Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalysis Enhanced Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2022) | Viewed by 31552

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research on nanoparticle-based catalysts is currently experiencing a fast growth. We are not just dealing with noble metal nanoparticles but also non-noble metals. Each type has its own special features and particular applications. The improvement achieved in catalytic activity with such nanocatalysts is of great importance, ranging from several environmental to industrially important reactions. However, there are still challenges to overcome in the use of such systems.
The aim of this Special Issue is to attract leading researchers in the area of supported nanoparticle research in an effort to highlight the latest exciting developments in the field and to promote practical applications. Accepted contributions will include the design, synthesis, and fundamental properties of nanoparticle-based catalysts and their applications to several types of chemical reactions.

Dr. Sónia Carabineiro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nanocatalysts
  • metals
  • oxides
  • carbon

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts
by Sónia Alexandra Correia Carabineiro
Processes 2024, 12(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12020365 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
In catalysis, the design and application of supported nanoparticle catalysts is a cornerstone for addressing contemporary challenges in environmental remediation, sustainable synthesis, and analytical methodologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

12 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
High-Efficient Anionic Dyes Removal from Water by Cationic Polymer Brush Functionalized Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
by Abeer Beagan, Riyadh Alshammari, Lamya Alotaibi, Hadeel Albarrak, Khalid Alotaibi and Abdullah Alswieleh
Processes 2022, 10(8), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10081565 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
High efficiency removal of methyl orange (MO) and bromothymol blue (BT) dyes from contaminated water has been reported using magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles modified with cationic polymer brush (poly(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride solution) (Fe3O4-MSNs-PMETAC). Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was utilized [...] Read more.
High efficiency removal of methyl orange (MO) and bromothymol blue (BT) dyes from contaminated water has been reported using magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles modified with cationic polymer brush (poly(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride solution) (Fe3O4-MSNs-PMETAC). Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was utilized to grow the polymer chains on the magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The chemical surface modifications were confirmed using IR, TGA, SEM and TEM. The results show that the obtained Fe3O4-MSNs-PMETAC materials were nearly spherical in shape with approximately 30 nm magnetic core, and silica shell thicknesses ranged from 135 to 250 nm. The adsorption performance of the material was found to be unaffected by the pH (3-9) of the media, with a removal efficiency of 100% for both dyes. The adsorption of BT and MO on the surface of Fe3O4-MSNs-PMETAC was found to follow Freundlich and Langmuir models, respectively. Since the synthesized nanocomposite materials exhibit an enhanced properties such as large maximum adsorption capacity, rapid synthesis process, and easy separation from solution, it could be an effective sorbent for the removal of other pollutants such as potentially toxic anionic elements (e.g., arsenate and chromate ions) from water and wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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12 pages, 4026 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Palladium and Copper Nanoparticles Supported on TiO2 for Oxidation Solvent-Free Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol
by Hamed M. Alshammari
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091590 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
The use of metal oxides as supports for palladium and copper (Pd–Cu) nanoalloys constitutes a new horizon for improving new active catalysts in very important reactions. From the literatures, Pd-based bimetallic nanostructures have great properties and active catalytic performance. In this work, nanostructures [...] Read more.
The use of metal oxides as supports for palladium and copper (Pd–Cu) nanoalloys constitutes a new horizon for improving new active catalysts in very important reactions. From the literatures, Pd-based bimetallic nanostructures have great properties and active catalytic performance. In this work, nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were used as supports for Pd–Cu nanoparticles catalysts. Palladium and copper were deposited on these supports using the sol-immobilisation method. The composite nanoalloys were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalyst was evaluated for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The effect of the Cu–Pd ratio using sol-immobilization methods supported on TiO2 was investigated. The results show that monometallic Cu/TiO2 was observed to have a low activity. However, as soon as the catalyst contained any palladium, the activity increased with a significant increase in the selectivity towards isomerization products. The influence of support and temperature were investigated. Furthermore, the catalyst reusability was also tested for oxidation of benzyl alcohol reactions, by repeatedly performing the same reaction using the recovered catalyst. The Pd–Cu/TiO2 catalyst displayed better reusability even after several reactions Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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19 pages, 5940 KiB  
Article
High Yield Super-Hydrophobic Carbon Nanomaterials Using Cobalt/Iron Co-Catalyst Impregnated on Powder Activated Carbon
by Bashir O. Betar, Mohammed A. Alsaadi, Zaira Z. Chowdhury, Mohamed K. Aroua, Farouq S. Mjalli and MD Mourad Niazi
Processes 2021, 9(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010134 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Synthesis of super-hydrophobic carbonaceous materials is gaining a broader interest by the research community due to its versatile application in separation processes, special coating technologies, and membrane distillation. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) may exhibit stable super-hydrophobic character due to their unique physio-chemical features which [...] Read more.
Synthesis of super-hydrophobic carbonaceous materials is gaining a broader interest by the research community due to its versatile application in separation processes, special coating technologies, and membrane distillation. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) may exhibit stable super-hydrophobic character due to their unique physio-chemical features which can be further controlled based on customer requirements by optimizing the process variables. This study deals with the application of a bimetallic catalyst composed of iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) to synthesize CNMs from powder activated carbon as a precursor. The process parameters were optimized to ensure super-hydrophobic surfaces. Chemical vapor deposition was utilized for the growth of carbon nanomaterials. The impact of input variables on the desired output of yield and contact angle was analyzed. The chemical vapor deposition process was optimized using the response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design. The proportion of the catalysts and reaction time were the three input explanatory variables whereas the desired response variables were selected as the carbon yield (CY) and contact angle (CA). The synthesized super-hydrophobic materials were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and contact angle analysis. The comprehensive statistical study of the results led to a significant model and optimization. The highest CY (351%) and CA (173°) were obtained at the optimal loading of 2.5% Fe and 2% Mo with a reaction time of 60 min. The images obtained from FESEM and TEM revealed the presence of two types of CNMs including carbon nanofibers and multiwall carbon nanotubes. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to observe the temperature degradation profile of the synthesized sample. Raman spectroscopic analysis was also used to observe the proportion of ordered and disordered carbon content inside the synthesized samples. The improved catalytic super-hydrophobic carbon nanostructured materials production process proposed by this study assures the stability and high yield of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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14 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Electrochemiluminescence Enhancement and Particle Structure Stabilization of Polymer Nanoparticle by Doping Anionic Polyelectrolyte and Cationic Polymer Containing Tertiary Amine Groups and Its Highly Sensitive Immunoanalysis
by Noor Ul Ain, Tian-Yu Wang, Xiao-Ning Wu, Tong-Hong Wei, Jing-Shuo Zhang and Hong-Ping Xie
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091054 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2574
Abstract
A doped polymer nanoparticle (dPNP) of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was prepared via doping the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid (PAA) and the cationic polymer poly-ethyleneimine (PEI) into the polymer nanoparticle (PNP), which was self-assembled by Ru(bpy)32+ derivative-grafted PAA (PAA–Ru) with both cations and [...] Read more.
A doped polymer nanoparticle (dPNP) of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was prepared via doping the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid (PAA) and the cationic polymer poly-ethyleneimine (PEI) into the polymer nanoparticle (PNP), which was self-assembled by Ru(bpy)32+ derivative-grafted PAA (PAA–Ru) with both cations and anions. The good electrical conductivity of the doped polyelectrolyte PAA enhanced the ECL intensity of PNP to 109.1%, and the involvement of a large number of tertiary amine groups of the doped PEI further enhanced that to 127.3%; meanwhile, doping low-molecular-weight PEI into PNP, while simultaneously doping high-molecular-weight PAA, avoided the precipitation of PAA and PEI, due to interaction of the two oppositely charged polymers; and these also made the self-assembly procedure more effective and the nanoparticle structure more stable than PNP and also led to the production of rich residual PAA chains on the surface of dPNP. The storage results showed that the average hydrated particle diameter kept almost constant (197.5–213.1 nm) during 15-day storage and that the nanoparticles have rich surface charge of −11.47 mV (zeta potential), well suspension stability and good dispersity without detectable aggregation in the solution during the storage. Therefore, the nanoparticle is quite suitable for the antibody labeling, immunoassay and the storage. As a result, a high-sensitive ECL immunoassay approach with good precision, accuracy and selectivity was established and an ultra-low detection limit of 0.049 pg mL−1 (S/N = 3) for magnetic bead-based detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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15 pages, 2588 KiB  
Article
Effects in Band Gap for Photocatalysis in TiO2 Support by Adding Gold and Ruthenium
by Omar Ricardo Fonseca-Cervantes, Alejandro Pérez-Larios, Víctor Hugo Romero Arellano, Belkis Sulbaran-Rangel and Carlos Alberto Guzmán González
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091032 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3780
Abstract
One of the key features of a nano catalyst for photocatalysis is the band gap, because, through its analysis, the potential of the catalyst can be determined. In this investigation, the impact on the band gap of different catalysts made by the sol–gel [...] Read more.
One of the key features of a nano catalyst for photocatalysis is the band gap, because, through its analysis, the potential of the catalyst can be determined. In this investigation, the impact on the band gap of different catalysts made by the sol–gel method, compared with TiO2 P25 Sigma-Aldrich, showing the effect of using gold or ruthenium as a metal supported on TiO2, with two different dosage percentages of 1 and 3 percent, was analysed. Additionally, two oxidation states of the catalyst, the reduced form and the oxidized form of the metal, were used to see the effect on the band gap. The experiments show that the gold addition has a higher beneficial effect on the band gap for the UV region (ultra violet region), and the ruthenium addition has a higher beneficial effect for the UV/visible region. The preferred oxidation state for the band gap was the oxidized state. The characterisation of the catalyst provided an insight into the relation between the band gap and the catalyst itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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17 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
Glycerol Oxidation over Supported Gold Catalysts: The Combined Effect of Au Particle Size and Basicity of Support
by Ekaterina Pakrieva, Ekaterina Kolobova, Dmitrii German, Marta Stucchi, Alberto Villa, Laura Prati, Sónia. A.C. Carabineiro, Nina Bogdanchikova, Vicente Cortés Corberán and Alexey Pestryakov
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091016 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4597
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles supported on various oxides (CeO2, CeO2/TiO2, MgO, MgO/TiO2, La2O3, La2O3/TiO2) (with 4 wt.% Au loading) were investigated in the liquid (aqueous) phase oxidation [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles supported on various oxides (CeO2, CeO2/TiO2, MgO, MgO/TiO2, La2O3, La2O3/TiO2) (with 4 wt.% Au loading) were investigated in the liquid (aqueous) phase oxidation of glycerol by molecular oxygen under mild conditions, in the presence of alkaline earth (CaO, SrO and MgO) or alkaline (NaOH) bases. Full conversion and selectivity between 38 and 68% to sodium glycerate were observed on different Au supported catalysts (Au/MgO/TiO2, Au/La2O3/TiO2, Au/CeO2 and Au/CeO2/TiO2). The combined effect of Au particle size and basicity of the support was suggested as the determining factor of the activity. Agglomeration of gold nanoparticles, found after the reaction, led to the deactivation of the catalysts, which prevents the further oxidation of sodium glycerate into sodium tartronate. Promising results were obtained with the use of alkaline earth bases (CaO, SrO, MgO), leading to the formation of free carboxylic acids instead of salts, which are formed in the presence of the more usual base, NaOH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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17 pages, 5868 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Nanoparticles of Fe3O4 Biosynthesized by Cnicus benedictus Extract: Photocatalytic Study of Organic Dye Degradation and Antibacterial Behavior
by Álvaro de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar, Nestor Méndez-Lozano, Daniel Larrañaga-Ordáz, Simón Yobanny Reyes-López, Marco Antonio Zamora Antuñano and Ramiro Pérez Campos
Processes 2020, 8(8), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080946 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3559
Abstract
Currently, the use of sustainable chemistry as an ecological alternative for the generation of products or processes that are free of a polluting substance has assumed a preponderant role. The aim of this work is to propose a bioinspired, facile, low cost, non-toxic, [...] Read more.
Currently, the use of sustainable chemistry as an ecological alternative for the generation of products or processes that are free of a polluting substance has assumed a preponderant role. The aim of this work is to propose a bioinspired, facile, low cost, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly alternative to obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a majority phase of magnetite (Fe3O4). It is important to emphasize that the synthesis was based on the chemical reduction through the Cnicus benedictus extract, whose use as reducing agent has not been reported in the synthesis of iron oxides nanoparticles. In addition, the Cnicus benedictus is an abundant endemic plant in Mexico with several medicinal properties and a large number of natural antioxidants. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited significant magnetic and antibacterial properties and an enhanced photocatalytic activity. The crystallite size of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NP’s) was calculated by the Williamson-Hall method. The photocatalytic properties of the Fe3O4 NP’s were studied by kinetics absorptions models in the Congo red (CR) degradation. Finally, the antibacterial effects of the Fe3O4 NPs were evaluated mediated the Kirby–Bauer method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This route offers a green alternative to obtain Fe3O4 NPs with remarkable magnetic, photocatalytic, and antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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16 pages, 2510 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Preparation Method on the Physicochemical Properties and the CO Oxidation Performance of Nanostructured CeO2/TiO2 Oxides
by Sofia Stefa, Maria Lykaki, Dimitrios Fragkoulis, Vasileios Binas, Pavlos K. Pandis, Vassilis N. Stathopoulos and Michalis Konsolakis
Processes 2020, 8(7), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070847 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3149
Abstract
Ceria-based mixed oxides have been widely studied in catalysis due to their unique surface and redox properties, with implications in numerous energy- and environmental-related applications. In this regard, the rational design of ceria-based composites by means of advanced synthetic routes has gained particular [...] Read more.
Ceria-based mixed oxides have been widely studied in catalysis due to their unique surface and redox properties, with implications in numerous energy- and environmental-related applications. In this regard, the rational design of ceria-based composites by means of advanced synthetic routes has gained particular attention. In the present work, ceria–titania composites were synthesized by four different methods (precipitation, hydrothermal in one and two steps, Stöber) and their effect on the physicochemical characteristics and the CO oxidation performance was investigated. A thorough characterization study, including N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) was performed. Ceria–titania samples prepared by the Stöber method, exhibited the optimum CO oxidation performance, followed by samples prepared by the hydrothermal method in one step, whereas the precipitation method led to almost inactive oxides. CeO2/TiO2 samples synthesized by the Stöber method display a rod-like morphology of ceria nanoparticles with a uniform distribution of TiO2, leading to enhanced reducibility and oxygen storage capacity (OSC). A linear relationship was disclosed among the catalytic performance of the samples prepared by different methods and the abundance of reducible oxygen species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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15 pages, 6793 KiB  
Article
Influence of Electrostatic Interactions During the Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Polymerization on the Characteristics of Mo-Doped Carbon Gels
by Sergio Morales-Torres, Hana Jirglová, Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez and Francisco J. Maldonado-Hódar
Processes 2020, 8(6), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060746 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
The resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) polymerization was carried out in different experimental conditions to obtain RF/Mo doped carbon xerogels with different morphology, porosity and nature and dispersion of metal. Attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions were forced in the starting aqueous solution of RF-monomers using [...] Read more.
The resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) polymerization was carried out in different experimental conditions to obtain RF/Mo doped carbon xerogels with different morphology, porosity and nature and dispersion of metal. Attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions were forced in the starting aqueous solution of RF-monomers using different synthesis conditions, namely, combinations of cationic or anionic surfactants, Mo-precursors and pH values. The results showed that when both cationic surfactant and Mo-precursor were used at neutral pH, attractive interactions with the anionic RF-macromolecules are favored during polymerization and the final carbon xerogel exhibited the most developed porosity and the strongest Mo-organic phase interaction, leading to deeper Mo-phase reduction during carbonization and the formation of highly-dispersed crystalline nanoparticles of Mo2C. On the contrary, the use of both anionic surfactant and Mo-precursor leads to repulsive interactions, which generates less porous carbon gels with a Mo-phase formed by large MoO3 platelet structures and low Mo-surface contents. RF/Mo-doped gels with intermediate properties were obtained by combining cationic and anionic surfactants, metal precursors or both. After carbonization, the obtained materials would be suitable to be used directly as catalysts with different physicochemical properties and active phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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Review

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41 pages, 16462 KiB  
Review
Supported Palladium Nanocatalysts: Recent Findings in Hydrogenation Reactions
by Marta A. Andrade and Luísa M. D. R. S. Martins
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091172 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Catalysis has witnessed a dramatic increase on the use of metallic nanoparticles in the last decade, opening endless opportunities in a wide range of research areas. As one of the most investigated catalysts in organic synthesis, palladium finds numerous applications being of significant [...] Read more.
Catalysis has witnessed a dramatic increase on the use of metallic nanoparticles in the last decade, opening endless opportunities in a wide range of research areas. As one of the most investigated catalysts in organic synthesis, palladium finds numerous applications being of significant relevance in industrial hydrogenation reactions. The immobilization of Pd nanoparticles in porous solid supports offers great advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, allowing control of the major factors that influence activity and selectivity. The present review deals with recent developments in the preparation and applications of immobilized Pd nanoparticles on solid supports as catalysts for hydrogenation reactions, aiming to give an insight on the key factors that contribute to enhanced activity and selectivity. The application of mesoporous silicas, carbonaceous materials, zeolites, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as supports for palladium nanoparticles is addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
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