Special Issue "Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 53476

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Wei Cai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: green manufacturing; sustainability; energy efficient production; energy management; energy saving
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Guangdong Tian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mengchu Zhou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
Interests: petri nets; intelligent automation; Internet of Things; big data; web services; intelligent
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Fu Zhao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088, USA
Interests: life cycle assessment; design for the environment; sustainable manufacturing; renewable energy and energy policy
Dr. Jorge Cunha
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ALGORITMI Research Center, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Interests: investment in renewable energy projects, risk analysis and management; social innovation; industrial engineering; innovation management; corporate social responsibility; energy economics; managerial economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Facing significant natural resource consumption, environmental degradation, and the resulting climate warming, national administrations have increased their focus on ecological modernization, green growth, and low carbon development, with a national sustainability strategy. The industrial sector, recognized as an important pillar in the national economy, brings vast amounts of energy consumption at a low efficiency and high carbon emissions, becoming the walls to the coordinated development of the energy, economic, and environment. Studying the nexus between energy, economy, and environment (3E) of industrial production processes is a significant issue for promoting industrial sustainable development.

The scope of the Processes journal covers research in chemistry, biology, materials and allied engineering fields. Thus, in this Special Issue, we invite articles focused on research regarding the chemistry, biology, materials and allied engineering firms (manufacturing processes, iron and steel production processes, mining processes, power generation processes, and so on).

This Special Issue will focus on publishing original research works about 3E for industrial production processes including discrete production processes and process production processes, from various aspects that tackle product, process, and system issues in production. The aim is to report the state-of-the-art on relevant research topics and highlight the barriers, challenges, and opportunities we are facing. It also welcomes studies that stimulate the research discussion of moving towards production in a particular industrial sector.

Topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • The nexus between 3E in industrial production processes
  • 3E modelling and analysis in industrial production processes
  • 3E assessment and optimization in industrial production processes
  • Performance indicators and certifications of 3E in industrial production processes
  • Data-driven 3E for industrial production processes
  • Green production and process optimization
  • Cleaner energy production
  • Carbon emission and accounting in the industrial sector
  • Industrial energy efficiency

Dr. Wei Cai
Prof. Dr. Guangdong Tian
Prof. MengChu Zhou
Prof. Fu Zhao
Dr. Jorge Cunha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy, economic and environment
  • Industrial production processes
  • Carbon emission
  • Green production
  • Sustainability

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue on “Energy, Economy and Environment for Industrial Production Processes”
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091126 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Facing significant natural resource consumption, environmental degradation, and climate warming, governments and international organizations have increased their focus on ecological modernization, green growth, and low carbon development, with various sustainable development strategies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)

Research

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Article
Novel Concept of Cogeneration-Integrated Heat Pump-Assisted Fractionation of Alkylation Reactor Effluent for Increased Power Production and Overall CO2 Emissions Decrease
Processes 2020, 8(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020183 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Alkylate produced by catalyzed reaction of isobutane and olefin-rich streams is a desired component for gasoline blending. Fractionation of the alkylation reactor effluent is energy demanding due to the presence of close boiling point components and solutions cutting its energy intensity; expenses associated [...] Read more.
Alkylate produced by catalyzed reaction of isobutane and olefin-rich streams is a desired component for gasoline blending. Fractionation of the alkylation reactor effluent is energy demanding due to the presence of close boiling point components and solutions cutting its energy intensity; expenses associated with this process are investigated intensely nowadays. This paper presents a novel conceptual design and techno-economic analysis of alkylation reaction effluent fractionation revamp to reach a cut in energy costs of the fractionation process without the need to revamp the rectification columns themselves, providing thus an alternative approach to a more sustainable alkylation process. Two cases are considered—A. additional steam turbine installation or B. combustion engine-driven heat pump-assisted rectification. Mathematical modeling of the considered system and its revamp is applied using the “frozen technology” approach. Real system operation features and seasonal variations are included considering the refinery’s combined heat and power (CHP) unit operation and CO2 emissions balance both internal and external to the refinery. Case A yields an expectable yearly benefit (saved energy minus additionally consumed energy minus CO2 emissions increase; expressed in financial terms) of €110–140 thousand, net present value (NPV) of −€18 to €272 thousand and produces 3.3 GWh/year of electric energy. Case B delivers a benefit of €900–1200 thousand, NPV of −€293 to €2823 thousand while producing 33 GWh/year of electricity. Both cases exhibit analogous simple payback periods (8–10 years). Marginal electric efficiency of Case B (78.3%) documents the energy integration level in this case, exploiting the system and CHP unit operation synergies. CHP unit summer operation mode and steam network restrictions significantly affect the seasonal benefit of Case B. CO2 emissions increase in both cases, Case A and Case B, considering the refinery level. However, including external CO2 emissions leads to emissions decrease in both cases of up to 26 kton/year (Case B.) The presented results document the viability of the proposed concepts comparable to the traditional (reference) solution of a high performance (COP = 8) heat pump while their performance sensitivity stresses the need for complex techno-economic assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Integrated Forecasting Method for Wind Energy Management: A Case Study in China
Processes 2020, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010035 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Wind speed forecasting helps to increase the efficacy of wind farms and prompts the comparative superiority of wind energy in the global electricity system. Many wind speed forecasting theories have been widely applied to forecast wind speed, which is nonlinear, and unstable. Current [...] Read more.
Wind speed forecasting helps to increase the efficacy of wind farms and prompts the comparative superiority of wind energy in the global electricity system. Many wind speed forecasting theories have been widely applied to forecast wind speed, which is nonlinear, and unstable. Current forecasting strategies can be applied to various wind speed time series. However, some models neglect the prerequisite of data preprocessing and the objective of simultaneously optimizing accuracy and stability, which results in poor forecast. In this research, we developed a combined wind speed forecasting strategy that includes several components: data pretreatment, optimization, forecasting, and assessment. The developed system remedies some deficiencies in traditional single models and markedly enhances wind speed forecasting performance. To evaluate the performance of this combined strategy, 10-min wind speed sequences gathered from large wind farms in Shandong province in China were adopted as a case study. The simulation results show that the forecasting ability of our proposed combined strategy surpasses the other selected comparable models to some extent. Thus, the model can provide reliable support for wind power generation scheduling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Combustion Stability of Diesel/Ethanol Utilization by Blend and Dual Fuel
Processes 2019, 7(12), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120946 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The aim of the work is a comparison of two combustion systems of fuels with different reactivity. The first is combustion of the fuel mixture and the second is combustion in a dual-fuel engine. Diesel fuel was burned with pure ethanol. Both methods [...] Read more.
The aim of the work is a comparison of two combustion systems of fuels with different reactivity. The first is combustion of the fuel mixture and the second is combustion in a dual-fuel engine. Diesel fuel was burned with pure ethanol. Both methods of co-firing fuels have both advantages and disadvantages. Attention was paid to the combustion stability aspect determined by COVIMEP as well as the probability density function of IMEP. It was analyzed also the spread of the maximum pressure value, the angle of the position of maximum pressure. The influence of ethanol on ignition delay time spread and end of combustion process was evaluated. The experimental investigation was conducted on 1-cylinder air cooled compression ignition engine. The test engine operated with constant rpm equal to 1500 rpm and constant angle of start of diesel fuel injection. The engine was operated with ethanol up to 50% of its energy fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Measuring the Renewable Energy Efficiency at the European Union Level and Its Impact on CO2 Emissions
Processes 2019, 7(12), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120923 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Low carbon emissions have a great importance in our life. The increasing importance of carbon emission levels have attracted the interests of researchers and academics in the field. In this article, a panel data econometric model is developed to measure the relationship between [...] Read more.
Low carbon emissions have a great importance in our life. The increasing importance of carbon emission levels have attracted the interests of researchers and academics in the field. In this article, a panel data econometric model is developed to measure the relationship between renewable energy, energy productivity, population, urbanization, motorization, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and their impacts on carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. Data used in this study was collected from the European Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) and five statistical hypotheses were tested and validated through a multilinear regression model using the Econometric Views (Eviews) 10.0 statistical software. The Hausman test was used to choose between a model with fixed effects and a model with random effects, and the variance inflection factor (VIF) was used to test the collinearity between the independent variables. The author’s findings indicate that renewable energy at the European Union (EU) level has a positive impact on low-carbon emissions. It was found that a 1% increase in renewable energy consumption would reduce the CO2 emissions by 0.11 million tons, while population growth and urbanization degree add more restrictions to the econometric equation of the impact on carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
A DEA Approach for Assessing the Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of Top 20 Industrial Countries
Processes 2019, 7(12), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120902 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Due to growing concerns of global warming, reducing carbon emissions has become one of the major tasks for developing countries to meet the national demand for energy policies. The objective of this study is to measure the energy consumption, carbon emission and economic-environmental [...] Read more.
Due to growing concerns of global warming, reducing carbon emissions has become one of the major tasks for developing countries to meet the national demand for energy policies. The objective of this study is to measure the energy consumption, carbon emission and economic-environmental efficiency in terms of the environmental performance of the top 20 industrial countries by employing a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model from 2013 to 2017. This study used the trilemma of energy efficiency, CO2 emission efficiency, and environmental efficiency, and also the contribution included the quantitative analysis of 20 industrial countries The results show that the energy efficiency of Australia, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Poland are the best performing countries, whereas Mexico, Indonesia, Russia, and Brazil are identified as least efficient among all 20 countries. Furthermore, Russia’s energy intensity has a maximum score while Poland has a minimum score. Additionally, in the case of CO2 emission efficiency, Brazil, France, and Saudi Arabia are considered as efficient while nine country’s scores were less than 0.5. The results show that most countries exhibit higher performance in economic efficiency than environmental efficiency. The study provides valuable information for energy policy-makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Wind Power Short-Term Forecasting Hybrid Model Based on CEEMD-SE Method
Processes 2019, 7(11), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110843 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Accurately predicting wind power is crucial for the large-scale grid-connected of wind power and the increase of wind power absorption proportion. To improve the forecasting accuracy of wind power, a hybrid forecasting model using data preprocessing strategy and improved extreme learning machine with [...] Read more.
Accurately predicting wind power is crucial for the large-scale grid-connected of wind power and the increase of wind power absorption proportion. To improve the forecasting accuracy of wind power, a hybrid forecasting model using data preprocessing strategy and improved extreme learning machine with kernel (KELM) is proposed, which mainly includes the following stages. Firstly, the Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated to determine the correlation degree between multiple factors of wind power to reduce data redundancy. Then, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) method is adopted to decompose the wind power time series to decrease the non-stationarity, the sample entropy (SE) theory is used to classify and reconstruct the subsequences to reduce the complexity of computation. Finally, the KELM optimized by harmony search (HS) algorithm is utilized to forecast each subsequence, and after integration processing, the forecasting results are obtained. The CEEMD-SE-HS-KELM forecasting model constructed in this paper is used in the short-term wind power forecasting of a Chinese wind farm, and the RMSE and MAE are as 2.16 and 0.39 respectively, which is better than EMD-SE-HS-KELM, HS-KELM, KELM and extreme learning machine (ELM) model. According to the experimental results, the hybrid method has higher forecasting accuracy for short-term wind power forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Investment Decisions of Fired Power Plants on Carbon Utilization under the Imperfect Carbon Emission Trading Schemes in China
Processes 2019, 7(11), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110828 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most effective technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and has attracted wide attention all over the world. This paper proposes a real option model to analyze the investment decisions of a coal-fired power [...] Read more.
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most effective technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and has attracted wide attention all over the world. This paper proposes a real option model to analyze the investment decisions of a coal-fired power plant on CCUS technologies under imperfect carbon emission trading schemes in China. Considering multiple uncertainties, which include carbon trading price volatility, carbon utilization revenue fluctuation, and changes in carbon transport and storage cost, the least squares Monte Carlo simulation method is used to solve the problems of path dependence. The research results show that the independent effects of carbon trading mechanisms on investment stimulation and emission reduction are limited. The utilization ratio of captured CO2 has significant impacts on the net present value and investment value of the CCUS project. Moreover, the investment threshold is highly sensitive to the utilization proportion of food grade CO2 with high purity. It is suggested that the Chinese government should take diverse measures simultaneously, including increasing grants for research and development of carbon utilization technologies, introducing policies to motivate investments in CCUS projects, and also improving the carbon emission trading scheme, to ensure the achievement of the carbon emission reduction target in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Energy Saving and Low-Cost-Oriented Design Processes of Blank’s Dimensions Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model
Processes 2019, 7(11), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110811 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
The blank’s dimensions are an important focus of blank design as they largely determine the energy consumption and cost of manufacturing and further processing the blank. To achieve energy saving and low cost during the optimization of blank dimensions design, we established energy [...] Read more.
The blank’s dimensions are an important focus of blank design as they largely determine the energy consumption and cost of manufacturing and further processing the blank. To achieve energy saving and low cost during the optimization of blank dimensions design, we established energy consumption and cost objectives in the manufacturing and further processing of blanks by optimizing the parameters. As objectives, we selected the blank’s production and further processing parameters as optimization variables to minimize energy consumption and cost, then set up a multi-objective optimization model. The optimal blank dimension was back calculated using the parameters of the minimum processing energy consumption and minimum cost state, and the model was optimized using the non-dominated genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The effect of designing blank dimension in saving energy and costs is obvious compared with the existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
An Investigation of the Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects of Process Heat Source Change in a Refinery
Processes 2019, 7(11), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110776 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
This study of process heat source change in industrial conditions has been developed to aid engineers and energy managers with working towards sustainable production. It allows for an objective assessment from energetic, environmental, and economic points of view, thereby filling the gap in [...] Read more.
This study of process heat source change in industrial conditions has been developed to aid engineers and energy managers with working towards sustainable production. It allows for an objective assessment from energetic, environmental, and economic points of view, thereby filling the gap in the systematic approach to this problem. This novel site-wide approach substantially broadens the traditional approach, which is based mostly on “cheaper” and “cleaner” process heat sources’ application and only takes into account local changes, while neglecting the synergic effect on the whole facility’s operations. The mathematical model employed assesses the performance change of all the affected refinery parts. The four proposed aromatic splitting process layouts, serving as a case study, indicate feasible heat and condensate conservation possibilities. Although the estimated investment needed for the most viable layout is over €4.5 million, its implementation could generate benefits of €0.5–1.5 million/year, depending on the fuel and energy prices as well as on the carbon dioxide emissions cost. Its economics is most sensitive to the steam to refinery fuel gas cost ratio, as a 10% change alters the resulting benefit by more than €0.5 million. The pollutant emissions generated in the external power production process contribute significantly to the total emissions balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Optimization of Tubular Microalgal Photobioreactors with Spiral Ribs under Single-Sided and Double-Sided Illuminations
Processes 2019, 7(9), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090619 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Microalgae can be raw materials for the production of clean energy and have great potential for development. The design of the microalgal photobioreactor (PBR) affects the mixing of the algal suspension and the utilization efficiency of the light energy, thereby affecting the high-efficiency [...] Read more.
Microalgae can be raw materials for the production of clean energy and have great potential for development. The design of the microalgal photobioreactor (PBR) affects the mixing of the algal suspension and the utilization efficiency of the light energy, thereby affecting the high-efficiency cultivation of the microalgae. In this study, a spiral rib structure was introduced into a tubular microalgal PBR to improve the mixing performance and the light utilization efficiency. The number of spiral ribs, the inclination angle, and the velocity of the algal suspension were optimized for single-sided and double-sided parallel light illuminations with the same total incident light intensity. Next, the optimization results under the two illumination modes were compared. The results showed that the double-sided illumination did not increase the average light/dark (L/D) cycle frequency of the microalgae particles, but it reduced the efficiency of the L/D cycle enhancement. This outcome was analyzed from the point of view of the relative position between the L/D boundary and the vortex in the flow field. Finally, a method to increase the average L/D cycle frequency was proposed and validated. In this method, the relative position between the L/D boundary and the vortex was adjusted so that the L/D boundary passed through the central region of the vortex. This method can also be applied to the design of other types of PBRs to increase the average L/D cycle frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Research on Ecological Efficiency for the Remanufacturing Process Considering Optimization and Evaluation
Processes 2019, 7(9), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090567 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
The ecological efficiency (EE) of the remanufacturing process occupies an important position in the whole index system of remanufacturing because it will directly affect the economic and environmental benefits of remanufacturing. Therefore, in order to study the EE of the remanufacturing process, a [...] Read more.
The ecological efficiency (EE) of the remanufacturing process occupies an important position in the whole index system of remanufacturing because it will directly affect the economic and environmental benefits of remanufacturing. Therefore, in order to study the EE of the remanufacturing process, a method is proposed to optimize and evaluate the EE of the remanufacturing process. In this method, firstly, the original remanufacturing sub-schemes of used components are designed according to the extracted fault characteristics; secondly, a set of optional process schemes are integrated by using directed graph (DG) to reduce the process schemes; thirdly, the objective function of EE is established, and then an ant colony algorithm with elite strategy (ES-ACO) is proposed to optimize the process schemes. After obtaining the optimal value of EE, the quality coefficient of used components can be calculated, and then numerical simulations (NS) are used to analyze the correlation between the quality coefficient and the optimized EE, after that, polynomial function fitting (PFF) is applied to construct the evaluation model of EE oriented to the quality coefficient, then, the evaluation model is utilized to analyze the range of quality coefficient of used components suitable for remanufacturing under cost constraints. Finally, the feasibility of this method is verified by the example of the used lathe spindle remanufacturing; and the case study shows that in the optimization phase, ES-ACO can not only optimize the process schemes but also has better performance than ACO; in the evaluation stage, the probability of deviation of the evaluation function established by using PFF is 5%, meeting the small probability event. (i.e., the occurrence of very low-frequency events), that is, the accuracy of the evaluation meets the requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy Considering the Wind Turbine Power-Tracking Characteristic via Model Predictive Control
Processes 2019, 7(8), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080530 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
In this paper, an industrial application-oriented wind farm automatic generation control strategy is proposed to stabilize the wind farm power output under power limitation conditions. A wind farm with 20 units that are connected beneath four transmission lines is the selected control object. [...] Read more.
In this paper, an industrial application-oriented wind farm automatic generation control strategy is proposed to stabilize the wind farm power output under power limitation conditions. A wind farm with 20 units that are connected beneath four transmission lines is the selected control object. First, the power-tracking dynamic characteristic of wind turbines is modeled as a first-order inertial model. Based on the wind farm topology, the wind turbines are grouped into four clusters to fully use the clusters’ smoothing effect. A method for frequency-domain aggregation and approximation is used to obtain the clusters’ power-tracking equivalent model. From the reported analysis, a model predictive control strategy is proposed in this paper to optimize the rapidity and stability of the power-tracking performance. In this method, the power set-point for the wind farm is dispatched to the clusters. Then, the active power control is distributed from the cluster to the wind turbines using the conventional proportional distribution strategy. Ultra-short-term wind speed prediction is also included in this paper to assess the real-time performance. The proposed strategy was tested using a simulated wind farm based on an industrial wind farm. Good power-tracking performance was achieved in several scenarios, and the results demonstrate that the performance markedly improved using the proposed strategy compared with the conventional strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
An Investigation on the Effect of the Total Efficiency of Water and Air Used Together as a Working Fluid in the Photovoltaic Thermal Systems
Processes 2019, 7(8), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080516 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
The temperature of a PV (photovoltaic) panel increases when it produces electricity but its electrical efficiency decreases when the temperature increases. In addition, the electrical efficiency of the PV panel is very limited. To increase the PV efficiency, the rest of the solar [...] Read more.
The temperature of a PV (photovoltaic) panel increases when it produces electricity but its electrical efficiency decreases when the temperature increases. In addition, the electrical efficiency of the PV panel is very limited. To increase the PV efficiency, the rest of the solar irradiance must be used, together with the temperature being kept at an optimum value. With this purpose, an experimental study was conducted. Firstly, two specific photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) systems were designed. The first was the PV/T system which used only a water heat exchanger. The other one was the PV/T system that used a water and air heat exchanger. In the latter PV/T system, air passed through both the top of the PV panel and the bottom of it while water passed through only the bottom of the panel in a separate heat exchanger. In this way, the water and air absorbed the thermal energy of the panel by means of separate heat exchangers, simultaneously. In addition to the two systems mentioned above, an uncooled photovoltaic module was also designed in order to compare the systems. As a result, three different modules were designed. This study was conducted in a natural ambient environment and on days which had different climatic conditions. The thermal, electrical and overall efficiencies of each PV/T module were determined. The results were compared with the uncooled module electrical efficiency. The results showed that when water and air were used together, it was more efficient than single usage in a PV/T system. The thermal gain of the working fluids was also found to be fairly high and so, the gained energy could be used for different purposes. For example, hot air could be used in drying systems and air condition systems. Hot water could be used in hot water supply systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Integrated Component Optimization and Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Buses
Processes 2019, 7(8), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080477 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
The complicated coupling of component design together with energy management has brought a significant challenge to the design, optimization, and control of plug-in hybrid electric buses (PHEBs). This paper proposes an integrated optimization methodology to ensure the optimum performance of a PHEB with [...] Read more.
The complicated coupling of component design together with energy management has brought a significant challenge to the design, optimization, and control of plug-in hybrid electric buses (PHEBs). This paper proposes an integrated optimization methodology to ensure the optimum performance of a PHEB with a view toward designing and applications. First, a novel co-optimization method is proposed for redesigning the driveline parameters offline, which combines a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) with dynamic programming to eliminate the impact of the coupling between the component design and energy management. Within the new method, the driveline parameters are optimally designed based on a global optimal energy management strategy, and fuel consumption and acceleration time can be respectively reduced by 4.71% and 4.59%. Second, a model-free adaptive control (MFAC) method is employed to realize the online optimal control of energy management on the basis of Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP). Particularly, an MFAC controller is used to track the predesigned linear state-of-charge (SOC), and its control variable is regarded as the co-state of the PMP. The main finding is that the co-state generated by the MFAC controller gradually converges on the optimal one derived according to the prior known driving cycles. This implies that the MFAC controller can realize a real-time application of the PMP strategy without acquiring the optimal co-state by offline calculation. Finally, the verification results demonstrated that the proposed MFAC-based method is applicable to both the typical and unknown stochastic driving cycles, meanwhile, and can further improve fuel economy compared to a conventional proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Modeling of a Double Effect Heat Transformer Operating with Water/Lithium Bromide
Processes 2019, 7(6), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060371 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Absorption heat transformers are effective systems for a wide variety of applications; however, their main purpose is to upgrade thermal energy from several sources at low-temperature up to a higher temperature level. In the literature, several advanced configurations for absorption heat transformers have [...] Read more.
Absorption heat transformers are effective systems for a wide variety of applications; however, their main purpose is to upgrade thermal energy from several sources at low-temperature up to a higher temperature level. In the literature, several advanced configurations for absorption heat transformers have been reported which are mainly focused on the improvement of the gross temperature lift by the use of a double absorption process; however, these systems usually offer a reduced coefficient of performance. The present study proposes a new advanced configuration of an absorption heat transformer that improves the coefficient of performance utilizing a double generation process. The operation of the new configuration was numerically modeled, and the main findings were discussed and presented emphasizing the effect of several parameters on the system performance. The highest coefficient of performance and gross temperature lift were 0.63 and 48 °C, respectively. From its comparison with a single-stage heat transformer, it is concluded that the proposed system may achieve coefficient of performance values up to 25.8% higher than those obtained with the single-stage system, although achieving lower gross temperature lifts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Experimental Study on Spent FCC Catalysts for the Catalytic Cracking Process of Waste Tires
Processes 2019, 7(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060335 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Research on the synergistic high-value reuse of waste tires and used catalysts in spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts was carried out in this study to address the serious ecological and environmental problems caused by waste tires and spent FCC catalysts. The experiment, [...] Read more.
Research on the synergistic high-value reuse of waste tires and used catalysts in spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts was carried out in this study to address the serious ecological and environmental problems caused by waste tires and spent FCC catalysts. The experiment, in which a spent FCC catalyst was applied to the catalytic cracking of waste tires, fully utilized the residual activity of the spent FCC catalyst and was compared with a waste tire pyrolysis experiment. The comparative experimental results indicated that the spent FCC catalyst could improve the cracking efficiency of waste tires, increase the output of light oil in pyrolysis products, and improve the quality of pyrolysis oil. It could also be used for the conversion of sulfur compounds during cracking. The content of 2-methyl-1-propylene in catalytic cracking gas was found to be up to 65.59%, so a new method for producing high-value chemical raw materials by the catalytic cracking of waste tires with spent FCC catalysts is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Measuring Energy Efficiency and Environmental Performance: A Case of South Asia
Processes 2019, 7(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060325 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
When assessing energy efficiency, most studies have frequently ignored environmental aspects even though the concept has been widely used in the past. This study evaluates the energy efficiency and environmental performance of South Asia by using DEA (data envelopment analysis) like mathematical composite [...] Read more.
When assessing energy efficiency, most studies have frequently ignored environmental aspects even though the concept has been widely used in the past. This study evaluates the energy efficiency and environmental performance of South Asia by using DEA (data envelopment analysis) like mathematical composite indicator. We construct a comprehensive set of indicators, including an energy self-sufficiency ratio, energy production over consumption ratio, energy imports, diversification index of energy imports, energy reserve ratio, GDP productivity, energy intensity, per capita energy consumption index, carbon emission index, carbon emission index per unit of energy consumption and share of renewable energy in order to develop an energy efficiency and environmental performance index. Unlike other studies, this study first examines each indicator and then estimates a combined score for each country. The results reveal that Bhutan as a more secure country and Pakistan showed a decreasing trend, while Sri Lanka and India performed satisfactorily. Remarkably, Bangladesh, Nepal and Afghanistan showed a decreasing trend. This study proposes a policy that increases the cross-border trade of renewable energy for long term energy efficiency and environmental performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
A Scenario-Based Optimization Model for Planning Sustainable Water-Resources Process Management under Uncertainty
Processes 2019, 7(5), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050312 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Discrepancies between water demand and supply are intensifying and creating a need for sustainable water resource process management associated with rapid economic development, population growth, and urban expansion. In this study, a scenario-based interval fuzzy-credibility constrained programming (SIFCP) method is developed for planning [...] Read more.
Discrepancies between water demand and supply are intensifying and creating a need for sustainable water resource process management associated with rapid economic development, population growth, and urban expansion. In this study, a scenario-based interval fuzzy-credibility constrained programming (SIFCP) method is developed for planning a water resource management system (WRMS) that can handle uncertain information by using interval values, fuzzy sets, and scenario analysis. The SIFCP-WRMS model is then applied to plan the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) in Henan Province, China. Solutions of different water distribution proportion scenarios and varied credibility levels are considered. Results reveal that different water-distribution proportion scenarios and uncertainties used in the SIFCP-WRMS model can lead to changed water allocations, sewage discharges, chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions, and system benefits. Results also indicate that the variation of scenarios (i.e., from S2 to S3) can result in a change of 9% over the planning horizon for water allocation in the industrial sector. Findings can help decision-makers resolve conflicts among economic objective, water resource demand, and sewage discharge, as well as COD emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
A Novel Method of Sustainability Evaluation in Machining Processes
Processes 2019, 7(5), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050275 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
In order to quantitatively evaluate and improve the sustainability of machining systems, this paper presents an emergy (the amount of energy consumed in direct and indirect transformations to make a product or service) based sustainability evaluation and improvement method for machining systems, contributing [...] Read more.
In order to quantitatively evaluate and improve the sustainability of machining systems, this paper presents an emergy (the amount of energy consumed in direct and indirect transformations to make a product or service) based sustainability evaluation and improvement method for machining systems, contributing to the improvement of energy efficiency, resource efficiency and environmental performance, and realizing the sustainability development. First, the driver and challenge are studied, and the scope and hypothesis of the sustainable machining system are illustrated. Then, the emergy-based conversion efficiency model is proposed, which are (1) effective emergy utilization rate (EEUR), (2) emergy efficiency of unit product (EEUP) and (3) emergy conversion efficiency (ECE), to measure and evaluate the sustainable machining system from the perspectives of energy, resource and environment. Finally, the proposed model is applied to a vehicle-bridge machining process, and the results show that this paper provides the theoretical and method support for evaluating and improving the sustainable machining processes to decouple the resources and development of the manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Assessment of Wind Energy Potential for the Production of Renewable Hydrogen in Sindh Province of Pakistan
Processes 2019, 7(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040196 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 3616
Abstract
In this study, we developed a new hybrid mathematical model that combines wind-speed range with the log law to derive the wind energy potential for wind-generated hydrogen production in Pakistan. In addition, we electrolyzed wind-generated power in order to assess the generation capacity [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a new hybrid mathematical model that combines wind-speed range with the log law to derive the wind energy potential for wind-generated hydrogen production in Pakistan. In addition, we electrolyzed wind-generated power in order to assess the generation capacity of wind-generated renewable hydrogen. The advantage of the Weibull model is that it more accurately reflects power generation potential (i.e., the capacity factor). When applied to selected sites, we have found commercially viable hydrogen production capacity in all locations. All sites considered had the potential to produce an excess amount of wind-generated renewable hydrogen. If the total national capacity of wind-generated was used, Pakistan could conceivably produce 51,917,000.39 kg per day of renewable hydrogen. Based on our results, we suggest that cars and other forms of transport could be fueled with hydrogen to conserve oil and gas resources, which can reduce the energy shortfall and contribute to the fight against climate change and global warming. Also, hydrogen could be used to supplement urban energy needs (e.g., for Sindh province Pakistan), again reducing energy shortage effects and supporting green city programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Enhancement Effect of Ordered Hierarchical Pore Configuration on SO2 Adsorption and Desorption Process
Processes 2019, 7(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7030173 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Carbonaceous adsorbents with both high sulfur capacity and easy regeneration are required for flue gas desulfurization. A hierarchical structure is desirable for SO2 removal, since the micropores are beneficial for SO2 adsorption, while the mesopore networks facilitate gas diffusion and end-product [...] Read more.
Carbonaceous adsorbents with both high sulfur capacity and easy regeneration are required for flue gas desulfurization. A hierarchical structure is desirable for SO2 removal, since the micropores are beneficial for SO2 adsorption, while the mesopore networks facilitate gas diffusion and end-product H2SO4 storage. Herein, an ordered hierarchical porous carbon was synthesized via a soft-template method and subsequent activation, used in SO2 removal, and compared with coal-based activated carbon, which also had a hierarchical pore configuration. The more detailed, abundant micropores created in CO2 activation, especially the ultramicropores (d < 0.7 nm), are essential in enhancing the SO2 adsorption and the reserves rather than the pore patterns. While O2 and H2O participate in the reaction, the hierarchical porous carbon with ordered mesopores greatly improves SO2 removal dynamics and sulfur capacity, as this interconnecting pore pattern facilitates H2SO4 transport from micropores to mesopores, releasing the SO2 adsorption space. Additionally, the water-washing regeneration performances of the two types of adsorbents were comparatively determined and provide a new insight into the mass-transfer resistance in the pore structure. The ordered hierarchical carbon promoted H2SO4 desorption efficiency and cycled SO2 adsorption–desorption performance, further indicating that interconnecting micro- and mesopores facilitated the diffusion of adsorbates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Realizing Energy Savings in Integrated Process Planning and Scheduling
Processes 2019, 7(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7030120 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
The integration of scheduling and process planning can eliminate resource conflicts and hence improve the performance of a manufacturing system. However, the focus of most existing works is mainly on the optimization techniques to improve the makespan criterion instead of more efficient uses [...] Read more.
The integration of scheduling and process planning can eliminate resource conflicts and hence improve the performance of a manufacturing system. However, the focus of most existing works is mainly on the optimization techniques to improve the makespan criterion instead of more efficient uses of energy. In fact, with a deteriorating global climate caused by massive coal-fired power consumption, carbon emission reduction in the manufacturing sector is becoming increasingly imperative. To ease the environmental burden caused by energy consumption, e.g., coal-fired power consumption in use of machine tools, this research considers both makespan as well as environmental performance criteria, e.g., total power consumption, in integrated process planning and scheduling using a novel multi-objective memetic algorithm to facilitate a potential amount of energy savings; this can be realized through a better use of resources with more efficient scheduling schemes. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model based on the network graph is formulated with both makespan as well as total power consumption criteria. Due to the complexity of the problem, a multi-objective memetic algorithm with variable neighborhood search (VNS) technique is then developed for this problem. The Kim’s benchmark instances are employed to test the proposed algorithm. Moreover, the TOPSIS decision method is used to determine the most satisfactory non-dominated solution. Several scenarios are considered to simulate different machine automation levels and different machine workload levels. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm can strike a balance between the makespan criterion and the total power consumption criterion, and the total power consumption can be affected by machine tools with different automation levels and different workloads. More importantly, results also show that energy saving can be realized by completing machining as early as possible on a machine tool and taking advantage of machine flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
A Composite Evaluation Model of Sustainable Manufacturing in Machining Process for Typical Machine Tools
Processes 2019, 7(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020110 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Machine tool is the basic manufacturing equipment in today’s mechanical manufacturing industry. A considerable amount of energy and carbon emission are consumed in machining processes, the realization of sustainable manufacturing of machine tools have become an urgent problem to be solved in the [...] Read more.
Machine tool is the basic manufacturing equipment in today’s mechanical manufacturing industry. A considerable amount of energy and carbon emission are consumed in machining processes, the realization of sustainable manufacturing of machine tools have become an urgent problem to be solved in the field of industry and academia. Therefore, five types of machine tools were selected for the typical machining processes (turning, milling, planning, grinding and drilling). Then the model of the energy efficiency, carbon efficiency and green degree model were established in this paper which considers the theory and experiment with the resource, energy and emission modeling method. The head frame spindle and head frame box were selected to verify the feasibility and practicability of the proposed model, based on the orthogonal experiment case of the key machining process. In addition, the influence rules of machining parameters were explored and the energy efficiency and green degree of the machine tools were compared. Finally, the corresponding strategies for energy conservation and emission reduction were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Using the Optimization Algorithm to Evaluate the Energetic Industry: A Case Study in Thailand
Processes 2019, 7(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020087 - 09 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Thailand’s economy is developing rapidly, with energy being a significant factor in this development. This study uses a variety of models to assess the performance of Thailand’s energy industry in two different phases, the first being from 2013 to 2017 and the second [...] Read more.
Thailand’s economy is developing rapidly, with energy being a significant factor in this development. This study uses a variety of models to assess the performance of Thailand’s energy industry in two different phases, the first being from 2013 to 2017 and the second from 2018 to 2020. The Malmquist model-one of data envelopment required input and output data that showed Thailand’s productivity index and the rate-of-change ratio, which is used to assess technical changes, change efficiency, and productivity changes of the 12 listed companies in energetic generation and distribution in Thailand. To calculate future indicators, the forecast data are generated by applying the Grey model (1,1) GM(1,1). Accuracy prediction is determined by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The results show that the magnitude of the change in efficiency during the first period is stable, and some major changes in the technical level of some companies may be observed. In the future, the performance of most companies has increased steadily, but performance has been outstanding. This research provides insights into Thailand’s energy over the past few years, and predictions of future performance may be used as a reference for more purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Formation Mechanism of Trailing Oil in Product Oil Pipeline
Processes 2019, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7010007 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 2785 | Correction
Abstract
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination in oil pipelines. It is generated in batch transportation, for which one fluid, such as diesel oil follows another fluid, such as gasoline, and it has an effect on the quality of oil. This paper [...] Read more.
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination in oil pipelines. It is generated in batch transportation, for which one fluid, such as diesel oil follows another fluid, such as gasoline, and it has an effect on the quality of oil. This paper describes our analysis of the formation mechanism of trailing oil in pipelines and our study of the influence of dead-legs on the formation of trailing oil. We found that the oil replacement rate in a dead-leg is exponentially related to the flow speed, and the length of the dead-leg is exponentially related to the replacement time of the oil. To reduce the amount of mixed oil, the main flow speed should be kept at about 1.6 m/s, and the length of the dead-leg should be less than five times the diameter of the main pipe. In our work, the Reynolds time-averaged method is used to simulate turbulence. To obtain contamination-related experimental data, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to simulate different flow rates and bypass lengths. MATLAB software was used to perform multi-nonlinear regression for the oil substitution time, the length of the bypass, and the flow speed. We determined an equation for calculating the length of the trailing oil contamination produced by the dead-leg. A modified equation for calculating the length of the contamination was obtained by combining the existing equation for calculating the length of the contamination with new factors based on our work. The amounts of contamination predicted by the new equation is closer to the actual contamination amounts than predicted values from other methods suggested by previous scholars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Measuring Efficiency of Generating Electric Processes
Processes 2019, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7010006 - 21 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Electric energy sources are the foundation for supporting for the industrialization and modernization; however, the processes of electricity generation increase CO2 emissions. This study integrates the Holt–Winters model in number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) to estimate the forecasting data and the undesirable [...] Read more.
Electric energy sources are the foundation for supporting for the industrialization and modernization; however, the processes of electricity generation increase CO2 emissions. This study integrates the Holt–Winters model in number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) to estimate the forecasting data and the undesirable model in data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the efficiency of electricity production in 14 countries all over the world from past to future. The Holt–Winters model is utilized to estimate the future; then, the actual and forecasting data are applied into the undesirable model to compute the performance. From the principle of an undesirable model, the study determines the input and output factors as follows nonrenewable and renewable fuels (inputs), electricity generation (desirable output), and CO2 emissions (undesirable output). The empirical results exhibit efficient/inefficient terms over the period from 2011–2021 while converting these fuels into electricity energy and CO2 emissions. The efficiency reveals the environmental effect level from the electricity generation. The analysis scores recommend a direction for improving the inefficient terms via the principle of inputs and undesirable outputs excess and desirable outputs shortfalls in an undesirable model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Receding Horizon Optimization of Wind Farm Active Power Distribution with Power Tracking Error and Transmission Loss
Processes 2018, 6(12), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6120259 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
In this paper, a receding-horizon optimization strategy is introduced to optimize the wind farm active power distribution with power tracking error and transmission loss. Based on the wind farm transmission connections, a wind farm can be divided into clusters, in which the wind [...] Read more.
In this paper, a receding-horizon optimization strategy is introduced to optimize the wind farm active power distribution with power tracking error and transmission loss. Based on the wind farm transmission connections, a wind farm can be divided into clusters, in which the wind turbine generator systems connected to one booster station can be taken as one cluster, and different clusters connected from booster stations to the farm-level main transformer output the electric power to the grid. Thus, in the proposed strategy, the power tracking characteristic of the wind turbine generator system is modeled as a first-order system to quantify the power tracking error during the power tracking dynamic process, where the power transmission losses from wind turbine generator systems to booster stations are also modeled and considered in the optimization. The proposed strategy is applied to distribute the active power set-point within a cluster while the clusters’ set-point still follows the conventional strategy of the wind farm. Simulation results show significant improvement for both optimization targets of the proposed strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Two-Step Many-Objective Optimal Power Flow Based on Knee Point-Driven Evolutionary Algorithm
by and
Processes 2018, 6(12), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6120250 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
To coordinate the economy, security and environment protection in the power system operation, a two-step many-objective optimal power flow (MaOPF) solution method is proposed. In step 1, it is the first time that knee point-driven evolutionary algorithm (KnEA) is introduced to address the [...] Read more.
To coordinate the economy, security and environment protection in the power system operation, a two-step many-objective optimal power flow (MaOPF) solution method is proposed. In step 1, it is the first time that knee point-driven evolutionary algorithm (KnEA) is introduced to address the MaOPF problem, and thereby the Pareto-optimal solutions can be obtained. In step 2, an integrated decision analysis technique is utilized to provide decision makers with decision supports by combining fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and grey relational projection (GRP) method together. In this way, the best compromise solutions (BCSs) that represent decision makers’ different, even conflicting, preferences can be automatically determined from the set of Pareto-optimal solutions. The primary contribution of the proposal is the innovative application of many-objective optimization together with decision analysis for addressing MaOPF problems. Through examining the two-step method via the IEEE 118-bus system and the real-world Hebei provincial power system, it is verified that our approach is suitable for addressing the MaOPF problem of power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Article
Modeling the Circular Economy Processes at the EU Level Using an Evaluation Algorithm Based on Shannon Entropy
Processes 2018, 6(11), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110225 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
In this paper we propose a methodology to study circular economy processes based on mathematical modelling. In open-ended systems, waste could be converted back to recycling, transforming the economy from linear to circular. The concept of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics [...] Read more.
In this paper we propose a methodology to study circular economy processes based on mathematical modelling. In open-ended systems, waste could be converted back to recycling, transforming the economy from linear to circular. The concept of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics give the argument for a scale reduction of material circulation. As humans extract more and more energy and matter for the economy, the degree of entropy is likely to increase. Based on the findings of economic studies on the implications of industrialization in the case of growing economies, this study aims at evaluating circular economy processes at the European Union (EU) level using a Shannon-Entropy-based algorithm. An entropy-based analysis was conducted for the 28 European Union countries during the time frame 2007–2016. The modelling process consists of constructing a composite indicator which is composed of a weighted sum of all indicators developed by an algorithm based on Shannon Entropy. The weights assigned to each indicator in our analysis measure the significance of each indicator involved in the development of the composite indicator. The results are similar to the international rakings, consolidating and confirming the accuracy and reliability of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Metal Forming Processes from Different Hierarchies
Processes 2019, 7(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060357 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Energy efficiency improvement and environmental impact reduction are emerging issues in the manufacturing industry. Aside from cutting, metal forming is also an important process in manufacturing. Metal forming is energy intensive because of the low energy efficiency of the used metal forming press. [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency improvement and environmental impact reduction are emerging issues in the manufacturing industry. Aside from cutting, metal forming is also an important process in manufacturing. Metal forming is energy intensive because of the low energy efficiency of the used metal forming press. Although many literature reviews focused on the energy reduction and energy efficiency of machine tools, a comprehensive literature review of metal forming processes remains lacking because of the great difference between cutting machines and forming equipment. In addition, methods for energy efficiency and energy-saving still need to be promoted in metal forming. In this review, a novel hierarchy of the metal forming system was presented to describe the relationship among the equipment, process, and manufacturing system, providing a guideline of methods for energy efficiency and saving in metal forming. Then, existing energy consumption modeling and estimation theories and methods were discussed from two aspects. One is energy monitoring and modeling of metal forming equipment, and the other is process energy analysis of metal forming based on different parameters. On the basis of the hierarchy of the metal forming system, the present methods and technologies aiming to promote energy efficiency and energy saving effects were discussed from the aspects of equipment design and control, process optimization, and scheduling management and use. Thus, this review may serve as a reference for the decision-making of producers and managers to realize energy efficiency and energy saving at the system level. In addition, the major points that need attention are accurate energy models and control of forming equipment as well as the integrated optimization of equipment, process, and scheduling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Correction
Correction: Formation Mechanism of Trailing Oil in Product Oil Pipeline. Processes 2019, 7, 7
Processes 2020, 8(7), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070835 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 734
Abstract
We were not aware of some errors made in the proofreading phase; therefore, we wish to make the following corrections to the mathematical equations in the text in [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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