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Special Issue "Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. M. Dolores Esteban
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Urbanismo y Aeroespacial, Escuela de Arquitectura, Ingeniería y Diseño, Universidad Europea, c/Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid, Spain
Interests: marine renewable energy; offshore wind; wave energy; maritime engineering; coastal engineering; offshore engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. José-Santos López-Gutiérrez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept Ingeniería Civil: Hidráulica, Energía y Medio Ambiente, C/ Profesor Aranguren, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), CP 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: marine renewable energy; offshore wind; wave energy; maritime engineering; coastal engineering; offshore engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vicente Negro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept Ingeniería Civil: Hidráulica, Energía y Medio Ambiente, C/ Profesor Aranguren, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), CP 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: marine renewable energy; offshore wind; wave energy; maritime engineering; coastal engineering; offshore engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the current scenario in which climate change dominates our lives, and in which we all need to combat and drastically reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, it is clear that renewable energies play a key role as our present and future energy sources. Renewable energies are very wide-ranging, and therefore, all the studies related to them are specified for each type of energy.

This Special Issue looks for studies integrating the latest research innovations and knowledge focused on any type of renewable energy: onshore and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar, biomass, geothermal, waves, tides, hydro, etc. Review and research papers focused on energy resource estimation, all types of TRL converters, civil infrastructure, electrical connection, environmental studies, licensing and development of facilities, construction, operation and maintenance, mechanical and structural analysis, new materials for these facilities, etc. are invited to be submitted. Analyses of combination of several renewable energies are welcome, also as storage systems to achieve a big step in the development of these sustainable energies.

Dr. M. Dolores Esteban
Dr. José-Santos López-Gutiérrez
Dr. Vicente Negro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wind farm
  • photovoltaic
  • solar
  • biomass
  • marine energies
  • wave
  • tidal
  • geothermal

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Article
An Intelligent Approach to Active and Reactive Power Control in a Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4219; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084219 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The increasing demand of electrical energy and environmental concerns are invigorating the use of renewable energy resources for power generation. Renewable energy resources can provide an attractive solution for present and future energy requirements. In this scenario, solar photovoltaic systems are becoming prominent [...] Read more.
The increasing demand of electrical energy and environmental concerns are invigorating the use of renewable energy resources for power generation. Renewable energy resources can provide an attractive solution for present and future energy requirements. In this scenario, solar photovoltaic systems are becoming prominent and sustainable solutions with numerous advantages. However, the utilization of solar photovoltaic systems in distribution generation makes it mandatory to deploy efficient and organized control measures for integrating solar photovoltaic plants with the grid. In this paper, the control of grid-tied solar photovoltaic systems using a Kalman filter-based generalized neural network is presented with a variable step size perturb and observe-based maximum power point tracking controller to extract the maximum power from a solar photovoltaic plant. The presented system provides power-quality enhancement and supports a three-phase AC grid. The proposed approach extracts the load currents’ primary components for efficient harmonics elimination, synchronizes the system with the grid and provides a fast response during rapidly changing conditions. The results of the proposed control technique are also compared with the artificial neural network-based control technique for validation purposes. The proposed algorithm is found more suitable for using a smaller number of unknown weights and training patterns with reduced computational time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Optimizing Wave Overtopping Energy Converters by ANN Modelling: Evaluating the Overtopping Rate Forecasting as the First Step
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031483 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANN) are extremely powerful analytical, parallel processing elements that can successfully approximate any complex non-linear process, and which form a key piece in Artificial Intelligence models. Its field of application, being very wide, is especially suitable for the field of [...] Read more.
Artificial neural networks (ANN) are extremely powerful analytical, parallel processing elements that can successfully approximate any complex non-linear process, and which form a key piece in Artificial Intelligence models. Its field of application, being very wide, is especially suitable for the field of prediction. In this article, its application for the prediction of the overtopping rate is presented, as part of a strategy for the sustainable optimization of coastal or harbor defense structures and their conversion into Waves Energy Converters (WEC). This would allow, among others benefits, reducing their initial high capital expenditure. For the construction of the predictive model, classical multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), or unsupervised clustering methods like Self Organized Maps (SOM), are used, demonstrating that this close alliance is always methodologically beneficial. The specific application carried out, based on the data provided by the CLASH and EurOtop 2018 databases, involves the creation of a useful application to predict overtopping rates in both sloping breakwaters and seawalls, with good results both in terms of prediction error, such as correlation of the estimated variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Emergy and Sustainability Ternary Diagrams of Energy Systems: Application to Solar Updraft Tower
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10546; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410546 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
To facilitate sustainable energy development, one has to understand the limited availability of nonrenewable energy resources, and the ability of the earth to renew or recover. Emergy is an instrument that measures environmental loading, ecological economics, and regional sustainable development. In this study, [...] Read more.
To facilitate sustainable energy development, one has to understand the limited availability of nonrenewable energy resources, and the ability of the earth to renew or recover. Emergy is an instrument that measures environmental loading, ecological economics, and regional sustainable development. In this study, emergy indicators are calculated to investigate the sustainability of solar updraft tower (SUT). SUT produces energy from the hot air, utilizing a combination of a solar collector, central tower, and air turbines. The results demonstrate that the sustainability of SUT grew as the size of the plant increased. Further, emergetic ternary diagrams are drawn to facilitate the comparison between SUT and various technologies. The resources-use efficiency of wind energy and SUT, 200 MW is found to be the lowest among all energy technologies presented in this research. Scenario analysis is performed to explore the future optimization directions. The results demonstrate that the development direction of SUT systems should mainly focus on reducing the materials demanded by the manufacturing and construction of its solar collectors. This study aims to demonstrate the value of emergy as a powerful instrument for drawing long-term sustainable strategies in energy markets for a greener tomorrow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution Data on Design and Power Capture of a Heaving Point Absorber
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9532; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229532 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 464
Abstract
For a heaving point absorber to perform optimally, it has to be designed to resonate to the prevailing ocean wave period. Hence, it is important to make the ocean wave data analysis to be as accurate as possible. In this study, existing wave [...] Read more.
For a heaving point absorber to perform optimally, it has to be designed to resonate to the prevailing ocean wave period. Hence, it is important to make the ocean wave data analysis to be as accurate as possible. In this study, existing wave condition data is used to investigate the effect of the temporal resolution (daily vs. hourly) of wave data on the design of the device and power capture. The temporal resolution effect on the estimation of ocean wave resource theoretical potential is also investigated. Results show that the temporal resolution variation of the ocean wave data affects the design of the device and its power capture, but the theoretical power resource assessment is not significantly affected. The device designed for the Gulf of Mexico is also analyzed with wave condition in Oregon, which has about 40 times the wave resource theoretical potential compared to the Gulf of Mexico. The results confirmed that a device should be designed for a specific location as the device performed better in the Gulf of Mexico, which has much less ocean wave resource theoretical potential. At last, the effect of the design, diameter and season (summer and winter) on the power output of the device is also investigated using statistical hypothesis testing methods. The results show that the power capture of a device is significantly affected by these parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Hybrid Wind–PV Frequency Control Strategy under Variable Weather Conditions in Isolated Power Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187750 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Over the last two decades, variable renewable energy technologies (i.e., variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) and photovoltaic (PV) power plants) have gradually replaced conventional generation units. However, these renewable generators are connected to the grid through power converters decoupled from the grid and do [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, variable renewable energy technologies (i.e., variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) and photovoltaic (PV) power plants) have gradually replaced conventional generation units. However, these renewable generators are connected to the grid through power converters decoupled from the grid and do not provide any rotational inertia, subsequently decreasing the overall power system’s inertia. Moreover, the variable and stochastic nature of wind speed and solar irradiation may lead to large frequency deviations, especially in isolated power systems. This paper proposes a hybrid wind–PV frequency control strategy for isolated power systems with high renewable energy source integration under variable weather conditions. A new PV controller monitoring the VSWTs’ rotational speed deviation is presented in order to modify the PV-generated power accordingly and improve the rotational speed deviations of VSWTs. The power systems modeled include thermal, hydro-power, VSWT, and PV power plants, with generation mixes in line with future European scenarios. The hybrid wind–PV strategy is compared to three other frequency strategies already presented in the specific literature, and gets better results in terms of frequency deviation (reducing the mean squared error between 20% and 95%). Additionally, the rotational speed deviation of VSWTs is also reduced with the proposed approach, providing the same mean squared error as the case in which VSWTs do not participate in frequency control. However, this hybrid strategy requires up to a 30% reduction in the PV-generated energy. Extensive detailing of results and discussion can be also found in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
From NEDC to WLTP: Effect on the Energy Consumption, NEV Credits, and Subsidies Policies of PHEV in the Chinese Market
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5747; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145747 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
The switching from new European driving cycle (NEDC) to worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP) will affect the energy consumption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and then affect the new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulation and subsidy policy for PHEVs. This [...] Read more.
The switching from new European driving cycle (NEDC) to worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP) will affect the energy consumption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and then affect the new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulation and subsidy policy for PHEVs. This paper reveals the impact on energy consumption, NEV credit regulation, and subsidy policy for PHEV in the Chinese market of the switching from NEDC to WLTP based on qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation. The results show that the WLTP procedure is stricter than NEDC in the determination of road load, test mass, driving resistance forces, and tire selection. Firstly, the electricity consumption (EC) of PHEV in charge-depleting mode (CD) under the WLTP procedure is 26% higher than NEDC on average, which makes the all-electric range (AER) significantly lower under WLTP. The weight EC tested in the WLTP procedure is higher than NEDC. Secondly, the fuel consumption (FC) of PHEV in CD mode is related to the adjustment of the engine management system (EMS) and the size of battery energy under the WLTP procedure. For the FC in the charge-sustaining (CS) mode of PHEV under the WLTP procedure is 20% higher than NEDC on average. However, the weight fuel consumption of PHEVs under WLTP with a long AER may be lower than that of NEDC due to the characteristics of utility factor in the WLTP procedure. Thirdly, most PHEVs fail to meet the requirements of 50 km AER due to the switching of the test procedures. However, the Chinese government reduced the technical specification of PHEV’s AER under the WLTP procedure to 43 km to support the development of PHEV technology. It ensures that the switching of test procedures does not change the treatment that they could obtain, the NEV credits, and subsidy as a NEV in China. However, the increasing of the EC in CD mode and the FC in CS mode under the WLTP procedure makes the PHEV obtain lower credit and subsidy multiple compared with NEDC procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
A New Robust Energy Management and Control Strategy for a Hybrid Microgrid System Based on Green Energy
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5724; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145724 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The recent few years have seen renewable energy becoming immensely popular. Renewable energy generation capacity has risen in both standalone and grid-connected systems. The chief reason is the ability to produce clean energy, which is both environmentally friendly and cost effective. This paper [...] Read more.
The recent few years have seen renewable energy becoming immensely popular. Renewable energy generation capacity has risen in both standalone and grid-connected systems. The chief reason is the ability to produce clean energy, which is both environmentally friendly and cost effective. This paper presents a new control algorithm along with a flexible energy management system to minimize the cost of operating a hybrid microgrid. The microgrid comprises fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, super capacitors, and other energy storage systems. There are three stages in the control system: an energy management system, supervisory control, and local control. The energy management system allows the control system to create an optimal day-ahead power flow schedule between the hybrid microgrid components, loads, batteries, and the electrical grid by using inputs from economic analysis. The discrepancy between the scheduled power and the real power delivered by the hybrid microgrid is adjusted for by the supervisory control stage. Additionally, this paper provides a design for the local control system to manage local power, DC voltage, and current in the hybrid microgrid. The operation strategy of energy storage systems is proposed to solve the power changes from photovoltaics and houses load fluctuations locally, instead of reflecting those disturbances to the utility grid. Furthermore, the energy storage systems energy management scheme will help to achieve the peak reduction of the houses’ daily electrical load demand. Also, the control of the studied hybrid microgrid is designed as a method to improve hybrid microgrid resilience and incorporate renewable power generation and storage into the grid. The simulation results verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the introduced strategy and the capability of proposed controller for a hybrid microgrid operating in different modes. The results showed that (1) energy management and energy interchange were effective and contributed to cost reductions, CO2 mitigation, and reduction of primary energy consumption, and (2) the newly developed energy management system proved to provide more robust and high performance control than conventional energy management systems. Also, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed robust model for microgrid energy management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Revisiting the Relation between Renewable Electricity and Economic Growth: A Renewable–Growth Hypothesis
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083121 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Global concern about the climate crisis has incited movements for switching to renewable electricity. Renewable electricity can contribute to economic growth as an input factor (electricity generation) and also as an industry (renewable manufacturing). We introduce a new hypothesis, the renewable–growth hypothesis, to [...] Read more.
Global concern about the climate crisis has incited movements for switching to renewable electricity. Renewable electricity can contribute to economic growth as an input factor (electricity generation) and also as an industry (renewable manufacturing). We introduce a new hypothesis, the renewable–growth hypothesis, to investigate the role of the renewable manufacturing industry in the energy–growth nexus study. To test the hypothesis, we select a target country group using the market share of the renewable manufacturing industry and conduct the Granger causality test for solar photovoltaic and wind power. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach is applied for the causality test. The results show that renewable electricity Granger causes economic growth in target countries, which supports the renewable–growth hypothesis. However, the hypothesis did not hold in countries that export renewable power facilities more than they install them for domestic demand. We believe that the renewable–growth hypothesis would be secured soon if renewable electricity expands broadly over the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
Article
On the Design of an Integrated System for Wave Energy Conversion Purpose with the Reaction Mass on Board
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072865 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the design of an integrated system consisting of two non-rigidly connected bodies: A floating buoy and an emerged offshore structure. When waves excite the buoy to oscillate, the relative motion between the two bodies are converted to useful [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the design of an integrated system consisting of two non-rigidly connected bodies: A floating buoy and an emerged offshore structure. When waves excite the buoy to oscillate, the relative motion between the two bodies are converted to useful energy through a spring damper system, resulting in wave energy being absorbed. The parameter to design includes the mass and underwater shape of the buoy. The spring stiffness of the power take-off (PTO) system is constrained to be non-negative with the concerns of complexity in implementation and system stability. Results suggest that a larger mass of the buoy is advantageous due to smaller optimal spring stiffness and damping coefficient of the PTO system, more absorbed wave power, and less motion amplitude of the two bodies. A favorable underwater shape of the buoy is characterized by large diameter to draft ratio, with the section profile preferring a circle or square rather than an equilateral triangle. Investigations on the designed buoy in irregular waves show that the integrated system presents its peak power absorption within the common range of energy period, and the motion amplitude of the offshore structure is larger than the wave amplitude in a certain range of sea states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Probabilistic Assessment of Hybrid Wind-PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062183 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
In recent years, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) systems are flourishing due to their advantages in the utilization of renewable energy. However, the accurate assessment of the maximum integration of hybrid renewable generation is problematic because of the complex uncertainties of source and demand. To [...] Read more.
In recent years, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) systems are flourishing due to their advantages in the utilization of renewable energy. However, the accurate assessment of the maximum integration of hybrid renewable generation is problematic because of the complex uncertainties of source and demand. To address this issue, we develop a stochastic framework for the quantification of hybrid energy hosting capacity. In the proposed framework, historical data sets are adopted to represent the stochastic nature of production and demand. Moreover, extreme combinations of production and demand are introduced to avoid multiple load flow calculations. The proposed framework is conducted in the IEEE 33-bus system to evaluate both single and hybrid energy hosting capacity. The results demonstrate that the stochastic framework can provide accurate evaluations of hosting capacity while significantly reducing the computational burden. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of hybrid wind-PV hosting capacity and verifies the excellent performance of the hybrid energy system in facilitating integration and energy utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Residential Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in China’s Less Developed Regions: A Case Study of Jiangxi
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052000 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
The residential sector is the second-largest consumer of energy in China. However, little attention has been paid to reducing the residential CO2 emissions of China’s less developed or undeveloped regions. Taking Jiangxi as a case study, this paper thus aims at fully [...] Read more.
The residential sector is the second-largest consumer of energy in China. However, little attention has been paid to reducing the residential CO2 emissions of China’s less developed or undeveloped regions. Taking Jiangxi as a case study, this paper thus aims at fully analyzing the difference of the residential energy-related CO2 emissions between urban and rural regions based on the Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) and Tapio decoupling model. The main results are showed as follows: (1) Since 2008, residential energy-related CO2 emissions have increased rapidly in both urban and rural Jiangxi. From 2000 to 2017, the residential energy-related CO2 emissions per capita in rural regions rapidly increased and exceeded that in urban regions after 2015. Furthermore, the residential energy structures had become multiple in both urban and rural regions, but rural regions still had room to optimize its energy structure. (2) Over the study period, consumption expenditure per capita played the dominant role in increasing the residential energy-related CO2 emissions in both urban and rural regions, followed by energy demand and energy structure. Energy price had the most important effect on decreasing the urban and rural residential energy-related CO2 emissions, followed by the carbon emission coefficient. However, urbanization increased the urban residential energy-related CO2 emissions but decreased the CO2 emissions in rural regions. Population made marginal and the most stable contribution to increase the residential energy-related CO2 emissions both in urban and rural regions. (3) Overall, the decoupling status showed the weak decoupling (0.1) and expansive negative decoupling (1.21) in urban and rural regions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Feasibility and Cost Analysis of Photovoltaic-Biomass Hybrid Energy System in Off-Grid Areas of Bangladesh
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041568 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
In this progressing technological advancement world, hybrid systems for power generation is one of the most promising fields for any researcher. In this context, photovoltaic-biomass hybrid systems with off-grid applications have become extremely popular with both Governments and individual users in rural areas [...] Read more.
In this progressing technological advancement world, hybrid systems for power generation is one of the most promising fields for any researcher. In this context, photovoltaic-biomass hybrid systems with off-grid applications have become extremely popular with both Governments and individual users in rural areas of any part of the world. This system has gained popularity because of low cost, sustainability and very effective outcome with the use of natural resources at the rural areas. In this paper a proposed hybrid system which contains photovoltaics (PV) and biomass along with an additional storage has been considered to find the different aspects from an end user point of view. It also discusses the feasibility of the proposed model for an off-grid power system located in the remote areas of Ashuganj, Bangladesh. In order to analyse the pollutant emissions and calculate the cost parameters of the proposed system, RETScreen simulation software was deployed. This research also carries out a brief financial analysis considering the annual income of the end user and the payback periods for the installed system. It endeavours to provide complete information about different parameters which also includes the environmental impacts involved in establishing the proposed system. The conventional system in the pilot area is a kerosene-based system, hence in this research, a comparison between the proposed and the conventional system has been analysed using simulated results. The simple payback of the project was estimated to be 6.9 years and this model will be able to reduce the CO2 emissions by approximately 3.81 tonnes per year. The results have significantly supported the proposed system to be more reliable, environmentally-friendly and less costly than the conventional kerosene-based system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Accurate Sizing of Residential Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems Considering System Reliability
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031274 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
In rural areas or in isolated communities in developing countries it is increasingly common to install micro-renewable sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, by residential consumers without access to the utility distribution network. The reliability of the supply provided by these stand-alone generators [...] Read more.
In rural areas or in isolated communities in developing countries it is increasingly common to install micro-renewable sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, by residential consumers without access to the utility distribution network. The reliability of the supply provided by these stand-alone generators is a key issue when designing the PV system. The proper system sizing for a minimum level of reliability avoids unacceptable continuity of supply (undersized system) and unnecessary costs (oversized system). This paper presents a method for the accurate sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) residential generation systems for a pre-established reliability level. The proposed method is based on the application of a sequential random Monte Carlo simulation to the system model. Uncertainties of solar radiation, energy demand, and component failures are simultaneously considered. The results of the case study facilitate the sizing of the main energy elements (solar panels and battery) depending on the required level of reliability, taking into account the uncertainties that affect this type of facility. The analysis carried out demonstrates that deterministic designs of SAPV systems based on average demand and radiation values or the average number of consecutive cloudy days can lead to inadequate levels of continuity of supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Strategic Planning of Offshore Wind Farms in Greece
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030905 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
In the present article, a new methodological framework for the efficient and sustainable exploitation of offshore wind potential was developed. The proposed integrated strategic plan was implemented for the first time at national spatial planning scale in Greece. The methodological approach is performed [...] Read more.
In the present article, a new methodological framework for the efficient and sustainable exploitation of offshore wind potential was developed. The proposed integrated strategic plan was implemented for the first time at national spatial planning scale in Greece. The methodological approach is performed through geographical information systems (GIS) and Microsoft Project Server Software and includes five distinct stages: (i) definition of vision/mission, (ii) identification of appropriate areas for offshore wind farms’ (OWFs) siting, (iii) determination of the OWFs’ layout, (iv) calculation of the OWFs’ (projects) total investment cost and, finally, (v) portfolio analysis. The final outcome of the proposed strategic planning is the prioritization of the proposed sixteen offshore wind projects based on their strategic value, as well as the estimation of the overall investment cost of the entire portfolio. High economic, socio-political and environmental benefits could be achieved through the implementation of only 60% of the total investment capital of the proposed strategic plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
A Compact Pigeon-Inspired Optimization for Maximum Short-Term Generation Mode in Cascade Hydroelectric Power Station
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030767 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO) is a new type of intelligent algorithm. It is proposed that the algorithm simulates the movement of pigeons going home. In this paper, a new pigeon herding algorithm called compact pigeon-inspired optimization (CPIO) is proposed. The challenging task for multiple [...] Read more.
Pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO) is a new type of intelligent algorithm. It is proposed that the algorithm simulates the movement of pigeons going home. In this paper, a new pigeon herding algorithm called compact pigeon-inspired optimization (CPIO) is proposed. The challenging task for multiple algorithms is not only combining operations, but also constraining existing devices. The proposed algorithm aims to solve complex scientific and industrial problems with many data packets, including the use of classical optimization problems and the ability to find optimal solutions in many solution spaces with limited hardware resources. A real-valued prototype vector performs probability and statistical calculations, and then generates optimal candidate solutions for CPIO optimization algorithms. The CPIO algorithm was used to evaluate a variety of continuous multi-model functions and the largest model of hydropower short-term generation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is a more effective way to produce competitive results in the case of limited memory devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Evaluation of the Operating Efficiency of a Hybrid Wind–Hydro Powerplant
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020668 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
This paper analyzes the operating efficiency of a hybrid wind–hydro power plant located in El Hierro Island. This plant combines a wind farm (11.48 MW) and a pumped storage power plant (11.32 MW). It was built with the aim of supplying the island [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the operating efficiency of a hybrid wind–hydro power plant located in El Hierro Island. This plant combines a wind farm (11.48 MW) and a pumped storage power plant (11.32 MW). It was built with the aim of supplying the island demand from renewable energy instead of using existing diesel units. The paper discusses several operational strategies and proposes an efficiency metric. Using 10 min data, the operation of this power plant has been simulated. From these simulations (more than 50,000 for a year), the operating efficiency and the percentage of demand covered from renewable energy is obtained. The difference between the worst and the best strategy is a twofold increase in efficiency. Moreover, the results of the simulations are compared with the system operational history since June 2015 (when the wind–hydro power plant started operation) until 2018. These comparisons show a reasonable agreement between simulations and operational history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
A Residential Load Scheduling with the Integration of On-Site PV and Energy Storage Systems in Micro-Grid
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010184 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The smart grid (SG) has emerged as a key enabling technology facilitating the integration of variable energy resources with the objective of load management and reduced carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, dynamic load consumption trends and inherent intermittent nature of renewable generations [...] Read more.
The smart grid (SG) has emerged as a key enabling technology facilitating the integration of variable energy resources with the objective of load management and reduced carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. However, dynamic load consumption trends and inherent intermittent nature of renewable generations may cause uncertainty in active resource management. Eventually, these uncertainties pose serious challenges to the energy management system. To address these challenges, this work establishes an efficient load scheduling scheme by jointly considering an on-site photo-voltaic (PV) system and an energy storage system (ESS). An optimum PV-site matching technique was used to optimally select the highest capacity and lowest cost PV module. Furthermore, the best-fit of PV array in regard with load is anticipated using least square method (LSM). Initially, the mathematical models of PV energy generation, consumption and ESS are presented along with load categorization through Zero and Finite shift methods. Then, the final problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem which is solved by using the proposed Dijkstra algorithm (DA). The proposed algorithm quantifies day-ahead electricity market consumption cost, used energy mixes, curtailed load, and grid imbalances. However, to further analyse and compare the performance of proposed model, the results of the proposed algorithm are compared with the genetic algorithm (GA), binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), and optimal pattern recognition algorithm (OPRA), respectively. Simulation results show that DA achieved 51.72% cost reduction when grid and renewable sources are used. Similarly, DA outperforms other algorithms in terms of maximum peak to average ratio (PAR) reduction, which is 10.22%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Thermo-Poroelastic Analysis of Induced Seismicity at the Basel Enhanced Geothermal System
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246904 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Geothermal energy has emerged as an alternative to ensure a green energy supply while tackling climate change. Geothermal systems extract the heat stored in the Earth’s crust by warming up water, but the low rock permeability at exploitation depths may require the hydraulic [...] Read more.
Geothermal energy has emerged as an alternative to ensure a green energy supply while tackling climate change. Geothermal systems extract the heat stored in the Earth’s crust by warming up water, but the low rock permeability at exploitation depths may require the hydraulic stimulation of the rock fracture network. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) employ techniques such as hydro-shearing and hydro-fracturing for that purpose, but their use promotes anthropogenic earthquakes induced by the injection or extraction of fluids. This work addresses this problem through developing a computational 3D model to explore fault reactivation and evaluating the potential for earthquake triggering at preexisting geological faults. These are included in the model as frictional contacts that allow the relative displacement between both of its sides, governed by rate-and-state friction laws and fully coupled with thermo-hydro-mechanical equations. We apply our methodology to the Basel project, employing the on-site parameters and conditions. Our results demonstrate that earthquakes which occurred in December 2006 in Basel (Switzerland) are compatible with the geomechanical and frictional consequences of the hydraulic stimulation of the rock mass. The application of our model also shows that it can be useful for predicting fault reactivation and engineering injection protocols for managing the safe and sustainable operation of EGS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Growth and Development: An Evaluation of Law and Policy of Bangladesh
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205774 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
Bangladesh’s constant growth with an annual 6% plus Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for more than the last two decades and achievements in other socio-economic metrics in recent times is impressive and recognized by various global authoritative bodies. The extent of overwhelming economic ventures [...] Read more.
Bangladesh’s constant growth with an annual 6% plus Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for more than the last two decades and achievements in other socio-economic metrics in recent times is impressive and recognized by various global authoritative bodies. The extent of overwhelming economic ventures in the private sector coupled with the commitments of the government clearly demonstrates the transformation of the country from a primarily agro-based economy to one influenced by the manufacturing and service sectors. Bangladesh is fortunate to have fossil fuel reserves on a limited scale, though these are not enough to run the ongoing massive scale development activities, both in private and public sectors. Thus, the constant and uninterrupted supply of energy at an affordable price remains a serious concern for the successive governments. Therefore, this issue of supply of constant energy has turned to be an important part in the national development agenda. Besides, the country is one of the worst victim nations of the devastating effects of global warming and climate change. As Bangladesh is geographically located in a favorable place in the world map with the availability of plenty of renewable energy sources (RES), the policymakers started to take initiatives leading to exploiting these sources to meet the energy demand of the country. There are both prospects and administrative, legal, technological, socio-cultural and environmental challenges. To address these challenges, it requires comprehensive policy initiatives. A good number of technical and scientific research containing findings and recommendations are available. This paper, which is based on adopting a qualitative research methodology where the contents of secondary sources were analyzed, is an initial attempt to highlight the renewable energy developments in Bangladesh, and subsequently, to evaluate the relevant legal and policy initiatives in the light of international best practices. We advance several recommendations that the stakeholders can consider exploiting RES effectively to attain inclusive, equitable and sustainable development in Bangladesh. These include, inter alia: (1) Enhancing government participation to lead the development of renewable energy (RE); (2) ensuring localization of RE technology; (3) reducing the expenses of energy generation through RES and providing assistance in initial investments; (4) introducing comprehensive legal and regulatory policy for the development of RE industry in Bangladesh; and (5) conducting effective public awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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Perspective
Assessment on Global Urban Photovoltaic Carrying Capacity and Adjustment of Photovoltaic Spatial Planning
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063149 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 526
Abstract
To promote the effective combination of photovoltaic (PV) utilization and urban development, this study proposes that solar PV generation should be taken as an important resource and environmental carrying capacity factor, which is defined as “Photovoltaic Carrying Capacity (PVCC)”, to be integrated into [...] Read more.
To promote the effective combination of photovoltaic (PV) utilization and urban development, this study proposes that solar PV generation should be taken as an important resource and environmental carrying capacity factor, which is defined as “Photovoltaic Carrying Capacity (PVCC)”, to be integrated into future urban planning. According to the PVCC assessment on global cities, the sensitivity of PVCC to different influence factors is analyzed and the benefits of different optimization strategies on PVCC are also discussed. Additionally, in an equilibrium analysis of PVCC distribution in six sample countries, we discuss both the causes and impact of their distribution gap. That analysis shows that the average PVCC in global urban areas can reach 23.13%, which approaches the anticipated needs of PV development in cities by 2050.Though different optimization strategies may be feasible to promote urban PVCC, they might only make significant changes in medium or large cities. When considering the high-efficient utility of local energy, dispersed layout of cities and population is necessary to implement PV spatial planning. According to the assessment and analysis results, the adjustment suggestions of PV spatial planning in each sample country are also discussed. Finally, it is pointed out that the proactive PV spatial may be of great significance to achieve higher solar energy supply and PVCC will be an available cognition in guiding this planning in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development)
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