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Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 14469

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Maintenance Engineering, School of Applied Technical Sciences, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan
Interests: prognostics and health management; predictive maintenance; system analysis; safety analysis; risk assessment and management; resilience; reliability engineering; mathematical modelling; artificial intelligence; machine learning; data mining; optimization; renewable energy; wind and solar photovoltaic systems; nuclear power; energy forecasting; performance analysis; mechanical engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pimpri Chinchwad College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411044, India
Interests: reliability modeling and predictions; maintenance and maintainability; machine learning; data analytics; renewable energy; solar pv systems; mechanical design engineering; reliability allocation and optimization; physics of failure; handbook-based reliability predictions

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Guest Editor
1. MINES-Paris, PSL Research University, Centre for research on Risk and Crises (CRC), Sophia Antipolis, France
2. Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milano, Italy
3. Center for Reliability and Safety of Critical Infrastructures (CRESCI) and the sino-french laboratory of Risk Science and Engineering (RISE), Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: modeling of the failure-repair-maintenance behavior of components and complex systems; analysis of reliability, maintainability, prognostics, safety, vulnerability, resilience and security characteristics of components and complex systems; Monte Carlo simulation methods; artificial techniques; optimization heuristics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A shift towards more renewable, green, eco-friendly and sustainable energy sources, such as wind, solar, tidal, biomass, hydro, ocean and geothermal, has been witnessed in the past decades. The lower costs of their deployment, their lower environmental impact, their technological advancement, the limited resources of fossil fuels, and the fast-growing global demand for energy, are the main causes of their rapid emergence and efficient development and deployment.

In general, all sources of energy follow complex pathways, from generation and transportation to access, via market regulations and policies. The related infrastructure is equipped with complex mechanical, electrical, power electronic drives and mechatronic systems. Despite the progress achieved so far in shifting towards more clean, renewable energy sources, technical/technological challenges, e.g., systems’ efficiency and performance, safety and reliability assessment, still exist and should be addressed to ensure the overall sustainability of such systems and their service provision.

The aim of the Special Issue is to encourage researchers and practitioners to share, exchange and communicate their original and high-quality articles (original research, including new theories, methods, techniques, and applications, case studies, technical notes and systematic up-to-date reviews) in the field of safety and reliability assessment of renewable energy systems to ensure their sustainability. In this regard, safety and reliability assessment, risk and resilience management, cutting-edge condition monitoring, early fault detection, effective fault diagnostics, accurate fault prognostics, system health management, efficient performance predictability under variable and extreme environmental conditions, and changing energy source mixes and grid conditions are of paramount importance. This Special Issue provides a platform to bring together the scientific community, private sectors, and active researchers to share key challenges, problems and their solutions, original ideas and knowhow to promote the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with special attention on affordable and clean energy in the conditions of climate change.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Reliability, availability, maintainability, safety and cost (RAMS+C) analysis for grid-connected renewable energy systems (RES)
  • Risk assessment and management
  • Resilience
  • Applications of reliability testing and statistics
  • Cutting-edge condition monitoring for critical components of RES
  • Failure mechanisms and advanced prognostics and health management (PHM)
  • Degradation modelling and analysis
  • Fault detection, diagnostics and prognostics
  • Performance analysis and prediction of RES
  • Maintenance analysis and optimization
  • Hybrid renewable energy systems and advanced energy dispatch strategies
  • Smart grid systems, embedded systems, and IoT
  • Sustainable energy technologies and assessments—the United Nations Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs)

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Sameer Al-Dahidi
Dr. Rajkumar Bhimgonda Patil
Prof. Dr. Enrico Zio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • sustainability
  • safety
  • risk assessment and management
  • resilience
  • reliability
  • maintenance
  • condition monitoring
  • prognostics and health management (PHM)
  • life cycle assessment
  • optimization
  • fault detection and diagnosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 5095 KiB  
Article
Economic Analysis of Gas Turbine Using to Increase Efficiency of the Organic Rankine Cycle
by Dominika Matuszewska
Sustainability 2024, 16(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16010075 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
In this research, a modified organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system has been presented and examined. This system incorporates a gas turbine as an additional subsystem to boost the enthalpy of geothermal brine. The primary objective of this study is to perform an economic [...] Read more.
In this research, a modified organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system has been presented and examined. This system incorporates a gas turbine as an additional subsystem to boost the enthalpy of geothermal brine. The primary objective of this study is to perform an economic evaluation of the modified ORC system, wherein a gas turbine is utilized to enhance the quality of geothermal steam. The suggested modified ORC system is particularly well-suited for areas abundant in geothermal resources with low to medium temperatures. It offers a more effective utilization of such resources, resulting in improved efficiency. The study considered 10 different working fluids and 8 types of gas turbines used to heat the geothermal water brine witch, the temperature vary of which varies between 80–130 °C. Various flue gas temperatures behind the heat exchanger, as well as temperatures of the return of the geothermal water to the injection hole, were examined. Based on that, 990 variations of configuration have been analyzed. The research showed that the lowest simple payback time (SPBT) values were achieved for the SGT-800 gas turbine and the working fluid R1336mzz(Z), for example, for an electricity price equal 200 USD/MWh and a natural gas price equal to 0.4 USD/hg, resulting in a SPBT value of 1.45 years. Additionally, for this variant, the dependence of SPBT on the price of electricity and the depth of the geothermal well was calculated; assuming the depth of the geothermal well is 2000 m, SPBT changes depending on the adopted gas prices and so for 150 USD/MWh it is 2.2 years, while at the price of 100 USD/MWh it is 5.5 years. It can be concluded that a decrease in SPBT is observed with an increase in the price of electricity and a decrease in the depth of the geothermal well. The findings of this study can help us to better understand the need to utilize low and medium temperature geothermal heat by using combined cycles (including gas turbines), also from an economic point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability)
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17 pages, 1796 KiB  
Article
Diagnostics of Early Faults in Wind Generator Bearings Using Hjorth Parameters
by Arthur C. Santos, Wesley A. Souza, Gustavo V. Barbara, Marcelo F. Castoldi and Alessandro Goedtel
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 14673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152014673 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Machine learning techniques are a widespread approach to monitoring and diagnosing faults in electrical machines. These techniques extract information from collected signals and classify the health conditions of internal components. Among all internal components, bearings present the highest failure rate. Classifiers commonly employ [...] Read more.
Machine learning techniques are a widespread approach to monitoring and diagnosing faults in electrical machines. These techniques extract information from collected signals and classify the health conditions of internal components. Among all internal components, bearings present the highest failure rate. Classifiers commonly employ vibration data acquired from electrical machines, which can indicate different levels of bearing failure severity. Given the circumstances, this work proposes a methodology for detecting early bearing failures in wind turbines, applying classifiers that rely on Hjorth parameters. The Hjorth parameters were applied to analyze vibration signals collected from experiments to distinguish states of normal functioning and states of malfunction, hence enabling the classification of distinct conditions. After the labeling stage using Hjorth parameters, classifiers were employed to provide an automatic early fault identification model, with the decision tree, random forest, support vector machine, and k-nearest neighbors methods presenting accuracy levels of over 95%. Notably, the accuracy of the classifiers was maintained even after undergoing a dimensionality reduction process. Therefore, it can be stated that Hjorth parameters provide a feasible alternative for identifying early faults in wind generators through time-series analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability)
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26 pages, 22720 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Extreme Meteorological Conditions for the Safety and Reliability of Floating Photovoltaic Systems: A Case on the Mediterranean Coast
by Mehmet Seren Korkmaz, Emir Toker and Ahmet Duran Şahin
Sustainability 2023, 15(19), 14077; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151914077 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
In recent decades, renewable energy projects have required careful consideration of environmental factors. This study investigates the impact of a mid-latitude cyclone on planned floating photovoltaic (FPV) facilities in Antalya, Turkey, focusing on the severe thunderstorm events that brought heavy rainfall and tornadoes [...] Read more.
In recent decades, renewable energy projects have required careful consideration of environmental factors. This study investigates the impact of a mid-latitude cyclone on planned floating photovoltaic (FPV) facilities in Antalya, Turkey, focusing on the severe thunderstorm events that brought heavy rainfall and tornadoes in January 2019. Synoptic analysis reveals a deep cut-off low over the Genoa Gulf, causing trough formation and vertical cloud development due to moisture convergence. Warm air advection pushed an unstable thunderstorm system northward along an occluded front. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, sensitivity analysis is conducted, highlighting regional variations in wind speeds. The model outputs are compared with observations, identifying the best configuration using statistical indicators. The Mellor–Yamada–Janjic (MYJ) planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the Milbrandt microphysics scheme produced better results in the western and central regions. The model output of the best configurations is used to calculate regional wave characteristics with a modified Shore Protection Manual (SPM) method for water reservoirs. These findings offer invaluable insights for future FPV projects, providing a better understanding of how to address challenges posed by extreme weather conditions and how to enhance system safety and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability)
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24 pages, 4204 KiB  
Article
Reliability and Criticality Analysis of a Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic System Using Fault Tree Analysis Approach
by Pramod R. Sonawane, Sheetal Bhandari, Rajkumar Bhimgonda Patil and Sameer Al-Dahidi
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4609; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054609 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3318
Abstract
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems typically convert solar irradiance into electricity, thereby helping to reduce the need for fossil fuels and the amount of greenhouse gases released. They provide a reliable and continuous renewable source of energy. However, PV systems are continuously exposed to [...] Read more.
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems typically convert solar irradiance into electricity, thereby helping to reduce the need for fossil fuels and the amount of greenhouse gases released. They provide a reliable and continuous renewable source of energy. However, PV systems are continuously exposed to diverse and changing environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, dust, and rain. Exposure to such conditions creates electrical and visible faults in the PV systems. These faults may reduce the PV system’s performance, reliability, and lifetime. In this regard, this paper aims to propose a framework/methodology for reliability modeling and assessment of large-scale grid-connected PV systems using a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) approach. Specifically, an exhaustive literature survey is carried out to acquire the failure rates of different components/faults existing on the DC side of the PV system. Then, the Fussel-Vesely (F-V) importance measure is employed to identify critical faults and their criticality ranking. Results showed that solder bond failure, broken cell, broken interconnect (finger interruption), rack structure, grounding/lightning protection system, delamination, discoloration, and partial shading are the most critical faults which severely degrade the performance of the PV systems. The recommendations and scope for further study are provided to optimize operations and maintenance costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability)
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Review

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26 pages, 726 KiB  
Review
Implications of Climate Change on Wind Energy Potential
by Tolga Kara and Ahmet Duran Şahin
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 14822; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152014822 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7130
Abstract
This study examines the crucial role of wind energy in mitigating global warming and promoting sustainable energy development, with a focus on the impact of climate change on wind power potential. While technological progress has facilitated the expansion of the industry, it is [...] Read more.
This study examines the crucial role of wind energy in mitigating global warming and promoting sustainable energy development, with a focus on the impact of climate change on wind power potential. While technological progress has facilitated the expansion of the industry, it is crucial to continue making advancements to reduce the life-cycle emissions of wind turbines and ensure their long-term sustainability. Temporal discontinuities present a significant challenge for renewable energy sources. This study highlights the potential of hybrid systems to provide consistent energy output from wind sources. It also examines the variability in wind patterns caused by climate change, acknowledging that outcomes vary depending on geographic contexts, modeling approaches, and climate projections. Notably, inconsistencies in wind speed projections from downscaled general circulation models introduce uncertainties. While specific regions, such as North America, project an increase in wind speeds, others, such as the Mediterranean, face a potential decrease. Of particular note is the forecast for a potential long-term increase in wind speeds in Northern Europe. In conclusion, the wind energy industry displays considerable potential for growth, driven by technological advancements. However, the complexities resulting from climate change necessitate further research. Such insights are crucial for informed energy policy formulation and sustainable industry progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability)
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