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Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

by Damhuji Rifai 1,2,*, Ahmed N. Abdalla 1,†, Kharudin Ali 2,† and Ramdan Razali 1,†
Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Pahang 26300, Malaysia
Faculty of Electrical & Automation Engineering Technology. TATI University College, Kemaman 26000, Terengganu, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Subhas Mukhopadhyay and Chinthaka Pasan Gooneratne
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 298;
Received: 10 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: giant magnetoresistance; eddy current testing; non-destructive testing giant magnetoresistance; eddy current testing; non-destructive testing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rifai, D.; Abdalla, A.N.; Ali, K.; Razali, R. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications. Sensors 2016, 16, 298.

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