Special Issue "Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Prasad S. Thenkabail
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Editor-in-Chief
Research Geographer-15, U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), USGS Western Geographic Science Center (WGSC), 2255, N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
Tel. +94-11-2788924; Fax: +1 928 556 7112
Interests: hyperspectral remote sensing, remote sensing expertise in a number of areas including: (a) global croplands, (b) agriculture, (c) water resources, (d) wetlands, (e) droughts, (f) land use/land cover, (g) forestry, (h) natural resources management, (i) environments, (j) vegetation, and (k) characterization of large river basins and deltas
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This year, we will be celebrating the 10th anniversary of Remote Sensing. To summarize the achievements of the remote sensing community over the last decade, we are currently organizing a Special Issue to collect high-quality reviews and articles in various areas in remote sensing.

Founded in 2009, Remote Sensing has experienced tremendous growth in terms of the number and quality of scientific publications, and become one of the top journals in remote sensing field. The Special Issue covers all aspects of the remote sensing process, from instrument design and signal processing to the retrieval of geophysical parameters and remote sensing application in all fields. Manuscripts for this important Special Issue of Remote Sensing will be accepted by the editorial office, the Editor-in-Chief and editorial board members by invitation only.

Dr. Prasad Thenkabail
Editor-in-Chief

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Remote Sensing 10th Anniversary Best Paper Award
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(15), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11151790 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
Started in 2009, our journal will celebrate its 10th anniversary in 2019 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Retrieval of Snow Properties from the Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192280 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
The Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) architecture facilitates Earth Observation data processing. In this work, we present results from a new Snow Processor for SNAP. We also describe physical principles behind the developed snow property retrieval technique based on the analysis of Ocean and [...] Read more.
The Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) architecture facilitates Earth Observation data processing. In this work, we present results from a new Snow Processor for SNAP. We also describe physical principles behind the developed snow property retrieval technique based on the analysis of Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3A/B measurements over clean and polluted snow fields. Using OLCI spectral reflectance measurements in the range 400–1020 nm, we derived important snow properties such as spectral and broadband albedo, snow specific surface area, snow extent and grain size on a spatial grid of 300 m. The algorithm also incorporated cloud screening and atmospheric correction procedures over snow surfaces. We present validation results using ground measurements from Antarctica, the Greenland ice sheet and the French Alps. We find the spectral albedo retrieved with accuracy of better than 3% on average, making our retrievals sufficient for a variety of applications. Broadband albedo is retrieved with the average accuracy of about 5% over snow. Therefore, the uncertainties of satellite retrievals are close to experimental errors of ground measurements. The retrieved surface grain size shows good agreement with ground observations. Snow specific surface area observations are also consistent with our OLCI retrievals. We present snow albedo and grain size mapping over the inland ice sheet of Greenland for areas including dry snow, melted/melting snow and impurity rich bare ice. The algorithm can be applied to OLCI Sentinel-3 measurements providing an opportunity for creation of long-term snow property records essential for climate monitoring and data assimilation studies—especially in the Arctic region, where we face rapid environmental changes including reduction of snow/ice extent and, therefore, planetary albedo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Sentinel-1 Data for Winter Wheat Phenology Monitoring and Mapping
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192228 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
The ability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 data to detect the main wheat phenological phases was investigated in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon. Accordingly, the temporal variation of Sentinel-1 (S1) signal was analyzed as a function of the phenological phases’ dates observed [...] Read more.
The ability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 data to detect the main wheat phenological phases was investigated in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon. Accordingly, the temporal variation of Sentinel-1 (S1) signal was analyzed as a function of the phenological phases’ dates observed in situ (germination; heading and soft dough), and harvesting. Results showed that S1 data, unlike the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, were able to estimate the dates of theses phenological phases due to significant variations in S1 temporal series at the dates of germination, heading, soft dough, and harvesting. Particularly, the ratio VV/VH at low incidence angle (32–34°) was able to detect the germination and harvesting dates. VV polarization at low incidence angle (32–34°) was able to detect the heading phase, while VH polarization at high incidence angle (43–45°) was better than that at low incidence angle (32–34°), in detecting the soft dough phase. An automated approach for main wheat phenological phases’ determination was then developed on the western part of the Bekaa plain. This approach modelled the S1 SAR temporal series by smoothing and fitting the temporal series with Gaussian functions (up to three Gaussians) allowing thus to automatically detect the main wheat phenological phases from the sum of these Gaussians. To test its robustness, the automated method was applied on the northern part of the Bekaa plain, in which winter wheat is harvested usually earlier because of the different weather conditions. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimation of the phenological phases’ dates was 2.9 days for germination, 5.5 days for heading, 5.1 days soft dough, 3.0 days for West Bekaa’s harvesting, and 4.5 days for North Bekaa’s harvesting. In addition, a slight underestimation was observed for germination and heading of West Bekaa (−0.2 and −1.1 days, respectively) while an overestimation was observed for soft dough of West Bekaa and harvesting for both West and North Bekaa (3.1, 0.6, and 3.6 days, respectively). These results are encouraging, and thus prove that S1 data are powerful as a tool for crop monitoring, to serve enhanced crop management and production handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Change Vector Analysis, Tasseled Cap, and NDVI-NDMI for Measuring Land Use/Cover Changes Caused by a Sudden Short-Term Severe Drought: 2011 Texas Event
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192217 - 23 Sep 2019
Abstract
Sudden short-term severe droughts have major impacts on ecosystem balance. Synoptic and replicable measurements from remotely sensed data are essential for calculating changes to land use/cover caused by severe drought conditions. In the US, Texas experienced a particularly severe drought in 2011, which [...] Read more.
Sudden short-term severe droughts have major impacts on ecosystem balance. Synoptic and replicable measurements from remotely sensed data are essential for calculating changes to land use/cover caused by severe drought conditions. In the US, Texas experienced a particularly severe drought in 2011, which adversely affected forest and grassland ecosystems in addition to $7.62 billion of agricultural loss. To assess the extent and severity of the drought we use satellite sensor data and image processing techniques to measure changes in land use/cover. Our methodology uses change vector analysis (CVA), the normalized difference vegetation index, the normalized difference moisture index, and three variables-brightness, greenness, and wetness-extracted from tasseled cap transforms (TCT). All are established techniques in remote sensing but have as yet been applied in combination to measure land use/cover changes affected by intense short-term drought conditions. Our objective is to calculate not only vegetation and bare soil indices, but also the intensity of change (magnitude) and the type of change (direction). For CVA direction, we include an improved methodology using the arctangent function based on two arguments, ATAN2 which produces results in all four possible quadrants, and complete characterization of all possible change directions. The three variables of TCT are applied to CVA magnitude and direction using vectors in three dimensions, resulting in eight change categories. Our results are based on Landsat TM sensor data for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011, which represent a short period of severe drought, above average precipitation, and severe drought respectively, for two study sites in Texas. Results indicate that land use/cover changes were affected by both an increase in precipitation in 2010 as well as a considerable decrease of precipitation in 2011 resulting in the devastating sudden drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Passive Microwave around 183 GHz for Snowfall Detection in the Arctic
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192200 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study evaluates the potential use of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) for snowfall detection in the Arctic. Using two years of colocated MHS and CloudSat observations, we develop an algorithm that is able to detect up to 90% of the most intense [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the potential use of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) for snowfall detection in the Arctic. Using two years of colocated MHS and CloudSat observations, we develop an algorithm that is able to detect up to 90% of the most intense snowfall events (snow water path ≥400 g m−2 and 50% of the weak snowfall rate events (snow water path ≤50 g m−2. The brightness temperatures at 190.3 GHz and 183.3 ± 3 GHz, the integrated water vapor, and the temperature at 2 m are identified as the most important variables for snowfall detection. The algorithm tends to underestimate the snowfall occurrence over Greenland and mountainous areas (by as much as −30%), likely due to the dryness of these areas, and to overestimate the snowfall occurrence over the northern part of the Atlantic (by up to 30%), likely due to the occurrence of mixed phase precipitation. An interpretation of the selection of the variables and their importance provides a better understanding of the snowfall detection algorithm. This work lays the foundation for the development of a snowfall rate quantification algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Using High-Spatiotemporal Thermal Satellite ET Retrievals for Operational Water Use and Stress Monitoring in a California Vineyard
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182124 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
In viticulture, deficit irrigation strategies are often implemented to control vine canopy growth and to impose stress at critical stages of vine growth to improve wine grape quality. To support deficit irrigation scheduling, remote sensing technologies can be employed in the mapping of [...] Read more.
In viticulture, deficit irrigation strategies are often implemented to control vine canopy growth and to impose stress at critical stages of vine growth to improve wine grape quality. To support deficit irrigation scheduling, remote sensing technologies can be employed in the mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) at the field to sub-field scales, quantifying time-varying vineyard water requirements and actual water use. In the current study, we investigate the utility of ET maps derived from thermal infrared satellite imagery over a vineyard in the Central Valley of California equipped with a variable rate drip irrigation (VRDI) system which enables differential water applications at the 30 × 30 m scale. To support irrigation management at that scale, we utilized a thermal-based multi-sensor data fusion approach to generate weekly total actual ET (ETa) estimates at 30 m spatial resolution, coinciding with the resolution of the Landsat reflectance bands. Crop water requirements (ETc) were defined with a vegetative index (VI)-based approach. To test capacity to capture stress signals, the vineyard was sub-divided into four blocks with different irrigation management strategies and goals, inducing varying degrees of stress during the growing season. Results indicate derived weekly total ET from the thermal-based data fusion approach match well with observations. The thermal-based method was also able to capture the spatial heterogeneity in ET over the vineyard due to a water stress event imposed on two of the four vineyard blocks. This transient stress event was not reflected in the VI-based ETc estimate, highlighting the value of thermal band imaging. While the data fusion system provided valuable information, latency in current satellite data availability, particularly from Landsat, impacts operational applications over the course of a growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Cloud and Cloud-Shadow Masking for Landsat 8 Using Multitemporal Images in a Variety of Environments
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172060 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
Landsat 8 images have been widely used for many applications, but cloud and cloud-shadow cover issues remain. In this study, multitemporal cloud masking (MCM), designed to detect cloud and cloud-shadow for Landsat 8 in tropical environments, was improved for application in sub-tropical environments, [...] Read more.
Landsat 8 images have been widely used for many applications, but cloud and cloud-shadow cover issues remain. In this study, multitemporal cloud masking (MCM), designed to detect cloud and cloud-shadow for Landsat 8 in tropical environments, was improved for application in sub-tropical environments, with the greatest improvement in cloud masking. We added a haze optimized transformation (HOT) test and thermal band in the previous MCM algorithm to improve the algorithm in the detection of haze, thin-cirrus cloud, and thick cloud. We also improved the previous MCM in the detection of cloud-shadow by adding a blue band. In the visual assessment, the algorithm can detect a thick cloud, haze, thin-cirrus cloud, and cloud-shadow accurately. In the statistical assessment, the average user’s accuracy and producer’s accuracy of cloud masking results across the different land cover in the selected area was 98.03% and 98.98%, respectively. On the other hand, the average user’s accuracy and producer’s accuracy of cloud-shadow masking results was 97.97% and 96.66%, respectively. Compared to the Landsat 8 cloud cover assessment (L8 CCA) algorithm, MCM has better accuracies, especially in cloud-shadow masking. Our preliminary tests showed that the new MCM algorithm can detect cloud and cloud-shadow for Landsat 8 in a variety of environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Forest Damage Assessment Using Deep Learning on High Resolution Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171976 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Storms can cause significant damage to forest areas, affecting biodiversity and infrastructure and leading to economic loss. Thus, rapid detection and mapping of windthrows are crucially important for forest management. Recent advances in computer vision have led to highly-accurate image classification algorithms such [...] Read more.
Storms can cause significant damage to forest areas, affecting biodiversity and infrastructure and leading to economic loss. Thus, rapid detection and mapping of windthrows are crucially important for forest management. Recent advances in computer vision have led to highly-accurate image classification algorithms such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures. In this study, we tested and implemented an algorithm based on CNNs in an ArcGIS environment for automatic detection and mapping of damaged areas. The algorithm was trained and tested on a forest area in Bavaria, Germany. . It is a based on a modified U-Net architecture that was optimized for the pixelwise classification of multispectral aerial remote sensing data. The neural network was trained on labeled damaged areas from after-storm aerial orthophotos of a ca. 109 k m 2 forest area with RGB and NIR bands and 0.2-m spatial resolution. Around 10 7 pixels of labeled data were used in the process. Once the network is trained, predictions on further datasets can be computed within seconds, depending on the size of the input raster and the computational power used. The overall accuracy on our test dataset was 92 % . During visual validation, labeling errors were found in the reference data that somewhat biased the results because the algorithm in some instance performed better than the human labeling procedure, while missing areas affected by shadows. Our results are very good in terms of precision, and the methods introduced in this paper have several additional advantages compared to traditional methods: CNNs automatically detect high- and low-level features in the data, leading to high classification accuracies, while only one after-storm image is needed in comparison to two images for approaches based on change detection. Furthermore, flight parameters do not affect the results in the same way as for approaches that require DSMs and DTMs as the classification is only based on the image data themselves, and errors occurring in the computation of DSMs and DTMs do not affect the results with respect to the z component. The integration into the ArcGIS Platform allows a streamlined workflow for forest management, as the results can be accessed by mobile devices in the field to allow for high-accuracy ground-truthing and additional mapping that can be synchronized back into the database. Our results and the provided automatic workflow highlight the potential of deep learning on high-resolution imagery and GIS for fast and efficient post-disaster damage assessment as a first step of disaster management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Temperature Difference Parameter in the SSEBop Model with Satellite-Observed Land Surface Temperature Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161947 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
The Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model uses the principle of satellite psychrometry to produce spatially explicit actual evapotranspiration (ETa) with remotely sensed and weather data. The temperature difference (dT) in the model is a predefined parameter quantifying the difference [...] Read more.
The Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model uses the principle of satellite psychrometry to produce spatially explicit actual evapotranspiration (ETa) with remotely sensed and weather data. The temperature difference (dT) in the model is a predefined parameter quantifying the difference between surface temperature at bare soil and air temperature at canopy level. Because dT is derived from the average-sky net radiation based primarily on climate data, validation of the dT estimation is critical for assuring a high-quality ETa product. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to evaluate the SSEBop dT estimation for the conterminous United States. MODIS data (2008–2017) were processed to compute the 10-year average land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 1 km resolution and 8-day interval. The observed dT (dTo) was computed from the LST difference between hot (NDVI < 0.25) and cold (NDVI > 0.7) pixels within each 2° × 2° sampling block. There were enough hot and cold pixels within each block to create dTo timeseries in the West Coast and South-Central regions. The comparison of dTo and modeled dT (dTm) showed high agreement, with a bias of 0.8 K and a correlation coefficient of 0.88 on average. This study concludes that the dTm estimation from the SSEBop model is reliable, which further assures the accuracy of the ETa estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
An Analysis of Ground-Point Classifiers for Terrestrial LiDAR
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161915 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Previous literature has compared the performance of existing ground point classification (GPC) techniques on airborne LiDAR (ALS) data (LiDAR—light detection and ranging); however, their performance when applied to terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) data has not yet been addressed. This research tested the classification accuracy [...] Read more.
Previous literature has compared the performance of existing ground point classification (GPC) techniques on airborne LiDAR (ALS) data (LiDAR—light detection and ranging); however, their performance when applied to terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) data has not yet been addressed. This research tested the classification accuracy of five openly-available GPC algorithms on seven TLS datasets: Zhang et al.’s inverted cloth simulation (CSF), Kraus and Pfeiffer’s hierarchical weighted robust interpolation classifier (HWRI), Axelsson’s progressive TIN densification filter (TIN), Evans and Hudak’s multiscale curvature classification (MCC), and Vosselman’s modified slope-based filter (MSBF). Classification performance was analyzed using the kappa index of agreement (KIA) and rasterized spatial distribution of classification accuracy datasets generated through comparisons with manually classified reference datasets. The results identified a decrease in classification accuracy for the CSF and HWRI classification of low vegetation, for the HWRI and MCC classifications of variably sloped terrain, for the HWRI and TIN classifications of low outlier points, and for the TIN and MSBF classifications of off-terrain (OT) points without any ground points beneath. Additionally, the results show that while no single algorithm was suitable for use on all datasets containing varying terrain characteristics and OT object types, in general, a mathematical-morphology/slope-based method outperformed other methods, reporting a kappa score of 0.902. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Crop Residue by Combining Landsat and WorldView-3 Satellite Imagery
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161857 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
A unique, multi-tiered approach was applied to map crop residue cover on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, United States. Field measurements of crop residue cover were used to calibrate residue mapping using shortwave infrared (SWIR) indices derived from WorldView-3 imagery for [...] Read more.
A unique, multi-tiered approach was applied to map crop residue cover on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, United States. Field measurements of crop residue cover were used to calibrate residue mapping using shortwave infrared (SWIR) indices derived from WorldView-3 imagery for a 12-km × 12-km footprint. The resulting map was then used to calibrate and subsequently classify crop residue mapping using Landsat imagery at a larger spatial resolution and extent. This manuscript describes how the method was applied and presents results in the form of crop residue cover maps, validation statistics, and quantification of conservation tillage implementation in the agricultural landscape. Overall accuracy for maps derived from Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 were comparable at roughly 92% (+/− 10%). Tillage class-specific accuracy was also strong and ranged from 75% to 99%. The approach, which employed a 12-band image stack of six tillage spectral indices and six individual Landsat bands, was shown to be adaptable to variable soil moisture conditions—under dry conditions (Landsat 7, 14 May 2015) the majority of predictive power was attributed to SWIR indices, and under wet conditions (Landsat 8, 22 May 2015) single band reflectance values were more effective at explaining variability in residue cover. Summary statistics of resulting tillage class occurrence matched closely with conservation tillage implementation totals reported by Maryland and Delaware to the Chesapeake Bay Program. This hybrid method combining WorldView-3 and Landsat imagery sources shows promise for monitoring progress in the adoption of conservation tillage practices and for describing crop residue outcomes associated with a variety of agricultural management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Power Line Pylons and Wires Using Airborne LiDAR Data at Different Height Levels
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(15), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11151798 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
High density airborne point cloud data have become an important means for modelling and maintenance of power line corridors (PLCs). As the amount of data in a dense point cloud is large, even in a small area, automatic detection of pylon locations can [...] Read more.
High density airborne point cloud data have become an important means for modelling and maintenance of power line corridors (PLCs). As the amount of data in a dense point cloud is large, even in a small area, automatic detection of pylon locations can offer a significant advantage by reducing the number of points that need to be processed in subsequent steps, i.e., the extraction of individual pylons and wires. However, the existing solutions mostly overlook this advantage by processing all of the available data at one time, which hinders their application to large datasets. Moreover, the presence of high vegetation and hilly terrain may challenge many of the existing methods, since vertically overlapping objects (e.g., trees and wires) may not be effectively segmented using a single height threshold. For extraction of pylons and wires, this paper proposes a novel approach which involves converting the input points at different height levels into binary masks. Long straight lines are extracted from these masks and convex hulls around the lines at individual height levels are used to form series of hulls across the height levels. The series of hulls are then projected onto a horizontal plane to form individual corridors. A number of height gaps, where there are no objects between the vegetation and the bottom-most wire, are then estimated. The height gaps along with the height levels consider the presence of hilly terrain as well as high vegetation within the PLCs. By using only the non-ground points within the extracted corridors and height gaps, the pylons are detected. The estimated height gaps are further exploited to define robust seed regions for the detected pylons. The seed regions thereafter are grown to extract the complete pylons. Finally, only the points between the locations of two successive pylons are used to extract points of individual wires. It first counts the number of wires within a power line span and, then, iteratively obtains individual wire points. When tested on two large Australian datasets, the proposed approach exhibited high object-based performance (correctness for pylons and wires of 100% and 99.6%, respectively) and high point-based performance (completeness for pylons and wires of 98.1% and 95%, respectively). Moreover, the planimetric accuracy for the detected pylons was 0.10 m. Thus, the proposed approach is demonstrated to be useful in effective extraction and modelling of pylons and wires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Salt Marsh Shorelines from Remotely Sensed Elevation Data and Imagery
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(15), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11151795 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that are vulnerable to lateral erosion, submergence, and internal disintegration due to sea level rise, storms, and sediment deficits. Because many salt marshes are losing area in response to these factors, it is important to monitor their lateral [...] Read more.
Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that are vulnerable to lateral erosion, submergence, and internal disintegration due to sea level rise, storms, and sediment deficits. Because many salt marshes are losing area in response to these factors, it is important to monitor their lateral extent at high resolution over multiple timescales. In this study we describe two methods to calculate the location of the salt marsh shoreline. The marsh edge from elevation data (MEED) method uses remotely sensed elevation data to calculate an objective proxy for the shoreline of a salt marsh. This proxy is the abrupt change in elevation that usually characterizes the seaward edge of a salt marsh, designated the “marsh scarp.” It is detected as the maximum slope along a cross-shore transect between mean high water and mean tide level. The method was tested using lidar topobathymetric and photogrammetric elevation data from Massachusetts, USA. The other method to calculate the salt marsh shoreline is the marsh edge by image processing (MEIP) method which finds the unvegetated/vegetated line. This method applies image classification techniques to multispectral imagery and elevation datasets for edge detection. The method was tested using aerial imagery and coastal elevation data from the Plum Island Estuary in Massachusetts, USA. Both methods calculate a line that closely follows the edge of vegetation seen in imagery. The two methods were compared to each other using high resolution unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) data, and to a heads-up digitized shoreline. The root-mean-square deviation was 0.6 meters between the two methods, and less than 0.43 meters from the digitized shoreline. The MEIP method was also applied to a lower resolution dataset to investigate the effect of horizontal resolution on the results. Both methods provide an accurate, efficient, and objective way to track salt marsh shorelines with spatially intensive data over large spatial scales, which is necessary to evaluate geomorphic change and wetland vulnerability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Human Versus Machine-Driven Cadastral Boundary Feature Extraction
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(14), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141662 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective to fast-track the mapping and registration of large numbers of unrecorded land rights globally has led to the experimental application of Artificial Intelligence in the domain of land administration, and specifically the application of automated visual cognition techniques for cadastral mapping [...] Read more.
The objective to fast-track the mapping and registration of large numbers of unrecorded land rights globally has led to the experimental application of Artificial Intelligence in the domain of land administration, and specifically the application of automated visual cognition techniques for cadastral mapping tasks. In this research, we applied and compared the ability of rule-based systems within Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), as opposed to human analysis, to extract visible cadastral boundaries from very high-resolution World View-2 images, in both rural and urban settings. From our experiments, machine-based techniques were able to automatically delineate a good proportion of rural parcels with explicit polygons where the correctness of the automatically extracted boundaries was 47.4% against 74.24% for humans and the completeness of 45% for the machine compared to 70.4% for humans. On the contrary, in the urban area, automatic results were counterintuitive: even though urban plots and buildings are clearly marked with visible features such as fences, roads and tacitly perceptible to eyes, automation resulted in geometrically and topologically poorly structured data. Thus, these could neither be geometrically compared with human digitisation, nor actual cadastral data from the field. The results of this study provide an updated snapshot with regards to the performance of contemporary machine-driven feature extraction techniques compared to conventional manual digitising. In our methodology, using an iterative approach of segmentation and classification, we demonstrated how to overcome the weaknesses of having undesirable segments due to intra-parcel and inter-parcel variability, when using segmentation approaches for cadastral feature delineation. We also demonstrated how we can easily implement a geometric comparison framework within the Esri’s ArcGIS software environment and firmly believe the developed methodology can be reproduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Seven MODIS Vegetation Indices to BRDF Effects during the Amazonian Dry Season
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(14), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141650 - 11 Jul 2019
Abstract
We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, processed by the multi–angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm, to investigate the sensitivity of seven vegetation indices (VIs) to bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects in the dry season (June–September) of the Brazilian Amazon. [...] Read more.
We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, processed by the multi–angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm, to investigate the sensitivity of seven vegetation indices (VIs) to bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects in the dry season (June–September) of the Brazilian Amazon. The analysis was first performed over three sites, located from north to south of the Amazon, and then extended into the entire region. We inspected for differences in viewing–illumination parameters and pixel quality retrievals during MODIS data acquisition over the region. By comparing and correlating corrected and non–corrected data for bidirectional effects, we evaluated monthly changes in reflectance and VIs (2000–2014). Finally, we computed the effect size of the BRDF correction using non–parametric Mann–Whitney tests and Cohen’s r metrics. The results showed that the most anisotropic VIs were the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and shortwave infrared normalized difference (SWND). These VIs presented the largest relative changes and the lowest correlation coefficients, between corrected and non–corrected data, because of the large effect size of the BRDF. The least anisotropic VI was the normalized difference water index (NDWI). The anisotropy of these VIs was stronger in the northern Amazon. It increased from the beginning to the end of the dry season, following changes in the relative azimuth angle (RAA) toward the BRDF hotspot in September. The modifications in the relative proportions of backscattering observations used in composite products caused a reflectance increase in all MODIS bands at the end of the dry season, especially in the near infrared (NIR). The reflectance decreased after BRDF correction. Because of the atmospheric effects, the view zenith angle (VZA) of the pixels selected in composite products decreased toward the south of the Amazon. In the southern Amazon, the seasonal amplitude in the solar zenith angle (SZA) reached values close to 18°. For the most anisotropic index, the BRDF correction removed, on average, 30% of the EVI signal in June, and 60% of the EVI signal in September, reducing dry season variations over time. The results reinforce the need for bidirectional correction of MODIS data before the seasonal and inter–annual analyses of the most anisotropic VIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
The Inter-Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Imager with Aqua-MODIS and NPP-VIIRS
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(13), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11131609 - 06 Jul 2019
Abstract
The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) through the earth polychromatic imaging camera (EPIC) continuously observes the illuminated disk from the Lagrange-1 point. The EPIC sensor was designed to monitor the diurnal variation of ozone, clouds, aerosols, and vegetation, especially those features that benefit [...] Read more.
The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) through the earth polychromatic imaging camera (EPIC) continuously observes the illuminated disk from the Lagrange-1 point. The EPIC sensor was designed to monitor the diurnal variation of ozone, clouds, aerosols, and vegetation, especially those features that benefit from observation near-backscatter conditions. The EPIC sensor does not contain any onboard calibration systems. This study describes the inter-calibration of EPIC channels 5 (0.44 µm), 6 (0.55 µm), 7 (0.68 µm), and 10 (0.78 µm) with respect to Aqua-MODIS and NPP-VIIRS. The calibration is transferred using coincident ray-matched reflectance pairs over all-sky tropical ocean (ATO) and deep convective cloud (DCC) targets. A robust and automated image-alignment technique based on feature matching was formulated to improve the navigation quality of the EPIC images. The EPIC V02 dataset exhibits improved navigation over V01. As the visible channels display similar spatial features, a single visible channel can be used to co-register the remaining visible bands. The VIIRS-referenced EPIC ATO and DCC ray-matched calibration coefficients are within 0.3%. The EPIC four-year calibration trends based on VIIRS are within 0.15%/year. The MODIS-based EPIC calibration coefficients were compared against the Geogdzhayev and Marshak 2018 published calibration coefficients and were found to be within 1.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Long-Term (1986–2015) Crop Water Use Characterization over the Upper Rio Grande Basin of United States and Mexico Using Landsat-Based Evapotranspiration
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(13), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11131587 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The evaluation of historical water use in the Upper Rio Grande Basin (URGB), United States and Mexico, using Landsat-derived actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from 1986 to 2015 is presented here as the first study of its kind to apply satellite observations to [...] Read more.
The evaluation of historical water use in the Upper Rio Grande Basin (URGB), United States and Mexico, using Landsat-derived actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from 1986 to 2015 is presented here as the first study of its kind to apply satellite observations to quantify long-term, basin-wide crop consumptive use in a large basin. The rich archive of Landsat imagery combined with the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model was used to estimate and map ETa across the basin and over irrigated fields for historical characterization of water-use dynamics. Monthly ETa estimates were evaluated using six eddy-covariance (EC) flux towers showing strong correspondence (r2 > 0.80) with reasonable error rates (root mean square error between 6 and 19 mm/month). Detailed spatiotemporal analysis using peak growing season (June–August) ETa over irrigated areas revealed declining regional crop water-use patterns throughout the basin, a trend reinforced through comparisons with gridded ETa from the Max Planck Institute (MPI). The interrelationships among seven agro-hydroclimatic variables (ETa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land surface temperature (LST), maximum air temperature (Ta), potential ET (ETo), precipitation, and runoff) are all summarized to support the assessment and context of historical water-use dynamics over 30 years in the URGB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Ensemble Identification of Spectral Bands Related to Soil Organic Carbon Levels over an Agricultural Field in Southern Ontario, Canada
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(11), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111298 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The recent use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has introduced new opportunities for soil organic carbon (SOC) assessment and monitoring. These data enable monitoring of a wide variety of soil properties but pose important methodological challenges. Highly correlated hyperspectral spectral bands can affect [...] Read more.
The recent use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has introduced new opportunities for soil organic carbon (SOC) assessment and monitoring. These data enable monitoring of a wide variety of soil properties but pose important methodological challenges. Highly correlated hyperspectral spectral bands can affect the prediction and accuracy as well as the interpretability of the retrieval model. Therefore, the spectral dimension needs to be reduced through a selection of specific spectral bands or regions that are most helpful to describing SOC. This study evaluates the efficiency of visible near-infrared (VNIR) and shortwave near-infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral data to identify the most informative hyperspectral bands responding to SOC content in agricultural soils. Soil samples (111) were collected over an agricultural field in southern Ontario, Canada and analyzed against two hyperspectral datasets: An airborne Nano-Hyperspec imaging sensor with 270 bands (400–1000 nm) and a laboratory hyperspectral dataset (ASD FieldSpec 3) along the 1000–2500 nm range (NIR-SWIR). In parallel, a multimethod modeling approach consisting of random forest, support vector machine, and partial least squares regression models was used to conduct band selections and to assess the validity of the selected bands. The multimethod model resulted in a selection of optimal band or regions over the VNIR and SWIR sensitive to SOC and potentially for mapping. The bands that achieved the highest respective importance values were 711–715, 727, 986–998, and 433–435 nm regions (VNIR); and 2365–2373, 2481–2500, and 2198–2206 nm (NIR-SWIR). Some of these bands are in agreement with the absorption features of SOC reported in the literature, whereas others have not been reported before. Ultimately, the selection of optimal band and regions is of importance for quantification of agricultural SOC and would provide a new framework for creating optimized SOC-specific sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Radiometric Inter-Consistency of VIIRS DNB on Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 from Observations of Reflected Lunar Lights over Deep Convective Clouds
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(8), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11080934 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) is capable of observing reflected lunar radiances at night with its high gain stage (HGS), and the radiometric calibration is traceable to the sun through gain transfer from the low gain stage (LGS) [...] Read more.
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) is capable of observing reflected lunar radiances at night with its high gain stage (HGS), and the radiometric calibration is traceable to the sun through gain transfer from the low gain stage (LGS) calibrated near the terminator with the solar diffuser. Meanwhile, deep convective clouds (DCC) are known to have a stable reflectance in the visible spectral range. Therefore, the reflected lunar radiance at night from the DCC provides a unique dataset for the inter-calibration of VIIRS DNB on different satellites such as Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and NOAA-20, as well as quantifying the lunar radiance as a function of lunar phase angle. This study demonstrates a methodology for comparing nighttime Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS DNB measured DCC reflected lunar radiance at various phase angles using data from July 2018 to March 2019 with an 86 second sampling interval and comparing Suomi NPP VIIRS DNB measured lunar radiances with those from lunar model predictions. The result shows good consistency between these two instruments on the two satellites, although a low bias in the NOAA-20 VIIRS DNB of ~5% is found. Also, observed lunar radiance from VIIRS DNB on Suomi NPP is found to be consistent with model predictions within 3% ± 5% (1σ) for a large range of lunar phase angles. However, discrepancies are significant near full moon, due to lunar opposition effects, and limitations of the lunar models. This study is useful not only for monitoring the DNB calibration stability and consistency across satellites, but also may help validate lunar models independently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of North Africa for Use as an Extended Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (EPICS) for Radiometric Calibration and Stability Monitoring of Optical Satellite Sensors
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070875 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been extensively used for the radiometric calibration and temporal stability monitoring of optical satellite sensors. Due to limited knowledge about the radiometric stability of North Africa, only a limited number of sites in the region are used [...] Read more.
Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been extensively used for the radiometric calibration and temporal stability monitoring of optical satellite sensors. Due to limited knowledge about the radiometric stability of North Africa, only a limited number of sites in the region are used for this purpose. This work presents an automated approach to classify North Africa for its potential use as an extended PICS (EPICS) covering vast portions of the continent. An unsupervised classification algorithm identified 19 “clusters” representing distinct land surface types was used; three clusters were identified with spatial uncertainties within approximately 5% in the shorter wavelength bands and 3% in the longer wavelength bands. A key advantage of the cluster approach is that large numbers of pixels are aggregated into contiguous homogeneous regions sufficiently distributed across the continent to allow multiple imaging opportunities per day, as opposed to imaging a typical PICS once during the sensor’s revisit period. This potential increase in temporal resolution could result in increased sensitivity for the quicker identification of changes in sensor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bibliometric Profile of the Remote Sensing Open Access Journal Published by MDPI between 2009 and 2018
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11010091 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Remote Sensing Open Access Journal (RS OAJ) is an international leading journal in the field of remote sensing science and technology. It was first published in the year 2009 and is currently celebrating tenth year of publications. In this research, a bibliometric analysis [...] Read more.
Remote Sensing Open Access Journal (RS OAJ) is an international leading journal in the field of remote sensing science and technology. It was first published in the year 2009 and is currently celebrating tenth year of publications. In this research, a bibliometric analysis of RS OAJ was conducted based on 5588 articles published during the 10-year (2009–2018) time-period. The bibliometric analysis includes a comprehensive set of indicators such as dynamics and trends of publications, journal impact factor, total cites, eigenfactor score, normalized eigenfactor, CiteScore, h-index, h-classic publications, most productive countries (or territories) and institutions, co-authorship collaboration about countries (territories), research themes, citation impact of co-occurrences keywords, intellectual structure, and knowledge commutation. We found that publications of RS OAJ presented an exponential growth in the past ten years. From 2010 to 2017 (for which complete years data were available), the h-index of RS OAJ is 67. From 2009–2018, RS OAJ includes publications from 129 countries (or territories) and 3826 institutions. The leading nations contributing articles, based on 2009–2018 data, and listed based on ranking were: China, United States, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Canada, England, Australia, Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland and Austria. The leading institutions, also for the same period and listed based on ranking were: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Normal University, The university of Maryland, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, China University of Geosciences, United States Geological Survey, German Aerospace Centre, University of Twente, and California Institute of Technology. For the year 2017, RS OAJ had an impressive journal impact factor of 3.4060, a CiteScore of 4.03, eigenfactor score of 0.0342, and normalized eigenfactor score of 3.99. In addition, based on 2009–2018, data co-word analysis determined that “remote sensing”, “MODIS”, “Landsat”, “LiDAR” and “NDVI” are the high-frequency of author keywords co-occurrence in RS OAJ. The main themes of RS OAJ are multi-spectral and hyperspectral remote sensing, LiDAR scanning and forestry remote sensing monitoring, MODIS and LAI data applications, Remote sensing applications and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Through author keywords citation impact analysis, we find the most influential keyword is Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), followed, forestry, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), terrestrial laser scanning, airborne laser scanning, forestry inventory, urban heat island, monitoring, agriculture, and laser scanning. By analyzing the intellectual structure of RS OAJ, we identify the main reference publications and find that the themes are about Random Forests, MODIS vegetation indices and image analysis, etc. RS OAJ ranks first in cited journals and third in citing, this indicates that RS OAJ has the internal knowledge flow. Our results will bring more benefits to scholars, researchers and graduate students, who hopes to get a quick overview of the RS OAJ. And this article will also be the starting point for communication between scholars and practitioners. Finally, this paper proposed a nuanced h-index (nh-index) to measure productivity and intellectual contribution of authors by considering h-index based on whether the one is first, second, third, or nth author. This nuanced approach to determining h-index of authors is powerful indicator of an academician’s productivity and intellectual contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing of Nighttime Light Observations: Advances, Challenges, and Perspectives
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171971 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
Nighttime light observations from remote sensing provide us with a timely and spatially explicit measure of human activities, and therefore enable a host of applications such as tracking urbanization and socioeconomic dynamics, evaluating armed conflicts and disasters, investigating fisheries, assessing greenhouse gas emissions [...] Read more.
Nighttime light observations from remote sensing provide us with a timely and spatially explicit measure of human activities, and therefore enable a host of applications such as tracking urbanization and socioeconomic dynamics, evaluating armed conflicts and disasters, investigating fisheries, assessing greenhouse gas emissions and energy use, and analyzing light pollution and health effects. The new and improved sensors, algorithms, and products for nighttime lights, in association with other Earth observations and ancillary data (e.g., geo-located big data), together offer great potential for a deep understanding of human activities and related environmental consequences in a changing world. This paper reviews the advances of nighttime light sensors and products and examines the contributions of nighttime light remote sensing to perceiving the changing world from two aspects (i.e., human activities and environmental changes). Based on the historical review of the advances in nighttime light remote sensing, we summarize the challenges in current nighttime light remote sensing research and propose four strategic directions, including: Improving nighttime light data; developing a long time series of consistent nighttime light data; integrating nighttime light observations with other data and knowledge; and promoting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary analyses of nighttime light observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview
Satellite Earth Observation Data in Epidemiological Modeling of Malaria, Dengue and West Nile Virus: A Scoping Review
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161862 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
Earth Observation (EO) data can be leveraged to estimate environmental variables that influence the transmission cycle of the pathogens that lead to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs). The aim of this scoping review is to examine the state-of-the-art and identify knowledge gaps on the latest [...] Read more.
Earth Observation (EO) data can be leveraged to estimate environmental variables that influence the transmission cycle of the pathogens that lead to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs). The aim of this scoping review is to examine the state-of-the-art and identify knowledge gaps on the latest methods that used satellite EO data in their epidemiological models focusing on malaria, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV). In total, 43 scientific papers met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Researchers have examined a wide variety of methodologies ranging from statistical to machine learning algorithms. A number of studies used models and EO data that seemed promising and claimed to be easily replicated in different geographic contexts, enabling the realization of systems on regional and national scales. The need has emerged to leverage furthermore new powerful modeling approaches, like artificial intelligence and ensemble modeling and explore new and enhanced EO sensors towards the analysis of big satellite data, in order to develop accurate epidemiological models and contribute to the reduction of the burden of MBDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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Other

Open AccessLetter
Mapping Paddy Rice Using Sentinel-1 SAR Time Series in Camargue, France
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070887 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study proposes an effective method to map rice crops using the Sentinel-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) time series over the Camargue region, Southern France. First, the temporal behavior of the SAR backscattering coefficient over 832 plots containing different crop types was analyzed. [...] Read more.
This study proposes an effective method to map rice crops using the Sentinel-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) time series over the Camargue region, Southern France. First, the temporal behavior of the SAR backscattering coefficient over 832 plots containing different crop types was analyzed. Through this analysis, the rice cultivation was identified using metrics derived from the Gaussian profile of the VV/VH time series (3 metrics), the variance of the VV/VH time series (one metric), and the slope of the linear regression of the VH time series (one metric). Using the derived metrics, rice plots were mapped through two different approaches: decision tree and Random Forest (RF). To validate the accuracy of each approach, the classified rice map was compared to the available national data. Similar high overall accuracy was obtained using both approaches. The overall accuracy obtained using a simple decision tree reached 96.3%, whereas an overall accuracy of 96.6% was obtained using the RF classifier. The approach, therefore, provides a simple yet precise and powerful tool to map paddy rice areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 10th Anniversary)
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