resistance. Novel microarray expressions of 6688 genes showed 3080 [...] Read more.
Frequent sprays on cotton prompted resistance development in the tarnished plant bug (TPB). Knowledge of global gene regulation is highly desirable to better understand resistance mechanisms and develop molecular tools for monitoring and managing resistance. Novel microarray expressions of 6688 genes showed 3080 significantly up- or down-regulated genes in permethrin-treated TPBs. Among the 1543 up-regulated genes, 255 code for 39 different enzymes, and 15 of these participate in important pathways and metabolic detoxification. Oxidase is the most abundant and over-expressed enzyme. Others included dehydrogenases, synthases, reductases, and transferases. Pathway analysis revealed several oxidative phosphorylations associated with 37 oxidases and 23 reductases. One glutathione-S-transferase (GST LL_2285) participated in three pathways, including drug and xenobiotics metabolisms and pesticide detoxification. Therefore, a novel resistance mechanism of over-expressions of oxidases, along with a GST gene, was revealed in permethrin-treated TPB. Reductases, dehydrogenases, and others may also indirectly contribute to permethrin detoxification, while two common detoxification enzymes, P450 and esterase, played less role in the degradation of permethrin since none was associated with the detoxification pathway. Another potential novel finding from this study and our previous studies confirmed multiple/cross resistances in the same TPB population with a particular set of genes for different insecticide classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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18 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Fluxametamide Resistance and Fitness Costs in Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
by Debashis Roy, Sujan Biswas, Sukamal Sarkar, Samrat Adhikary, Gautam Chakraborty, Pijush Kanti Sarkar, Laila A. Al-Shuraym, Samy Sayed, Ahmed Gaber and Akbar Hossain
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040307 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most devastating invasive polyphagous pests, which has attracted recent global attention by developing resistance to various insecticidal active ingredients with independent mode of action. Fluxametamide, a newly commercialized isoxazoline insecticide, is exceptionally [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most devastating invasive polyphagous pests, which has attracted recent global attention by developing resistance to various insecticidal active ingredients with independent mode of action. Fluxametamide, a newly commercialized isoxazoline insecticide, is exceptionally selective towards several lepidopteran pests. The present study aimed to evaluate resistance risk in FAW to fluxametamide and the fitness costs associated with fluxametamide resistance. A field-collected and genetically mixed population of FAW was artificially selected through continuous exposure to fluxametamide. After successive selection of 10 generations, there was no obvious increase in the LC50 (RF: 2.63-fold). The realized heritability (h2) of fluxametamide resistance was estimated as h2 = 0.084 using a quantitative genetic approach. Compared with the susceptible F0 strain, the Flux-SEL (F10) strain of FAW displayed no significant cross-resistance to broflanilide, chlorantraniliprole, fipronil, indoxacarb, lambda cyhalothrin, spinetoram, and tetraniliprole, except emamectin benzoate (RF: 2.08-fold). Increased activity of glutathione S-transferase (ratio 1.94) was observed in the Flux-SEL (F10) strain of FAW, while the cytochrome P450 and carboxylesterase activities were not altered. The fluxametamide-selection significantly affected the development and reproductive traits of FAW with a lower R0, T and relative fitness (Rf = 0.353). The results alluded that the risk of fluxametamide resistance evolution in FAW is relatively lower; however, proactive implementation of resistance management approaches should be done to maintain the field efficacy of fluxametamide against FAW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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26 pages, 4903 KiB  
Article
A Sublethal Concentration of Sulfoxaflor Has Minimal Impact on Buff-Tailed Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Locomotor Behaviour under Aversive Conditioning
by Laura James, Andrew M. Reynolds, Ian R. Mellor and T. G. Emyr Davies
Toxics 2023, 11(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030279 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Pesticide exposure has been cited as a key threat to insect pollinators. Notably, a diverse range of potential sublethal effects have been reported in bee species, with a particular focus on effects due to exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides. Here, a purpose-built thermal–visual arena [...] Read more.
Pesticide exposure has been cited as a key threat to insect pollinators. Notably, a diverse range of potential sublethal effects have been reported in bee species, with a particular focus on effects due to exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides. Here, a purpose-built thermal–visual arena was used in a series of pilot experiments to assess the potential impact of approximate sublethal concentrations of the next generation sulfoximine insecticide sulfoxaflor (5 and 50 ppb) and the neonicotinoid insecticides thiacloprid (500 ppb) and thiamethoxam (10 ppb), on the walking trajectory, navigation and learning abilities of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax) when subjected to an aversive conditioning task. The results suggest that only thiamethoxam prevents forager bees from improving in key training parameters (speed and distanced travelled) within the thermal visual arena. Power law analyses further revealed that a speed–curvature power law, previously reported as being present in the walking trajectories of bumblebees, is potentially disrupted under thiamethoxam (10 ppb) exposure, but not under sulfoxaflor or thiacloprid exposure. The pilot assay described provides a novel tool with which to identify subtle sublethal pesticide impacts, and their potential causes, on forager bees, that current ecotoxicological tests are not designed to assess. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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12 pages, 2911 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pesticides on the Survival of Shredder Nectopsyche sp. (Trichoptera) and Leaf Decomposition Rates in Tropical Andes: A Microcosm Approach
by Christian Villamarín, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Constanza Carvajal-Rebolledo and Blanca Ríos-Touma
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120720 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Andean streams are becoming increasingly impacted by agricultural activities. However, the potential effects of pesticides on their aquatic biodiversity remain unassessed. In order to address this knowledge gap, we conducted an experiment over 37 days in microcosms to assess the effect of two [...] Read more.
Andean streams are becoming increasingly impacted by agricultural activities. However, the potential effects of pesticides on their aquatic biodiversity remain unassessed. In order to address this knowledge gap, we conducted an experiment over 37 days in microcosms to assess the effect of two pesticides commonly used in Ecuador (Engeo and Chlorpyrifos) on the aquatic insect Nectopsyche sp. (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) at 0, 0.10, 5 and 10 μg L−1 concentrations. The highest concentration corresponds to the maximum concentration allowed by the Equatorian legislation. We assessed insect mortality every 24 h, with leaf litter decomposition rates of organic matter determined by deploying Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) dry leaf packs in the microcosms. We found significant mortality of Nectopsyche sp. at high concentrations of Chlorpyrifos, whereas leaf litter was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. We conclude that the environmental legislation of Ecuador might not be fully protecting aquatic biodiversity from pesticide pollution. Further studies are needed, especially when considering that the maximum permitted concentration is very likely exceeded in many areas of the country. We also suggest that the maximum permissible values should be reviewed, considering each pesticide individually. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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14 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
Impact of Imidacloprid Resistance on the Demographic Traits and Expressions of Associated Genes in Aphis gossypii Glover
by Farman Ullah, Xiao Xu, Hina Gul, Ali Güncan, Muhammad Hafeez, Xiwu Gao and Dunlun Song
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110658 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticides to control sap-sucking insect pests, including Aphis gossypii. The intensive application of chemical insecticides to A. gossypii led to the development of resistance against several insecticides, including imidacloprid. Therefore, it is crucial [...] Read more.
Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticides to control sap-sucking insect pests, including Aphis gossypii. The intensive application of chemical insecticides to A. gossypii led to the development of resistance against several insecticides, including imidacloprid. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the association between imidacloprid resistance and the fitness of A. gossypii to limit the spread of the resistant population under field contexts. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to comprehensively investigate the fitness of imidacloprid resistant (ImR) and susceptible strains (SS) of melon aphids. Results showed that ImR aphids have prolonged developmental stages and decreased longevity, fecundity, and reproductive days. The key demographic parameters (r, λ, and R0) were significantly reduced in ImR strain compared to SS aphids. Additionally, the molecular mechanism for fitness costs was investigated by comparing the expression profile of juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT), Vitellogenin (Vg), ecdysone receptor (EcR), and ultraspiracle protein (USP) supposed to be associated with development and reproduction in insects. The results of RT-qPCR showed that EcR, JHBP, JHAMT, JHEH, and Vg genes were downregulated, while USP was statistically the same in ImR A. gossypii compared to the SS strain. Together, these results provide in-depth information about the occurrence and magnitude of fitness costs against imidacloprid resistance that could help manage the evolution and spread of A. gossypii resistance in field populations Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Pesticides on Insects and Other Arthropods)
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