Special Issue "Challenges on the Asian Models and Values for the Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will consist of selected papers from the Sustainable Asia Conference 2018, an annual international conference held at the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Beijing, China, 18–21 May, 2018. SAC 2018 (http://abf.inha.ac.kr/) is one of the leading international conferences for presenting novel and fundamental advances in Sustainable Development issues for Asia. The purpose of the conference is for scientists, scholars, engineers, and students from universities and research institutes around the world to present ongoing research activities so as to promote global research networking in the area of sustainable development. This conference provides opportunities for delegates to exchange new ideas and application experiences, face-to-face, to establish research or business relationships, and to find global partners for future collaborations. The scope of this Special Issue encompasses topics related to sustainable development and management at both the macro- and micro-levels in Northeast Asian countries

Prof. Yongrok Choi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • New methodological, or conceptual approaches for sustainable governance in Northeast Asia
  • Innovative case studies for the sustainable eco-friendly innovation with the unique contents of Northeast Asian countries (Cultural, historical, socio-economical regime)
  • Regional cooperation for the sustainable development or green growth
  • Other related issues on the sustainable development in the region

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Challenges of Asian Models and Values for Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051497 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Northeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the global economy in its dynamic change in the economic scape as well as in the challenge of environmental issues. In particular, many countries in Asia have experienced transitional challenges from a quantitative, [...] Read more.
Northeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the global economy in its dynamic change in the economic scape as well as in the challenge of environmental issues. In particular, many countries in Asia have experienced transitional challenges from a quantitative, GDP-oriented economic development toward environmental-friendly, sustainable development. The quality of the life became much more important for government policies, also fueled by the demand from the private sector. Nonetheless, these countries are experiencing much more severe and sarcastic skepticism in response to government policies, resulting in a lack of effective governance. The Sustainable Asia Conference (SAC) has promoted the importance of these challenges for 10 years since its inauguration in 2009. The major consensus on sustainable development reached at the conference may come from innovation in the positive-sum game approach to environmentally friendly development and sustainable governance in order for the initial innovation to be put into effect. Moreover, due to the complicated and complex process of solving environmental challenges, the countries in this region should cooperate with strong partnerships as well as open connectivity. Therefore, all the countries should participate in the project not as helpers, but as partners to create and share value through regional cooperation. Full article
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Sustainability Performance of Chinese Banks: A New Network Data Envelopment Analysis Approach and Panel Regression
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061622 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper develops a new network data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that simultaneously integrates the non-convex metafrontier and undesirable outputs and which is super efficient at performing dynamic network slacks-based measures. The model is employed to discuss the efficiency of 36 commercial banks [...] Read more.
This paper develops a new network data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that simultaneously integrates the non-convex metafrontier and undesirable outputs and which is super efficient at performing dynamic network slacks-based measures. The model is employed to discuss the efficiency of 36 commercial banks in China during the years 2010–2014. The efficiency of these banks shows significant heterogeneity and the efficiency of most foreign banks has much room for improvement. Regarding both the non-convex metafrontier and the group frontier, state-owned banks perform the best, followed by joint-stock banks, with foreign banks performing the worst; the same is true for the technology gap ratios. The empirical results produced by the feasible generalized least squares estimation method indicate that liquidity and scale effects exert positive impacts on bank efficiency. An alternative estimation method confirmed that the conclusions were robust. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Trade Facilitation’s Impacts on China’s Forest Product Exports to Countries Along the “Belt and Road” Based on the Perspective of Ternary Margins
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051298 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
With the reduction of traditional tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, trade facilitation measures, such as improved port efficiency and the customs environment, have become increasingly important for improving the structure of export growth and exploring the trade potential of forest products. Our research [...] Read more.
With the reduction of traditional tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, trade facilitation measures, such as improved port efficiency and the customs environment, have become increasingly important for improving the structure of export growth and exploring the trade potential of forest products. Our research divided China’s export growth of forest products into extensive margins (variety), quantity margins (quantity), and price margins (quality), and discussed how trade facilitation impacted China’s forest product export growth structure from the perspective of ternary margins. An evaluation system of trade facilitation was constructed, and principal component analysis was used to measure the levels of trade facilitation of 13 countries which had large trade flows of forest products with China along the “Belt and Road”. In addition, we used transnational panel data and the extended gravity model to analyze the impact of their trade facilitation on the ternary margins of China’s export growth. In order to overcome the endogeneity of the model, the 2 stage least squares (2SLS) method was used and the first-order lags of trade facilitation indicators were selected as instrument variables. The decomposition results of ternary margins showed that the “low price and high quantity” export growth pattern had remained in China’s forest products trade, and the 2SLS regression results indicated that the improvement of trade facilitation had a significantly positive impact on the quantity margins and price margins, but no significant impact on the extensive margins. It is suggested that China should make differentiated investments to countries along the “Belt and Road” based on their different levels of trade facilitation, in order to promote constant improvement of product quality and optimization of export growth structure in the forest products industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Moderating Effect of R&D Investment on Income and Carbon Emissions in China: Direct and Spatial Spillover Insights
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051235 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
R&D investment plays a great role in achieving China’s low-carbon economy goals, which has a moderating effect on the relationship between income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, such a moderating effect may have spatial differences, given the possible spatial dependence of carbon emissions. Therefore, [...] Read more.
R&D investment plays a great role in achieving China’s low-carbon economy goals, which has a moderating effect on the relationship between income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, such a moderating effect may have spatial differences, given the possible spatial dependence of carbon emissions. Therefore, this paper explores the direct and spatial spillover moderating effects of R&D investment by adopting the panel spatial Durbin model and data of 30 provinces in China during 1998–2015. The empirical results firstly indicate that R&D investment moderates the positive impact of income on local carbon emissions for both the non-spatial and spatial model, and that more R&D investment can make carbon emissions reach the turning point earlier. Secondly, R&D investment in the local province increases the positive influence of local income on neighboring carbon emissions, which mainly results from the transfer effect of carbon emissions rather than the knowledge spillovers effect. The results are indicated to be robust by three types of robustness analyses. Finally, FDI and patents are the main constrained forces of local and neighboring carbon emissions; coal consumption is the main driver of local carbon emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Environmental Concern and Knowledge on Households’ Willingness to Purchase Energy-Efficient Appliances: A Case Study in Shanxi, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041073 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
With the increases in residents’ household energy consumption and carbon emissions, to conserve regional energy and reduce emissions, studying the factors affecting residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances and their mechanisms of action is necessary. In this research, based on the theory of [...] Read more.
With the increases in residents’ household energy consumption and carbon emissions, to conserve regional energy and reduce emissions, studying the factors affecting residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances and their mechanisms of action is necessary. In this research, based on the theory of extended planned behavior and combined with environmental concern variables and environmental knowledge variables, a model of the factors influencing residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances was constructed and an empirical study of urban residents in Shanxi Province, China was conducted. The research indicates that environmental concern, environmental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control are significantly positively correlated with residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The influence of subjective norms on the willingness of residents to purchase energy-efficient appliances is not significant; environmental concern and environmental knowledge have a positive impact on attitudes and indirectly affect residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances. This study focuses on improvement and research from the perspectives of theoretical expansion, indirect impact test, and analysis of typical underdeveloped energy-rich regions. This study provides corresponding policy suggestions from the perspectives of education and guidance, sales and marketing, and independent improvement for the government, sellers, and residents, to improve the residents’ willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Synergy in the Economic Production System: An Empirical Study with Chinese Industry
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040980 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to the difference in pollutants discharged, along with heterogeneous abatement technology, the structural and model design of the economic production system needs to consider these differences. This study first proposes a network slacks-based model (SBM) to address the inefficiency of the production [...] Read more.
Due to the difference in pollutants discharged, along with heterogeneous abatement technology, the structural and model design of the economic production system needs to consider these differences. This study first proposes a network slacks-based model (SBM) to address the inefficiency of the production system after considering pollutant abatement technology heterogeneity for different kinds of pollutant. Then, we employ the model to study the inefficiency of the Chinese industrial production system, analyzing the inefficiency in the stages of economic production and pollutant treatment. Furthermore, the regional distribution of inefficiencies concerning SO2 (NOx) generation (emission) are discussed and compared. The results show that only the joint reduction of NOx in two sub-stages simultaneously is feasible, and the synergistic pollutant reductions seems limited. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Performance Evaluation of the Korean Manufacturing Industry Based on Sequential DEA
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030874 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This study’s aim is to examine the environmental performance of the South Korean manufacturing industry and suggest performance-oriented policies. The manufacturing industry is classified into seven sub-sectors based on individual sectoral differences among firms. For this purpose, a sequential generalized directional distance function [...] Read more.
This study’s aim is to examine the environmental performance of the South Korean manufacturing industry and suggest performance-oriented policies. The manufacturing industry is classified into seven sub-sectors based on individual sectoral differences among firms. For this purpose, a sequential generalized directional distance function and the Sequential Malmquist-Luenburger (SML) index are used with the assumption of no deterioration in technology over time. The SML is decomposed into two indices: efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC). The empirical results showed an average increase of 0.3% in environmental productivity measured by the SML over the whole period. Although the overall average value is low, it showed a 0.8% increase after 2015, implying that ETS policy has enhanced environmental productivity. From the decomposition of the SML, it was also found that the EC index (−1.1%) was comparatively lower than the TC index (1.5%) over seven years, implying that the innovation effect leads the environmental productivity of the Korean manufacturing industry. With regard to individual sectors, the seven sub-sectors showed quite different patterns in their performance. Therefore, not only should firms in each sector make an effort to enhance their performance, but the government also needs to support specialized measures to enhance firms’ overall competitiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Educational Investment on Sustainable Economic Growth in Guangdong, China: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030766 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Education, as an investment in human capital, is regarded as an important determinant of sustainable economic growth [1,2]. The purpose of this study is to explore the cointegration and causality between the investment in education and sustainable economic growth [...] Read more.
Education, as an investment in human capital, is regarded as an important determinant of sustainable economic growth [1,2]. The purpose of this study is to explore the cointegration and causality between the investment in education and sustainable economic growth in Guangdong province by using the panel data of 21 cities from 2000 to 2016. We construct a variable intercept panel data model with an individual fixed effect based on the Cobb-Douglas production function, estimating the contribution of the investment in education to economic growth by introducing lags. The findings show the existence of the feedback causality between education and sustainable economic growth. Also, the results reveal that the local financial investment in education plays a positive and statistically significant role in promoting sustainable economic growth. However, the contribution of the local financial investment in education to economic growth varies in different areas. The investment in education in the Pearl River Delta region have the most obvious pull effects on its regional economy, whereas the Western region takes the second place. Meanwhile, the local financial investment in education for its role in promoting economic growth obviously has a two-year hysteresis effect. These findings have important implications for Guangdong’s solution to the imbalance between regional educational investment and sustainable economic growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Study of Regional Power Generation Efficiency in China: Based on a Non-Radial Directional Distance Function Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030659 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the deterioration caused by environmental pollution, studies on the low-carbon economy have received more attention. As far as we know, electricity production accounts for a large portion of total carbon emissions. Therefore, based on panel data from 2005 to 2014, we used [...] Read more.
With the deterioration caused by environmental pollution, studies on the low-carbon economy have received more attention. As far as we know, electricity production accounts for a large portion of total carbon emissions. Therefore, based on panel data from 2005 to 2014, we used the non-radial directional distance function model based on the data envelope analysis (DEA) to evaluate the static electricity product efficiency of various provinces in China. Further, the global Malmquist index was introduced to analyze the main factors. The relationship between the environmental policy stringency and the regional power production efficiency was also investigated. Static results show that China’s regional power production efficiency has a significant difference between coastal developed and inland areas. Dynamic evaluation further proved that the difference is mainly due to technological change. Finally, regression results show that technological change is the only factor directly affecting regional environmental policy stringency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Environmental Beliefs Affect Consumer Willingness to Pay for the Greenness Premium of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products in China: Theoretical Model and Survey-based Evidence
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030592 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The increase in the supply of low-carbon agricultural products is crucial to reduce carbon emissions, but the production of such products incurs additional input costs and thus the crux of the low-carbon agricultural products market development lies in how such cost can be [...] Read more.
The increase in the supply of low-carbon agricultural products is crucial to reduce carbon emissions, but the production of such products incurs additional input costs and thus the crux of the low-carbon agricultural products market development lies in how such cost can be shared in a reasonable manner. The increase of consumer willingness to pay and the premium level that consumers would pay for green products hold the key to address this challenge. For that reason, this paper first constructs a behavioral game model to explore how environmental beliefs would affect consumer willingness to pay for the greenness premium. Then, the paper proceeds with empirical analyses on factors influencing consumer willingness to pay for the greenness premium by using micro-survey data of Chinese consumers when facing the choices of low-carbon rice in the cities of central China. The empirical research suggests that, although the average greenness premium that Chinese consumers are willing to pay for low-carbon agricultural products is low, the greenness premium will be stronger when consumers have higher environmental beliefs. We also find the impacts of environmental beliefs on the willingness to pay as well as the greenness premium levels that consumers are willing to pay for low-carbon agricultural products increase with education attainment and family income, but do not change with age. Findings in this study carry several important policy implications. To encourage green consumption that facilitates green production, the government should devote attempts to promote consumers’ environmental beliefs and also apply differentiated public policy that targeting at different types of consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social Capital on Consumer Knowledge-Sharing in Virtual Brand Communities: The Mediating Effect of Pan-Family Consciousness
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020339 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Literature investigating social capital theory and Chinese family culture suggests that social capital exists in virtual brand communities, bringing convenience to members, contributing to the cultivation of pan-family consciousness, and affecting consumer knowledge-sharing. In this study, we considered members of virtual brand communities [...] Read more.
Literature investigating social capital theory and Chinese family culture suggests that social capital exists in virtual brand communities, bringing convenience to members, contributing to the cultivation of pan-family consciousness, and affecting consumer knowledge-sharing. In this study, we considered members of virtual brand communities as the research subjects, then analyzed the data using SPSS19.0 and AMOS21.0. We showed that network density, shared language, and shared vision of social capital have a positive impact on pan-family consciousness. This, in turn, had a positive influence on knowledge-sharing, thus playing an intermediary role between cognitive capital and consumer knowledge-sharing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Regulation Policies for Fertilizer and Pesticide Reduction in Arable Land Based on Farmers’ Behavior—Using Jiangxi Province as an Example
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010136 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A multi-agent model for the simulation of arable land management based on the complex adaptive system theory and a Swarm platform was constructed. An empirical application of the model was carried out to investigate the pollution of arable land in Jiangxi Province. Two [...] Read more.
A multi-agent model for the simulation of arable land management based on the complex adaptive system theory and a Swarm platform was constructed. An empirical application of the model was carried out to investigate the pollution of arable land in Jiangxi Province. Two sets of policies—a fertilizer tax and an ecological compensation scheme—were designed and simulated, and the analysis focused on the control of polluting inputs, mainly chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The environmental effects of each policy were evaluated by simulating farmers’ self-adaptive behaviours in response to the policy in the artificial village of the model. The results showed the following: (1) Both the fertilizer tax policy and the ecological compensation policy somewhat alleviated the negative impact of input factors, such as fertilizers and pesticides, on arable land; (2) if the fertilizer tax policy is implemented, the medium tax rate scheme should be given priority—the effect does not necessarily improve as the tax rate increases, and a high-tax policy will threaten food security in the long term; and (3) if an ecological compensation policy is implemented, high-government-compensation scenarios are better than low-government-compensation scenarios, and the differential-government-compensation scenario is better than the equal-government-compensation scenario, and the differential-government-compensation scenario can lighten the burden on the government. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application in International Market Selection for the Export of Goods: A Case Study in Vietnam
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4621; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124621 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
International market selection for conducting exports is based on various trade and economic factors. It is very important to understand how to efficiently trade with another country and to maintain consistency. However, such a consistency is not possible in the case of economics. [...] Read more.
International market selection for conducting exports is based on various trade and economic factors. It is very important to understand how to efficiently trade with another country and to maintain consistency. However, such a consistency is not possible in the case of economics. Therefore, using an efficiency measure helps us to explore and benchmark a country’s exportation businesses. The main goal of this study is to develop an integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to explore the most productive manner through which Vietnam exports goods to other countries. Exploring the most productive export business will help us achieve another goal of this study, which is the selection of international market efficiencies. The variables used for this analysis include the exports, total exports, import tariff, dollar exchange, and the ease of doing business. Based on the data collected from an international organization, on the 15 leading export markets in Vietnam, this study applied integrated DEA, which combines the super slack-based measure (Super SBM) and Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) analysis to evaluate the export market efficiency. The findings show that for the selection of the export market, the three countries that were the most consistently efficient during 2014–2017 were Malaysia, Singapore, and the United States. This study indicates that the selection of international markets for developing countries should comply with low tariff rates, low exchange rates, and a higher ease of doing business in order to improve the gross domestic product (GDP) and economy of the country. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Belt and Road Initiative Promote Sustainable Development? Evidence from Countries along the Belt and Road
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4370; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124370 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The “Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative” is an innovative idea proposed by China aimed at promoting common prosperity in the world. Although it has gained more and more recognition and response, there is also some one-sided understanding or distortion. Taking the 60 countries [...] Read more.
The “Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative” is an innovative idea proposed by China aimed at promoting common prosperity in the world. Although it has gained more and more recognition and response, there is also some one-sided understanding or distortion. Taking the 60 countries along the Belt and Road from 2010 to 2015 as samples, this paper mainly answers three questions from the perspective of sustainable development: (1) What is the current status of sustainable development in all countries along the “B&R”? (2) Is the “B&R Initiative” conducive to promoting the sustainable development of all countries along the “B&R”? (3) How could the “B&R” be better promoted? The study found that, first, various countries along the “B&R” have manifested an imbalanced characteristic in terms of the sustainable development, and there is much room for improvement in general. Second, the “B&R Initiative” has a positive impact on the sustainable development of all countries. However, due to the relatively short period of time, this impact is not significant at present. Third, to promote “B&R” construction, we must take sustainable development as the fundamental goal to jointly promote the connectivity of facilities, integrate the UN 2030 sustainable development goals, and strengthen the cross-border cooperation between non-governmental and non-profit organizations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Expansion of Urban Construction Land Promote Regional Economic Growth in China? Evidence from 108 Cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114073 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Since the reform and opening up, China’s economy has maintained rapid growth. At the same time, the process of urbanization in China has been accelerating and the scale of urban construction land has expanded accordingly. The purpose of the research is to explore [...] Read more.
Since the reform and opening up, China’s economy has maintained rapid growth. At the same time, the process of urbanization in China has been accelerating and the scale of urban construction land has expanded accordingly. The purpose of the research is to explore whether there is an inevitable connection between the expansion of urban construction land and economic growth. This study uses 108 prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example. Considering panel data from 2005 to 2015, the spatial econometric model was used to explore the impact of urban construction land expansion on regional economic growth. The results are as follows: (1) The expansion of construction land in cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt has a significant impact on economic growth but the extent of the impact is not as great as that of capital stock. (2) In the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the expansion of urban construction land in a certain area has not only a positive effect on the local economic growth but also a certain spillover effect and it can promote the economic development level of the adjacent areas in the economic belt. (3) Although the expansion of urban construction land along the Yangtze River Economic Belt promotes economic growth, there are obvious differences between regions. The expansion of urban construction land in the central region of the Yangtze River Economic Belt has a significant driving effect on economic growth. However, the expansion of urban construction land in the eastern and western regions has no significant effect on the economic growth of the respective regions. Finally, based on the above conclusions, this paper proposes corresponding policy recommendations for economic development in different regions. These research conclusions will also facilitate the follow-up of other researchers to further explore the driving factors of the economic development of many prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the related mechanisms for the expansion of construction land to promote economic growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Users’ Self-Disclosure Intention on Social Networking Applying Novel Soft Computing Theories
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113928 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In recent years, users have increasingly focused on the privacy of social networking sites (SNS); users have reduced their self-disclosure intention. To attract users, SNS rely on active platforms that collect accurate user information, even though that information is supposed to be private. [...] Read more.
In recent years, users have increasingly focused on the privacy of social networking sites (SNS); users have reduced their self-disclosure intention. To attract users, SNS rely on active platforms that collect accurate user information, even though that information is supposed to be private. SNS marketers must understand the key elements for sustainable operation. This study aims to understand the influence of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) and self-disclosure on SNS through soft computing theories. First, based on a survey of 1108 users of SNS, this study used a dominance-based rough set approach to determine decision rules for self-disclosure intention on SNS. In addition, based on 11 social networking industry experts’ perspectives, this study validated the influence between the motivation attributes by using Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL). In this paper, the decision rules of users’ self-disclosure preference are presented, and the influences between motivation attributes are graphically depicted as a flow network graph. These findings can assist in addressing real-world decision problems, and can aid SNS marketers in anticipating, evaluating, and acting in accord with the self-disclosure motivations of SNS users. In this paper, practical and research implications are offered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Perceived Value on Farmers’ Regret Mood Tendency
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103650 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Based on a survey of the poverty alleviation resettlement (PAR) farmers in China, this paper aims to investigate the relationship between the expected value, perceived value and regret mood of the relocated farmers. The results show that the expected value can positively affect [...] Read more.
Based on a survey of the poverty alleviation resettlement (PAR) farmers in China, this paper aims to investigate the relationship between the expected value, perceived value and regret mood of the relocated farmers. The results show that the expected value can positively affect the perceived value, and the latter negatively impact the regret mood of the PAR farmers. On average, the farmers with regret and non-regret sentiments are approximately fifty/fifty in percentage terms. Internal factors, such as demand levels, and external factors, such as relocation costs, also have significant effects on the regret mood of farmers after they have relocated. However, those factors have significant differences in their impacts on poor and non-poor households. Several political implications are also provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Daily Service Scheduling for Medical Diagnostic Equipment Considering Patient Satisfaction and Hospital Revenue
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3349; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093349 - 19 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Under the background of the unbalanced supply and demand of medical diagnostic equipment and rising health care costs, this study aims to optimize the service scheduling for medical diagnostic equipment so as to improve patient satisfaction by ensuring the equipment utilization rate and [...] Read more.
Under the background of the unbalanced supply and demand of medical diagnostic equipment and rising health care costs, this study aims to optimize the service scheduling for medical diagnostic equipment so as to improve patient satisfaction by ensuring the equipment utilization rate and hospital revenue. The finite horizon Markov Decision Process (MDP) was adopted to solve this problem. On the basis of field research, we divided patients into four categories: emergency patients, inpatients, appointed outpatients, and the randomly arrived outpatients according to the severity of illness and appointment situations. In the construction of the MDP model, we considered the possibility of cancellation (no-show patients) in scheduling optimization. Combined with the benefits and costs related to patient satisfaction, based on the value iteration algorithm, we took patient satisfaction and hospital revenue as the objective functions. Results indicated that, compared with the current scheduling strategy, the integrated strategy proposed in this study has a better performance, which could maintain the sustainable usage rate of large medical resources and patient satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“One Belt, One Road” Initiative to Stimulate Trade in China: A Counter-Factual Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093242 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
This research implements the panel data control method to evaluate the stimulative effects of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative on trade performance in China. We constructed a counterfactual of China’s trade surplus by exploiting the unobservable common factors that create observable trade [...] Read more.
This research implements the panel data control method to evaluate the stimulative effects of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative on trade performance in China. We constructed a counterfactual of China’s trade surplus by exploiting the unobservable common factors that create observable trade balances among other countries. We also modified the traditional control group selection by extending it to the Elastic-Net method. This study found the following: (i) China’s annual trade surplus increased sharply by 10.69% on average since 2015. In contrast, analysis of the counterfactual showed that the net exports of China would have remained constant without the stimulation of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative; (ii) These results are robust to exports growth rates and checking by various control group selections; (iii) Although the analysis shows return to an average trading balance, we should not underestimate the benefits of the initiative in the long run. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Multiple Pathways for Achieving China’s National Emissions Reduction Target
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072196 - 27 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to achieve China’s target of carbon intensity emissions reduction in 2030, there is a need to identify a scientific pathway and feasible strategies. In this study, we used stochastic frontier analysis method of energy efficiency, incorporating energy structure, economic structure, human [...] Read more.
In order to achieve China’s target of carbon intensity emissions reduction in 2030, there is a need to identify a scientific pathway and feasible strategies. In this study, we used stochastic frontier analysis method of energy efficiency, incorporating energy structure, economic structure, human capital, capital stock and potential energy efficiency to identify an efficient pathway for achieving emissions reduction target. We set up 96 scenarios including single factor scenarios and multi-factors combination scenarios for the simulation. The effects of each scenario on achieving the carbon intensity reduction target are then evaluated. It is found that: (1) Potential energy efficiency has the greatest contribution to the carbon intensity emissions reduction target; (2) they are unlikely to reach the 2030 carbon intensity reduction target of 60% by only optimizing a single factor; (3) in order to achieve the 2030 target, several aspects have to be adjusted: the fossil fuel ratio must be lower than 80%, and its average growth rate must be decreased by 2.2%; the service sector ratio in GDP must be higher than 58.3%, while the growth rate of non-service sectors must be lowered by 2.4%; and both human capital and capital stock must achieve and maintain a stable growth rate and a 1% increase annually in energy efficiency. Finally, the specific recommendations of this research were discussed, including constantly improved energy efficiency; the upgrading of China’s industrial structure must be accelerated; emissions reduction must be done at the root of energy sources; multi-level input mechanisms in overall levels of education and training to cultivate the human capital stock must be established; investment in emerging equipment and accelerate the closure of backward production capacity to accumulate capital stock. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Asian Values of Guānxì as an Economic Model for Transition toward Green Growth
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072150 - 25 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Most Asian countries are experiencing escalating air pollution and other environmental challenges. Many political measures, such as regulations and promotional subsidies, have not proved effective or efficient due to a lack of governance. The reason for this may come from the historical and [...] Read more.
Most Asian countries are experiencing escalating air pollution and other environmental challenges. Many political measures, such as regulations and promotional subsidies, have not proved effective or efficient due to a lack of governance. The reason for this may come from the historical and cultural background of government-led economies. Due to the top-down approach to sustainable development, most private sector companies, as well as the general population, do not participate voluntarily in meeting these new challenges. In order for these Asian countries to become leaders in the new global trend towards green growth, this paper examines the Asian values of guānxì to facilitate the interrelationship between public and private sectors, and proposes an Asian public–private partnership model with five structural principles, three functional propositions, and seven procedural factors. Using these governance elements, Asian governments should create, maintain, and utilize the progression of guānxì from acquaintance via trust to loyalty. Through this stepwise approach, Asian governments could construct an innovative virtuous circle to create value based on network management, which is the ultimate paradigm of sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Factors Influencing Willingness to Pay and Payout Level for Ecological Environment Improvement of the Ganjiang River Basin
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072149 - 24 Jun 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
China has continuously stepped up its efforts to protect the ecological environment of the Ganjiang River Basin. The government has played a leading role, but the residents, who have also played an important role in this issue, are often overlooked. Consequently, it is [...] Read more.
China has continuously stepped up its efforts to protect the ecological environment of the Ganjiang River Basin. The government has played a leading role, but the residents, who have also played an important role in this issue, are often overlooked. Consequently, it is necessary and urgent to study the willingness of the residents, who are the direct stakeholders, to pay for the protection of the ecological environment of the Ganjiang River Basin. Based on a survey of 773 households, this study examines the downstream residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) and their payout levels. Using the payment card (PC) contingent valuation method (CVM), we measure the payment probability of the downstream residents and the amount they are willing to pay. Additionally, Heckman’s two-stage model is adopted for exploring the influencing factors of the surveyed residents’ WTP and payout levels and avoiding the possible presence of sample selection bias. The results showed that 75.03% of the surveyed residents are willing to pay for ecological compensation in the Ganjiang River Basin. The downstream residents are willing to pay an annual average amount of about $47.62/household for ecological compensation. The factors that significantly influence their WTP include the educational background, work type, residential location, and water quality and quantity. In the case of payout levels, the influencing factors include the education background, work type, household annual disposable income, and water quality and quantity. In addition, the factor of value recognition is marginal and significantly related to WTP and payout levels. The results of this empirical study have important policy implications and recommendations that the government should intensify its propaganda about the ecological value, increase investment in education, and establish a variety of ecological compensation payments, in order to protect and improve the ecological environment of the Ganjiang River Basin. Full article
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