Special Issue "Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. David Fernández-Calviño
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: impacts of agriculture on soil biodiversity; soil microbial ecology; soil pollution processes; sorption and transport of heavy metals, pesticides and antibiotics; impact of soil pollution on soil biota; by-products for soil remediation
Dr. Manuel Arias-Estevez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Campus Ourense, University of Vigo, 11 Ourense 32004, Spain
Prof. Dr. Ruth Pereira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
GreenUPorto – Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Center & Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Interests: soils quality; ecotoxicology; nanotoxicology; risk assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Joana Lourenço
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CESAM & Department of Biology of the University of Aveiro, University Campus of Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: impacts of uranium mining residues on soil organisms; molecular effects of metals and radionuclides on soil organisms; impacts and occurrence of bystander effects on soil organisms

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The conservation and rehabilitation of degraded soils are two of the greatest challenges of humanity in this century. Pollution, compaction, impoverishment of organic matter, erosion, and loss of biodiversity are some of the threats identified at European and global level, which require urgent and coordinated action by the scientific community and the main social groups involved in soil management. Some of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations, such as the eradication of poverty and hunger (SDGs 1 and 2), the establishment of the conditions for the health and welfare of human beings (SDG 3), the improvement of water quality (SDG 6), and the protection of life and terrestrial ecosystems (SDG 15), depend directly on the quality of the soil and the restoration of its functions and services. The soil will also be a great ally of humans in the fight against climate change, if it is properly managed. The Iberian Peninsula, due to its geographical location, has unique and common characteristics associated with a great diversity of soils and edaphoclimatic conditions, concentrated in a relatively small area. The effectiveness of the measures adopted to protect the soils will benefit the exchange of experiences and knowledge, as well as the common actions on both sides of the border. Emerging and innovative technologies at the service of soil sciences will also be a critical factor for “precision conservation”, not only for mapping and characterizing the soil as a resource, but also for data exchange and in the support of the decision-making underlying its sustainable management.

The Iberian Conference on the theme “Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions” (CISDS2020) aims to bring together specialists from the Iberian field of various scientific and technological areas that contribute in the exchange of results of their research and technological developments, for the following themes:

  • Environmental pollution and risk assessment;
  • Urban soils (including compaction and waterproofing);
  • Climate change impacts on soils and edaphic communities;
  • Soil biodiversity;
  • Soil quality indicators;
  • Remote sensing applied to mapping and soil management;
  • Citizen science at the service of best practices of soil management and conservation;
  • Soil salinization;
  • Emerging pollutants (such as microplastics, nanomaterials, antibiotics, etc.);
  • Organic waste valorization;
  • Soil functions and ecosystem services;
  • Soil organic matter;
  • Other threats (erosion, desertification, natural disasters).

All the authors of accepted contributions at CISDS2020 are invited to submit manuscripts.

Dr. David Fernández-Calviño
Dr. Manuel Arias-Estevez
Prof. Dr. Ruth Pereira
Dr. Joana Lourenço
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • soil
  • environmental pollution
  • climate change
  • biodiversity
  • soil functions
  • ecosystem services
  • organic wastes
  • conservation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Long-Term Effects of Calcium-Based Liming Materials on Soil Fertility Sustainability and Rye Production as Soil Quality Indicators on a Typic Palexerult
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071181 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Liming is a common practice used to improve acidic soil properties, as is essential for agricultural quality. A long-term field experiment with one lime rate (6000 kg/ha of carbonate calcium equivalent) and three calcium-based liming amendments (gypsum, limestone and sugar foam) was maintained [...] Read more.
Liming is a common practice used to improve acidic soil properties, as is essential for agricultural quality. A long-term field experiment with one lime rate (6000 kg/ha of carbonate calcium equivalent) and three calcium-based liming amendments (gypsum, limestone and sugar foam) was maintained on a Typic Palexerult for 10 years in order to determine changes in soil acidity and to assess the effects on crop (rye) yields. The soil acidity conditions decreased with all the amendments tested, but the sugar foam and limestone was more effective than gypsum over a long-term period. No significant changes in organic soil matter levels between the treatments tested were found. Interestingly, an increase in the leaching of organic soil matter was observed in limed soils. Lime application significantly increased the total rye biomass compared to the control soils during the whole experiment (2002–2011). Yield trends observed in spike and stem biomass were similar to those reported for total rye biomass. In this respect, at the end of the research, gypsum, limestone and sugar foam increased in relation to the total production of rye biomass by 16%, 32% and 38%, respectively, as compared to the control soils. Additionally, a significant and prolonged difference in calcium concentrations in rye stems between unlimed and limed subplots was observed. However, in spite of the results presented here, further investigations are needed to gain a better understanding of the long-term effects of liming on the chemical properties of soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions)
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Article
Influence of Physicochemical Properties and Parent Material on Chromium Fractionation in Soils
Processes 2021, 9(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9061073 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Chromium is an element that possess several oxidation states and can easily pass from one to another, so its behavior in soils is very complex. For this reason, determining its fate in the environment can be difficult. In this research work we tried [...] Read more.
Chromium is an element that possess several oxidation states and can easily pass from one to another, so its behavior in soils is very complex. For this reason, determining its fate in the environment can be difficult. In this research work we tried to determine which factors affect the chromium fractionation in natural soils, conditioning chromium mobility. We paid special attention to the parent material. For this purpose, extraction experiments were carried out on spiked soils incubated for 50–60 days, using H2O, CaCl2 and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The most efficient extraction rate in all soils was achieved using water, followed by CaCl2 and DTPA. We obtained models with an adjusted R2 of 0.8097, 0.8471 and 0.7509 for the H2O Cr, CaCl2 Cr and DTPA Cr respectively. All models were influenced by the amount of chromium added and the parent material: amphibolite and granite influenced the amount of H2O Cr extracted, and schist affected the other two fractions (CaCl2 and DTPA). Soil texture also played an important role in the chromium extraction, as well as the amounts of exchangeable aluminum and magnesium, and the bioavailable phosphorus. We concluded that it is possible to make relatively accurate predictions of the behavior of the different Cr fractions studied, so that optimized remediation strategies for chromium-contaminated soils can be designed on the basis of a physicochemical soil characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions)
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Article
Cowpea Crop Response to Mineral and Organic Fertilization in SE Spain
Processes 2021, 9(5), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9050822 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
Mineral fertilization is considered to be useful for improving soil fertility and yields. However, its use is linked to global warming and soil and water pollution by its rapid mobilization. On the other hand, organic fertilization is recommended to maintain or improve soil [...] Read more.
Mineral fertilization is considered to be useful for improving soil fertility and yields. However, its use is linked to global warming and soil and water pollution by its rapid mobilization. On the other hand, organic fertilization is recommended to maintain or improve soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks while contributing to climate change mitigation. The main goal of this study was to assess the effect of two different fertilizer types, mineral and organic, during three cowpea crop cycles on the soil’s physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, crop yield, crop quality and nutritional composition when considering two cowpea cultivars (Feijão frade de fio preto (FP) and Feijão frade de fio claro (FC)). The use of mineral fertilizers was seen to contribute to improved soil fertility due to the increase in soil properties, such as recalcitrant carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium content, available K and available Mg. On the other hand, organic fertilizers only increased the nitrate content in the soil. There were no differences in terms of cowpea crop yield, quality and nutritional composition by fertilizer type. Thus, both fertilizer types contributed to the same crop yield and quality, and thus the use of organic fertilizers can result in a sustainable alternative for maintaining cowpea crop yield and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions)
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Article
Monitoring, Diffusion and Source Speculation Model of Urban Soil Pollution
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111339 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 642
Abstract
The rapid industrialization of cities has brought many challenges to the environment and resources. Industrial wastes, automobile exhaust, coal combustion soot and other pollutants accumulate in urban soil, and the characteristics of urban soil are changed, causing many pollutants to accumulate in the [...] Read more.
The rapid industrialization of cities has brought many challenges to the environment and resources. Industrial wastes, automobile exhaust, coal combustion soot and other pollutants accumulate in urban soil, and the characteristics of urban soil are changed, causing many pollutants to accumulate in the urban soil environment. Heavy metals are toxic and harmful pollutants existing in soil that cannot be biodegraded or thermally degraded; thus, heavy metals pose a threat to environmental quality and humans. To solve the environmental pollution of soil heavy metals, we utilize kriging interpolation to determine the geological distribution of the environmental pollution of metal elements and analyze the main causes of soil heavy metal pollution. Next, the propagation characteristics and diffusion process of heavy metal pollutants are thoroughly analyzed; in addition, an improved one-dimensional convective dispersion model and an improved air subsidence model are established, and real urban soil data are taken as an example for the fitting test. The results show that the improved models that consider more factors, such as adsorption or decomposition factors during the process of convective dispersion, absorption and expulsion factors of the crop root and topographic factors and height changes during the process of air subsidence, are effective. This paper is helpful for distinguishing the primary pollution sources and migration routes of soil metal element pollution and provides a certain reference value for protecting the environment and reducing heavy metal pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions)
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Review

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Review
Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Antibiotics in Soils: Presence, Fate and Environmental Risks
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111479 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Veterinary antibiotics are widely used worldwide to treat and prevent infectious diseases, as well as (in countries where allowed) to promote growth and improve feeding efficiency of food-producing animals in livestock activities. Among the different antibiotic classes, tetracyclines and sulfonamides are two of [...] Read more.
Veterinary antibiotics are widely used worldwide to treat and prevent infectious diseases, as well as (in countries where allowed) to promote growth and improve feeding efficiency of food-producing animals in livestock activities. Among the different antibiotic classes, tetracyclines and sulfonamides are two of the most used for veterinary proposals. Due to the fact that these compounds are poorly absorbed in the gut of animals, a significant proportion (up to ~90%) of them are excreted unchanged, thus reaching the environment mainly through the application of manures and slurries as fertilizers in agricultural fields. Once in the soil, antibiotics are subjected to a series of physicochemical and biological processes, which depend both on the antibiotic nature and soil characteristics. Adsorption/desorption to soil particles and degradation are the main processes that will affect the persistence, bioavailability, and environmental fate of these pollutants, thus determining their potential impacts and risks on human and ecological health. Taking all this into account, a literature review was conducted in order to shed light on the current knowledge about the occurrence of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in manures/slurries and agricultural soils, as well as on their fate in the environment. For that, the adsorption/desorption and the degradation (both abiotic and biotic) processes of these pollutants in soils were deeply discussed. Finally, the potential risks of deleterious effects on human and ecological health associated with the presence of these antibiotic residues were assessed. This review contributes to a deeper understanding of the lifecycle of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in the environment, thus facilitating decision-making for the application of preventive and mitigation measures to reduce its negative impacts and risks to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Risk assessment of total and available Cu and Zn contents in vineyard soils from Galicia.
Authors: Raquel Vázquez-Blanco; Claudia Campillo-Cora; Vanesa Santás-Miguel; Manuel Arias-Estévez; Daniel Arenas-Lago
Affiliation: Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Campus Ourense, University of Vigo, 11 Ourense 32004, Spain

Title: Clarithromycin antibiotic toxicity on bacterial community growth in agricultural soils
Authors: Laura Rodríguez-González, Vanesa Santás-Miguel, Claudia Campillo-Cora, Manuel Arias-Estévez, David Fernández-Calviño
Affiliation: Section for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, As Lagoas s/n 32004 Ourense, Spain

Title: Influence of physicochemical properties and parent material on chromium fractionation in soils
Authors: Claudia Campillo-Cora, Laura Rodríguez-González, Manuel Arias-Estévez, David Fernández-Calviño, Diego Soto-Gómez
Affiliation: Section for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, As Lagoas s/n 32004 Ourense, Spain

Title: CONTAMINANTES EMERGENTES, ELIMINACIÓN DE MEDICAMENTOS POR COMPOSTAJE Y VERMICOMPOSTAJE
Authors: GARCIA-ESPAÑA, L., SORIANO SOTO, MD., BOLUDA, R
Affiliation: Departamento de Biología Vegetal. Universitat de València, 46100, Valencia (España) 2 Departament de Producción Vegetal. Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022, Valencia (España)

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