Special Issue "Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Attila Bai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business Economics, Institute of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Interests: Economic evaluation of biomass for energy use, economics of solar energy, complex energy systems, energy plants and plantations, feasibility of renewable energy plants, investment analysis
Prof. Dr. Péter Balogh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Economics and Business, Institute of Sectoral Economics and Methodology, Department of Research Methodology and Statistics, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Interests: Economic evaluation of renewable energies, energy plants and plantations, social and marketing aspects of renewable energy, statistical and econometric analysis of renewable energy sources

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide, a siginificant part of the biomass has been converted into heat energy, electricity, or transport fuel. The importance of other renewables is also increasing and economic feasibility can be regarded a determinant factor. In general, it can be stated that the long-term spread of renewable energy is only expected if the product is worthwhile to produce, market and use. In the case of any losses suffered by any actor in the market, in the absence of subsidies the vertical relationship is interrupted, and so the interest of all actors must be ensured. A subsidy is justified by the macroeconomic benefits of the public finances (environmental protection, import substitution, employment). In addition, renewables should be cheaper and more accessible than competing fossil energy sources, and should also ensure that the investment needed to operate is recovered within a reasonable period of time.

This special issue will particularly focus on the economic benefits of renewable and sustainable energy, which may include:

  • Biomass energy (combustion, densification, biogas, transport fuels)
  • Solar, geothermal, hydraulic, ocean, wind energy
  • Energy plants, plantations, varieties, energy use of organic wastes and by-products
  • Energy efficiency
  • Complex energy systems, local self-sufficiency in energy supply
  • Case studies, investment analysis
  • Economic effects of energy policy and of environmental effects

Although the special issue welcomes papers especially on the economic side of any renewable energy systems, any related topics with economic evaluation are also encouraged, provided that they are within the context of the special issue. Theoretical and empirical studies are both welcome, if they include economic models, or economic analysis.

We would like to encourage researchers to publish their original experimental and theoretical results in our special issue, in any renewable energy topic with economic background.

Prof. Dr. Attila Bai
Prof. Dr. Péter Balogh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Economic modelling
  • Renewable technologies
  • Biomass
  • Legislation
  • Energy systems

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of International Commodity Trade on Conventional Biofuels Production
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072626 (registering DOI) - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
The study gives an overview of raw materials and biofuel generation, markets, production, and regulation. The major aim of this study was to reveal the impacts of biofuel production on international commodity trade. According to the results of the country-level regressions, the export [...] Read more.
The study gives an overview of raw materials and biofuel generation, markets, production, and regulation. The major aim of this study was to reveal the impacts of biofuel production on international commodity trade. According to the results of the country-level regressions, the export of corn and sugar cane have generally negatively impacted ethanol production. This effect was positive at the global level which indicates that some of the imported raw materials are used for ethanol production. Although the explanatory power of the models was relatively high (from 0.35 (EU) to 0.94 (USA)), none of models proved to be significant, even at the 10% level. These values were higher for the biodiesel models (from 0.53 (USA) to 0.97 (Brazil)) and the EU model results were significant at the 5% level. The export of raw materials had a positive impact on biodiesel production. This implies that some part of the biodiesel was produced from the imported raw materials. The export of processed products (different oils) had a negative impact on biodiesel production, as they are normally used for other purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change Policies on the Market for Forest Industrial Residues
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051787 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
As part of the Pan-Canadian Framework (PCF) on Clean Growth and Climate Change, the Government of Canada (GoC) introduced carbon pricing and is in the process of developing a Clean Fuel (CF) Standard. Both policies are key elements of the PCF and aim [...] Read more.
As part of the Pan-Canadian Framework (PCF) on Clean Growth and Climate Change, the Government of Canada (GoC) introduced carbon pricing and is in the process of developing a Clean Fuel (CF) Standard. Both policies are key elements of the PCF and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the use of lower carbon fuels, including bioenergy. Carbon pricing and the CF Standard are expected to increase the demand for biomass feedstocks, possibly threatening feedstock availability for existing forest industrial residues users, including composite panel manufacturers. To assess the potential impact of carbon pricing and the CF Standard on Canadian composite panel producers, a Monte Carlo-based model was developed to estimate possible increases in feedstock price-points that composite panel manufacturers may face as a result of increases in bioenergy consumption. Results suggest that the composite panel industry may be negatively impacted in the long-term (2030) by the relative price increase of fossil fuels covered by carbon pricing and additional revenues for biofuel suppliers from CF Standard credits, assuming no other adjustments to the market. Although these results are preliminary in that the analysis excludes external market factors that could influence the outcome, there is evidence that such policies have the potential to generate supply risks for the Canadian composite panel industry without careful consideration of the associated externalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Citizenship and Energy Efficiency in Four European Countries (Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Hungary)
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031154 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
In our paper we aim at analysing the social factors influencing energy use and energy efficiency in four different European countries, using the data from the PENNY research (Psychological social and financial barriers to energy efficiency—Horizon 2020). As a part of the project, [...] Read more.
In our paper we aim at analysing the social factors influencing energy use and energy efficiency in four different European countries, using the data from the PENNY research (Psychological social and financial barriers to energy efficiency—Horizon 2020). As a part of the project, a survey was conducted in four European countries (Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Hungary) to compare environmental self-identity, values and attitudes toward the energy use of European citizens. Previous research has examined the effect of a number of factors that influence individuals’ energy efficiency, and attitudes to energy use. The novelty of our paper that presents four attitudes regarding energy use and environmental consciousness and compares them across four different regions of Europe. It analyses the differences between the four attitudes among the examined countries and tries to understand the factors explaining the differences using linear regression models of the most important socio-demographic variables. Finally, we present a typology of energy use attitudes: four groups, the members of which are basically characterised by essentially different attitudes regarding energy use. A better understanding of the diversity of energy use may assist in making more accurate policy decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
Open AccessArticle
Can Energy Be a “Local Product” Again? Hungarian Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031118 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
The energy sector is undergoing radical changes, and this transition is expected to accelerate all over the world over the coming years. In our recent research, we conducted a questionnaire survey at different levels and asked the experts in the area, the businesses [...] Read more.
The energy sector is undergoing radical changes, and this transition is expected to accelerate all over the world over the coming years. In our recent research, we conducted a questionnaire survey at different levels and asked the experts in the area, the businesses involved in the issue, the operators and maintainers of existing systems, as well as the potential consumers and end users, about their knowledge and intentions related to renewable energy sources. Our empirical research can be divided into three parts. Our exploratory research was based on expert interviews, which show that the growing importance of localization is unquestionable, but the economic, social, and existing infrastructures impose significant barriers to the widespread adoption of certain technologies. Regarding the population survey, we see that the skepticism experienced in previous years has been replaced by a kind of expectation reflecting openness. In addition, it can be stated that in many cases technological development is faster than the possibility of its adaptation. Our gender tests significantly support men’s better knowledge of the subject and the fact that biomass (despite its major importance) is not one of the most known renewable energy sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Solar Energy Potential and Its Ecological-Economic Efficiency: Azerbaijan Case
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031116 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
The paper investigates resource, technical, economic and market potential of solar energy and its ecology and economic efficiency in Azerbaijan. The authors have distinguished six regions in the territory of Azerbaijan with different levels of solar radiation. The resource potential of the regions [...] Read more.
The paper investigates resource, technical, economic and market potential of solar energy and its ecology and economic efficiency in Azerbaijan. The authors have distinguished six regions in the territory of Azerbaijan with different levels of solar radiation. The resource potential of the regions is calculated by the AutoCad program. As well, technical and economic potential was calculated by special methodology. The authors concluded that Azerbaijan has so much solar energy resource potential and it is possible to replace traditional carbon types of energy with solar energy, even by using the modern technical equipment. However, it is impossible because of economic disadvantages and very low electricity prices. The price of 1 kWh electricity from carbon fuels is several times cheaper than 1 kWh electricity from solar energy. That is why it is difficult to attract investments to develop solar power. There is a necessity to develop a new electricity price policy to stimulate attractiveness of solar power for households and industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management System for Hanoi (Vietnam)—Why to Choose the ‘Waste-to-Energy’ Concept
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031085 - 03 Feb 2020
Abstract
According to decision no. 491/QD-TTg signed in 2018 by the Vietnamese Prime Minister approving adjustments to the national strategy for the general management of solid waste until 2025 with a vision toward 2050, Vietnam has committed itself to move toward collecting, transporting, and [...] Read more.
According to decision no. 491/QD-TTg signed in 2018 by the Vietnamese Prime Minister approving adjustments to the national strategy for the general management of solid waste until 2025 with a vision toward 2050, Vietnam has committed itself to move toward collecting, transporting, and treating 100% of non-household waste by 2025 and 85% of waste discharged by households by 2025. This paper aims to determine which is the best sustainable solid waste management system out of those that have been formulated by World Bank experts for Hanoi until 2030 for implementing the national strategy. The paper compares four distinct solid waste management enhancement alternatives, namely, “Improving the current system for waste collection and transportation”; “Reducing, reusing, and recycling waste at source”; “Mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants for classifying, composting, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for the cement industry”; and “MBT plants for classifying, composting, and RDF for waste-to-energy/incineration plants”. The comparison was made using an analytic hierarchy process. As a result, the research indicated that “MBT plants for classifying, composting, and RDF for waste-to-energy/incineration plants” has the highest ranking in terms of a sustainable solution for the municipal solid waste management system. Therefore, it should be applied for managing the current situation in Hanoi. At the same time, the sustainable development of the system must seek to decrease the waste-to-energy ratio continuously and significantly through the planned reuse of materials that can be recycled to industry. According to the literature, in major cities in Asia and Africa, development programs are moving toward waste-to-energy solutions. The EU’s circular innovation programs and action plan may be in the opposite direction to this trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Technical and Economic Assessment of Micro-Cogeneration Systems for Residential Applications
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031074 - 03 Feb 2020
Abstract
The benefits of cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) of large power systems are well proven. The technical and economic viability of micro-cogeneration systems is discussed in this paper as it compares to the separate production of electricity and heat. A case [...] Read more.
The benefits of cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) of large power systems are well proven. The technical and economic viability of micro-cogeneration systems is discussed in this paper as it compares to the separate production of electricity and heat. A case study for an individual household is also provided to better understand the benefits of small power cogeneration from renewable energy sources. Two micro-CHP systems are considered for analysis: the first with Stirling engine, and the second with Rankine Organic Cycle. The reference scenario is an individual household with a gas boiler and electricity from the public network. The results show that it is possible that the payback period for the micro-CHP from renewable energy sources will fall below the accepted average value (<15 years) without the support schemes. The economic and environmental benefits of small power cogeneration systems compared to the traditional scenario are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Communicating Renewable Energy in the National Action Plans of the Member States of the European Union
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030970 - 29 Jan 2020
Abstract
For implementing renewable energy policies it is necessary to convince the population of the appropriateness and usefulness of the ideas. The information provision needed for that requires the communication to be accessible and understandable to the target audience. This research examined the national [...] Read more.
For implementing renewable energy policies it is necessary to convince the population of the appropriateness and usefulness of the ideas. The information provision needed for that requires the communication to be accessible and understandable to the target audience. This research examined the national renewable energy action plans of the member states of the European Union. The online accessibility of these documents and their readability were examined using a simple accessibility test and the Flesch and Flesch–Kincaid readability tests. The paper also addresses the relationship between the culturally-determined power distance indices and the economic and developmental characteristics of the countries and the readability values of their samples. The results showed that the examined documents could be easily accessed, but the action plans of all the member states were difficult to read. The emerging pattern suggested that the text samples of the countries with higher power distances were harder to interpret. Nevertheless, no significant relationship was detected by the correlation analyses between the power distance indices and the Flesch and Flesch–Kincaid readability scores, while strong relationships were detected between the Human Development Index (HDI) data and the results of both readability tests in the group of countries with the highest power distance values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Electricity Balancing and Storage: Developing Input Parameters for the European Calculator for Concept Modeling
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030811 - 22 Jan 2020
Abstract
Despite the apparent stability of the electricity system from a consumer’s point of view, there is indeed significant effort exerted by network operators to guarantee the constancy of the electricity supply in order to meet demands any time. In the energy sector models [...] Read more.
Despite the apparent stability of the electricity system from a consumer’s point of view, there is indeed significant effort exerted by network operators to guarantee the constancy of the electricity supply in order to meet demands any time. In the energy sector models provide an important conceptual framework to generate a range of insight, examine the impacts of different scenarios and analyze the supply and demand of energy. This paper presents a user-oriented and transparent modeling concept of the European calculator, a tool for delineating emission and sustainable transformation pathways at European and member state levels. The model consists of several modules of different sectors, where the energy supply module includes sub-modules for electricity generation, hydrogen production and oil refinery. The energy storage requirement module investigates how new technologies can help the stability of the European electricity system with increasing renewables penetration, demand-side measures and decarbonization paths. The objective of this study is to introduce the concept of this module with the main logical steps, especially the input parameters, assumptions, the basic data of electricity trade and maximum energy storage potential levels. The article also introduces and explains the feasibility of the theoretical maximum gross electricity generation potential from variable renewable energy for the European Union including Switzerland, compared to the demand in 2040. According to the results the electricity systems in the future will need to show ever increasing flexibility in order to cope with variable renewable energy production on the supply side, and shifting patterns of electricity consumption on the demand side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic Feasibility Assessment of Grid-Connected PV Systems for Residential Buildings in Saudi Arabia—A Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010262 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper presents a techno-economic feasibility evaluation for a grid-connected photovoltaic energy conversion system on the rooftop of a typical residential building in Jeddah, one of the major cities in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, electric energy consumption is the highest in the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a techno-economic feasibility evaluation for a grid-connected photovoltaic energy conversion system on the rooftop of a typical residential building in Jeddah, one of the major cities in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, electric energy consumption is the highest in the domestic sector, with 48.1% of the total electricity consumption. As the power generation in Saudi Arabia mainly relies on conventional resources, environmental pollution and energy sustainability are major concerns. To minimize these issues, the Saudi government is in the process of maximizing the utilization of renewable energy resources for power generation. Investing in solar energy in Saudi Arabia is important because the country is witnessing a rapid increase in load demand, with annual growth rates of 6%. In this paper, the system advisor model software for renewable energy modeling has been utilized to perform a techno-economic feasibility analysis of a residential grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system, which is proposed for a typical apartment in Saudi Arabia, on the basis of various key performance indicators, namely: yield factor, capacity factor, performance ratio, levelized cost of energy, net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period. A sensitivity analysis that investigates the impact of varying techno-economic parameters on system performance and feasibility is also discussed. The size of the PV system for a typical Saudi Arabian apartment is estimated to be 12.25 kW. Results have shown that the proposed system can generate 87% of the electricity needs of an apartment. The technical analysis showed that the capacity factor and the performance ratio were 22% and 78% respectively. The levelized cost of energy and net present value revealed competitive figures of 0.0382 $/kWh and $4378, respectively. The investigations indicate that residential PV installations are an effective option for energy management in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Power Characteristics and Economic Analysis of Distributed Generation System Using Renewable Energy: Applied to Iron and Steel Plants
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6199; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226199 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
The intention of this paper is to respond to the increase in electric power demand and global environmental issues in iron and steel plants. In particular, the authors studied the characteristics of the power flow from a distributed generation (DG) system connected to [...] Read more.
The intention of this paper is to respond to the increase in electric power demand and global environmental issues in iron and steel plants. In particular, the authors studied the characteristics of the power flow from a distributed generation (DG) system connected to the electrical power system of a steel plant. In addition, the authors carried out an economic analysis of the DG system by calculating the capital investment cost that could convert the profit of the DG into a certain profit. The research was conducted based on the power system configuration and basic data of a steel plant in operation in Korea. To analyze the unconnected DG of the power system, a transmission voltage target was set, and the voltage characteristics of 22.9 and 6.6 kV systems were analyzed. The authors analyzed the connected DG system in terms of the effect of link location, power factor, and output power by case. The authors also studied the power loss variation in the output power of a DG system. Various simulations with MATLAB software and NPV (Net Present Value) and IRR (Internal Rate of Return) methods were run in an economic analysis to compare the case of not introducing an energy storage system (ESS), and the case of introducing an ESS in terms of comprehensive energy utilization. The results of the economic analysis indicated that the scenario with ESS is more economically advantageous, resulting from the peak power reduction effect and the evasion cost due to the elimination of the power generation operation of the peak load. Developed countries have established best available technology (BAT) standards and developed related practices to apply them to industrial plants, actively preparing for environmental issues in the future. In Korea and in some other countries, the application of distributed generation in conjunction with the steel plant sector will be effective for improving energy efficiency and responding to environmental issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Fundamentals for Fuel Production Management
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164449 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
An increase of needs for replacement of fossil fuels, and for mitigation of Carbon Dioxide emissions generated from fossil fuels inspires the search for new fuels based on renewable biological resources. It would be convenient if the biological component of the fuel required [...] Read more.
An increase of needs for replacement of fossil fuels, and for mitigation of Carbon Dioxide emissions generated from fossil fuels inspires the search for new fuels based on renewable biological resources. It would be convenient if the biological component of the fuel required as little as possible conversion operations in the production. The obvious response is an attempt to use unconverted, neat plant oils as a fuel for Diesel engines. The present paper is devoted to the experimental studies of the combustion process of neat rapeseed oil, and its mixtures with gasoline and ethanol as additional components of the mixtures. The investigation of combustion was carried out in a fixed volume combustion chamber equipped with a Common Rail injection system. It is shown that the instant of ignition, as well as time-dependence of heat emanation, are strongly dependent upon mixture composition. The results enable the design of mixture compositions that could serve as commercial fuel for Diesel engines. Such fuels are expected to fulfill the requirements for the sustainability of road transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Systems Optimization: Application to Hybrid Systems Photovoltaic Connected to Grid. A Mali Case Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082356 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Access to electricity and supplying reliable energy are the key elements that support local economic development and contribute to reducing poverty. Moreover, the problem of environmental protection can be considered as a factor of sustainable development. In response to these many challenges, appropriate [...] Read more.
Access to electricity and supplying reliable energy are the key elements that support local economic development and contribute to reducing poverty. Moreover, the problem of environmental protection can be considered as a factor of sustainable development. In response to these many challenges, appropriate national and regional policies, as well as mechanisms, have been implemented. In Mali, strong dependence on the importation of oil, growth in demand, and the low rate of electrification have pushed the highest authorities to think of diversified technological solutions like renewable energy for the satisfaction of energy demands, especially photovoltaics, for which the country has significant potential. The hybrid systems used is a compromise, because the emission rate of carbon dioxide emitted by thermal power plants must be reduced and limited to preserve supernatural disasters. For this, hybrid photovoltaic systems coupled to the grid increased, but the management of the production of these photovoltaics poses a lot of problem due to its intermittent status. It is in this context that we conducted an optimization study of a hybrid system photovoltaic connected to the grid. We applied our approach to the most extensive distribution post of Mali capital. For the simulation, we used the modeling and simulation tool named HOMER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Turkey’s 2023 Energy Strategies and Investment Opportunities for Renewable Energy Sources: Site Selection Based on ELECTRE
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072136 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In Turkey, current energy generations are not sufficient for the existing energy needs and besides, energy demand is expected to increase by 4–6 percent annually until 2023. Therefore, the government aims to increase the ratio of renewable energy resources (RES) in total installed [...] Read more.
In Turkey, current energy generations are not sufficient for the existing energy needs and besides, energy demand is expected to increase by 4–6 percent annually until 2023. Therefore, the government aims to increase the ratio of renewable energy resources (RES) in total installed capacity to 30 percent by 2023. By this date, total energy investments are expected to be approximately $110 billion. Turkey is the fastest growing energy market among the OECD countries. Therefore, Turkey is an attractive market for energy companies and investors. At this stage, site selection and deciding appropriate RES are the most important feasibility parameters for investment. In this study, “Site Selection in Turkey” issue for RES (solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass) is evaluated by the ELECTRE which is one of the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. In addition, the reasons for choosing this method are explained according to the literature. The study emphasizes the importance of energy generation from renewable and sustainable sources and is concerned with improving the position of the country. The Turkish government offers many purchasing guarantees and high incentives, especially in the renewable energy sector. As a result of the analysis, the most suitable energy sources are presented according to the geography and energy potential of the regions. The study aims to inform energy firms and everyone related with RES about Turkey’s RES opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
A Levelized Cost Analysis for Solar-Energy-Powered Sea Water Desalination in The Emirate of Abu Dhabi
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061691 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi heavily relies on seawater desalination for its freshwater needs due to limited available resources. This trend is expected to increase further because of the growing population and economic activity, the rapid decline in limited freshwater reserves, and the [...] Read more.
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi heavily relies on seawater desalination for its freshwater needs due to limited available resources. This trend is expected to increase further because of the growing population and economic activity, the rapid decline in limited freshwater reserves, and the aggravating effects of climate change. Seawater desalination in Abu Dhabi is currently done through thermal desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), coupled with thermal power plants, which is known as co-generation. These thermal desalination methods are together responsible for more than 90% of the desalination capacity in the Emirate. Our analysis indicates that these thermal desalination methods are inefficient regarding energy consumption and harmful to the environment due to CO2 emissions and other dangerous byproducts. The rapid decline in the cost of solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems for energy production and reverse osmosis (RO) technology for desalination makes a combination of these two an ideal option for a sustainable desalination future in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. A levelized cost of water (LCW) study of a solar PV + RO system indicates that Abu Dhabi is well-positioned to utilize this technological combination for cheap and clean desalination in the coming years. Countries in the Sunbelt region with a limited freshwater capacity similar to Abu Dhabi may also consider the proposed system in this study for sustainable desalination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Economics of Arundo donax—A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154225 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
Arundo donax (giant reed) is an herbaceous, perennial and non-food crop producing dry biomass with relatively high yields in many regions and under different climates. Although there exists a large amount of literature on A. donax, the economic aspects are somehow neglected [...] Read more.
Arundo donax (giant reed) is an herbaceous, perennial and non-food crop producing dry biomass with relatively high yields in many regions and under different climates. Although there exists a large amount of literature on A. donax, the economic aspects are somehow neglected or are very much limited in most papers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse the economics of A. donax by applying a systematic literature review of the field. Our sample consists of 68 relevant studies out of the 6009 identified, classified into four groups: Bioenergy, agronomy, invasiveness and phytoremediation. Most papers were focusing on Italy and on the Mediterranean region and were written on the bioenergy aspect. Most studies suggest that A. donax has a relatively high energy balance and yields, high investment but low maintenance costs and high potentials for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. However, a certain section of the literature, mainly based on US experience, shows that giant reed should be produced with care due to its invasiveness hazard. On the whole, A. donax was found to have high economic potentials for biomass production in marginal as well as disadvantageous lands operated by small farmers in the Mediterranean region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources)
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