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Special Issue "Lifetime Prediction and Simulation Models of Different Energy Storage Devices"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 9478

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Julia Kowal
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Technical University of Berlin, Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Berlin, Germany
Interests: batteries; lithium-ion; lead-acid; supercaps; lithium-air; zinc-air; simulation; impedance spectroscopy; ageing; battery management system; state determination
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage is one of the most important enablers for the transformation to a sustainable energy supply and mobility. For vehicles, but also for many stationary applications, batteries are used that are very flexible but that also have a rather limited lifetime compared to other storage principles. Many different battery technologies exist, which in part show a similar ageing behavior, but each of which mostly has an own characteristic ageing processes. Other storage principles such as supercaps, fuel cell/electrolyzer/storage systems or thermal storage also show declining performance with time. For reliable systems and cost calculations, it is therefore necessary to understand the ageing processes as well as its influencing factors.

Questions that need to be answered are, for example:

  • What are the factors influencing the ageing of different energy storage technologies?
  • How can we extend their lifetime? How can we optimize the operation of energy storage for the optimum lifetime, while fulfilling the purpose of storage?
  • How can the ageing of an energy storage be detected and predicted? When do we have to exchange the storage device?

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect research articles related to the questions above. A special (but not exclusive) focus will be placed on the following topics:

  • Ageing simulation models of different energy storage devices
  • State of health detection of different energy storage devices
  • Lifetime tests and analysis of influence factors of different energy storage devices
  • Operating strategies with the aim of an optimized lifetime of different energy storage devices

Prof. Dr. Julia Kowal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lifetime prediction
  • simulation model
  • state of health
  • ageing tests
  • operating strategy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
High-Precision Monitoring of Volume Change of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Strain Gauges
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020557 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
This paper proposes a testing method that allows the monitoring of the development of volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries. The overall goal is to demonstrate the impact of the volume expansion on battery ageing. The following findings are achieved: First, the characteristic curve [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a testing method that allows the monitoring of the development of volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries. The overall goal is to demonstrate the impact of the volume expansion on battery ageing. The following findings are achieved: First, the characteristic curve shape of the diameter change depended on the state-of-charge and the load direction of the battery. The characteristic curve shape consisted of three areas. Second, the characteristic curve shape of the diameter change changed over ageing. Whereas the state-of-charge dependent geometric alterations were of a reversible nature. An irreversible effect over the lifetime of the cell was observed. Third, an s-shaped course of the diameter change indicated two different ageing effects that led to the diameter change variation. Both reversible and irreversible expansion increased with ageing. Fourth, a direct correlation between the diameter change and the capacity loss of this particular lithium-ion battery was observed. Fifth, computer tomography (CT) measurements showed deformation of the jelly roll and post-mortem analysis showed the formation of a covering layer and the increase in the thickness of the anode. Sixth, reproducibility and temperature stability of the strain gauges were shown. Overall, this paper provides the basis for a stable and reproducible method for volume expansion analysis applied and established by the investigation of a state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery cell. This enables the study of volume expansion and its impact on capacity and cell death. Full article
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Article
Post-Mortem Analysis of Inhomogeneous Induced Pressure on Commercial Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells and Their Effects
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6738; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236738 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
This work conducts a post-mortem analysis of a cycled commercial lithium-ion pouch cell under an induced inhomogeneous pressure by using a stainless-steel sphere as a force transmitter to induce an inhomogeneous pressure distribution on a cycled lithium-ion battery. After the cycling, a macroscopic [...] Read more.
This work conducts a post-mortem analysis of a cycled commercial lithium-ion pouch cell under an induced inhomogeneous pressure by using a stainless-steel sphere as a force transmitter to induce an inhomogeneous pressure distribution on a cycled lithium-ion battery. After the cycling, a macroscopic and microscopic optical analysis of the active and passive materials was executed. Also, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze active material particles. The sphere shape results in a heterogenic pressure distribution on the lithium-ion battery and induces a ring of locally high electrochemical activity, which leads to lithium plating. Furthermore, a surface layer found on the anode, which is a possible cause of electrolyte degradation at the particle–electrolyte interface. Significant deformation and destruction of particles by the local pressure was observed on the cathode. The analysis results validate previous simulations and theories regarding lithium plating on edge effects. These results show that pressure has a strong influence on electrolyte-soaked active materials. Full article
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Article
Lifetime Analysis of Energy Storage Systems for Sustainable Transportation
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236731 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
On the path to a low-carbon future, advancements in energy storage seem to be achieved on a nearly daily basis. However, for the use-case of sustainable transportation, only a handful of technologies can be considered, as these technologies must be reliable, economical, and [...] Read more.
On the path to a low-carbon future, advancements in energy storage seem to be achieved on a nearly daily basis. However, for the use-case of sustainable transportation, only a handful of technologies can be considered, as these technologies must be reliable, economical, and suitable for transportation applications. This paper describes the characteristics and aging process of two well-established and commercially available technologies, namely Lithium-Ion batteries and supercaps, and one less known system, flywheel energy storage, in the context of public transit buses. Beyond the obvious use-case of onboard energy storage, stationary buffer storage inside the required fast-charging stations for the electric vehicles is also discussed. Calculations and considerations are based on actual zero-emission buses operating in Graz, Austria. The main influencing parameters and effects related to energy storage aging are analyzed in detail. Based on the discussed aging behavior, advantages, disadvantages, and a techno-economic analysis for both use-cases is presented. A final suitability assessment of each energy storage technology concludes the use-case analysis. Full article
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Article
Study of a Li-Ion Cell Kinetics in Five Regions to Predict Li Plating Using a Pseudo Two-Dimensional Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6392; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226392 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Detecting or predicting lithium plating in Li-ion cells and subsequently suppressing or preventing it have been the aim of many researches as it directly contributes to the aging, safety, and life-time of the cell. Although abundant influencing parameters on lithium deposition are already [...] Read more.
Detecting or predicting lithium plating in Li-ion cells and subsequently suppressing or preventing it have been the aim of many researches as it directly contributes to the aging, safety, and life-time of the cell. Although abundant influencing parameters on lithium deposition are already known, more information is still needed in order to predict this phenomenon and prevent it in time. It is observed that balancing in a Li-ion cell can play an important role in controlling lithium plating. In this work, five regions are defined with the intention of covering all the zones participating in the charge transfer from one electrode to the other during cell cycling. We employ a pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) cell model including two irreversible side reactions of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation and lithium plating (Li-P) as the anode aging mechanisms. With the help of simulated data and the Nernst–Einstein relation, ionic conductivities of the regions are calculated separately. Calculation results show that by aging the cell, more deviation between ionic conductivities of cathode and anode takes place which leads to the start of Li plating. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study on the Influence of DC/DC-Converter Induced High Frequency Current Ripple on Lithium-Ion Batteries
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6050; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216050 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Modern battery energy systems are key enablers of the conversion of our energy and mobility sector towards renewability. Most of the time, their batteries are connected to power electronics that induce high frequency current ripple on the batteries that could lead to reinforced [...] Read more.
Modern battery energy systems are key enablers of the conversion of our energy and mobility sector towards renewability. Most of the time, their batteries are connected to power electronics that induce high frequency current ripple on the batteries that could lead to reinforced battery ageing. This study investigates the influence of high frequency current ripple on the ageing of commercially available, cylindrical 18,650 lithium-ion batteries in comparison to identical batteries that are aged with a conventional battery test system. The respective ageing tests that have been carried out to obtain numerous parameters such as the capacity loss, the gradient of voltage curves and impedance spectra are explained and evaluated to pinpoint how current ripple possibly affects battery ageing. Finally, the results suggest that there is little to no further influence of current ripple that is severe enough to stand out against ageing effects due to the underlying accelerated cyclic ageing. Full article
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