Special Issue "Hydrogen Production Technologies"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Suttichai Assabumrungrat
Website
Guest Editor
Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Interests: chemical reaction engineering; multifunctional reactors; biofuel production processes; biorefinery; process intensification
Dr. Suwimol Wongsakulphasatch
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800, Thailand
Interests: chemical reaction engineering; sorption enhanced reaction; hydrogen production; CO2 capture
Dr. Pattaraporn Lohsoontorn Kim
Website
Guest Editor
Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Interests: chemical reaction engineering; hydrogen production; fuel cell; CO2 utilization
Prof. Dr. Alírio E. Rodrigues
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering - Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: cyclic adsorption/reaction processes (PSA and SMB for olefins/paraffins separation, SMB for chiral separations, sugar separations, xylenes separations); process intensification (SMBR and PermSMBR for acetals, esterifications for ethyl lactate and butyl acrylate, xylenes isomerization, PSA and ESA for CO2 capture, cryogenic adsorption, SERP for H2 production, parametric pumping, expanded bed adsorption for protein separation); lignin valorization: vanillin and syringaldehyde from lignin; perfume engineering and microencapsulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global hydrogen demand is found to continuously increase each year. Global hydrogen market is already valued at hundreds of billions of dollars per year. As it is known, hydrogen can be used safely for a wide range of applications, i.e., in food, metal, glass and chemical industries. In addition, according to energy crisis and environmental concern, hydrogen has been driven to become one of alternative energy carriers for power generation and is considered as a straightforward solution to issues related pollution and global warming. To meet the requirement of global demand, technologies to produce hydrogen are therefore essential and is considered as significance. To date, the development of hydrogen production technologies is in different stages, ranging from already commercial to the early stage laboratory development of new technologies for long-term benefits.

This special issue on “Hydrogen production technology” aims to gather outstanding researches and the comprehensive coverage of all aspects related to the hydrogen production technology, covering a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen from a variety of resources and technologies in both economically and environmentally friendly ways. This special issue will bring together high-quality research articles on the different aspects of hydrogen production technology including current status and remaining challenges.  Topics include, but not are limited to:

  • Hydrogen production technologies, including chemical and biological processes
  • Theoretical and experimental investigation for hydrogen production process design
  • Integrated process development relating to the production of hydrogen and its utilization
Prof. Suttichai Assabumrungrat
Dr. Suwimol Wongsakulphasatch
Dr. Pattaraporn Lohsoontorn Kim
Prof. Alírio E. Rodrigues
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 31 December 2019 an APC of 1400 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrogen production technologies
  • hydrogen processing
  • hydrogen process design
  • hydrogen resources
  • hydrogen application
  • hydrogen purification

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Compact Heat Integrated Reactor System of Steam Reformer, Shift Reactor and Combustor for Hydrogen Production from Ethanol
Processes 2020, 8(6), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060708 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
A compact heat integrated reactor system (CHIRS) of a steam reformer, a water gas shift reactor, and a combustor were designed for stationary hydrogen production from ethanol. Different reactor integration concepts were firstly studied using Aspen Plus. The sequential steam reformer and shift [...] Read more.
A compact heat integrated reactor system (CHIRS) of a steam reformer, a water gas shift reactor, and a combustor were designed for stationary hydrogen production from ethanol. Different reactor integration concepts were firstly studied using Aspen Plus. The sequential steam reformer and shift reactor (SRSR) was considered as a conventional system. The efficiency of the SRSR could be improved by more than 12% by splitting water addition to the shift reactor (SRSR-WS). Two compact heat integrated reactor systems (CHIRS) were proposed and simulated by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Although the overall efficiency of the CHIRS was quite a bit lower than the SRSR-WS, the compact systems were properly designed for portable use. CHIRS (I) design, combining the reactors in a radial direction, was large in reactor volume and provided poor temperature control. As a result, the ethanol steam reforming and water gas shift reactions were suppressed, leading to lower hydrogen selectivity. On the other hand, CHIRS (II) design, combining the process in a vertical direction, provided better temperature control. The reactions performed efficiently, resulting in higher hydrogen selectivity. Therefore, the high performance CHIRS (II) design is recommended as a suitable stationary system for hydrogen production from ethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of CuO as Sintering Additive in Scandium Cerium and Gadolinium-Doped Zirconia-Based Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell for Steam Electrolysis
Processes 2019, 7(12), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120868 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The effect of CuO as a sintering additive on the electrolyte of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) was investigated. 0.5 wt% CuO was added into Sc0.1Ce0.05Gd0.05Zr0.89O2 (SCGZ) electrolyte as a sintering additive. An electrolyte-supported [...] Read more.
The effect of CuO as a sintering additive on the electrolyte of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) was investigated. 0.5 wt% CuO was added into Sc0.1Ce0.05Gd0.05Zr0.89O2 (SCGZ) electrolyte as a sintering additive. An electrolyte-supported cell (Pt/SCGZ/Pt) was fabricated. Phase formation, relative density, and electrical conductivity were investigated. The cells were sintered at 1373 K to 1673 K for 4 h. The CuO significantly affected the sinterability of SCGZ. The SCGZ with 0.5 wt% CuO achieved 95% relative density at 1573 K while the SCGZ without CuO could not be densified even at 1673 K. Phase transformation and impurity after CuO addition were not detected from XRD patterns. Electrochemical performance was evaluated at the operating temperature from 873 K to 1173 K under steam to hydrogen ratio at 70:30. Adding 0.5 wt% CuO insignificantly affected the electrochemical performance of the cell. Activation energy of conduction (Ea) was 72.34 kJ mol1 and 74.93 kJ mol1 for SCGZ and SCGZ with CuO, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comparison of Packed-Bed and Micro-Channel Reactors for Hydrogen Production via Thermochemical Cycles of Water Splitting in the Presence of Ceria-Based Catalysts
Processes 2019, 7(10), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100767 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hydrogen production via two-step thermochemical cycles over fluorite-structure ceria (CeO2) and ceria-zirconia (Ce0.75Zr0.25O2) materials was studied in packed-bed and micro-channel reactors for comparison purposes. The H2-temperature program reduction (H2-TPR) results indicated [...] Read more.
Hydrogen production via two-step thermochemical cycles over fluorite-structure ceria (CeO2) and ceria-zirconia (Ce0.75Zr0.25O2) materials was studied in packed-bed and micro-channel reactors for comparison purposes. The H2-temperature program reduction (H2-TPR) results indicated that the addition of Zr4+ enhanced the material’s reducibility from 585 µmol/g to 1700 µmol/g, although the reduction temperature increased from 545 to 680 °C. Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 was found to offer higher hydrogen productivity than CeO2 regardless of the type of reactor. The micro-channel reactor showed better performance than the packed-bed reactor for this reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Viability and Environmental Efficiency Analysis of Hydrogen Production Processes for the Decarbonization of Energy Systems
Processes 2019, 7(8), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080494 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
The widespread penetration of hydrogen in mainstream energy systems requires hydrogen production processes to be economically competent and environmentally efficient. Hydrogen, if produced efficiently, can play a pivotal role in decarbonizing the global energy systems. Therefore, this study develops a framework which evaluates [...] Read more.
The widespread penetration of hydrogen in mainstream energy systems requires hydrogen production processes to be economically competent and environmentally efficient. Hydrogen, if produced efficiently, can play a pivotal role in decarbonizing the global energy systems. Therefore, this study develops a framework which evaluates hydrogen production processes and quantifies deficiencies for improvement. The framework integrates slack-based data envelopment analysis (DEA), with fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS). The proposed framework is applied to prioritize the most efficient and sustainable hydrogen production in Pakistan. Eleven hydrogen production alternatives were analyzed under five criteria, including capital cost, feedstock cost, O&M cost, hydrogen production, and CO2 emission. FAHP obtained the initial weights of criteria while FTOPSIS determined the ultimate weights of criteria for each alternative. Finally, slack-based DEA computed the efficiency of alternatives. Among the 11, three alternatives (wind electrolysis, PV electrolysis, and biomass gasification) were found to be fully efficient and therefore can be considered as sustainable options for hydrogen production in Pakistan. The rest of the eight alternatives achieved poor efficiency scores and thus are not recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Syngas Production from Combined Steam Gasification of Biochar and a Sorption-Enhanced Water–Gas Shift Reaction with the Utilization of CO2
Processes 2019, 7(6), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060349 - 07 Jun 2019
Abstract
This research aims at evaluating the performance of a combined system of biochar gasification and a sorption-enhanced water–gas shift reaction (SEWGS) for synthesis gas production. The effects of mangrove-derived biochar gasification temperature, pattern of combined gasification and SEWGS, amount of steam and CO [...] Read more.
This research aims at evaluating the performance of a combined system of biochar gasification and a sorption-enhanced water–gas shift reaction (SEWGS) for synthesis gas production. The effects of mangrove-derived biochar gasification temperature, pattern of combined gasification and SEWGS, amount of steam and CO2 added as gasifying agent, and SEWGS temperature were studied in this work. The performances of the combined process were examined in terms of biochar conversion, gaseous product composition, and CO2 emission. The results revealed that the hybrid SEWGS using one-body multi-functional material offered a greater amount of H2 with a similar amount of CO2 emissions when compared with separated sorbent/catalyst material. The gasification temperature of 900 °C provided the highest biochar conversion of ca. 98.7%. Synthesis gas production was found to depend upon the amount of water and CO2 added and SEWGS temperature. Higher amounts of H2 were observed when increasing the amount of water and the temperature of the SEWGS system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Conceptual Design of Pyrolytic Oil Upgrading Process Enhanced by Membrane-Integrated Hydrogen Production System
Processes 2019, 7(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050284 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrotreatment is an efficient method for pyrolytic oil upgrading; however, the trade-off between the operational cost on hydrogen consumption and process profit remains the major challenge for the process designs. In this study, an integrated process of steam methane reforming and pyrolytic oil [...] Read more.
Hydrotreatment is an efficient method for pyrolytic oil upgrading; however, the trade-off between the operational cost on hydrogen consumption and process profit remains the major challenge for the process designs. In this study, an integrated process of steam methane reforming and pyrolytic oil hydrotreating with gas separation system was proposed conceptually. The integrated process utilized steam methane reformer to produce raw syngas without further water–gas-shifting; with the aid of a membrane unit, the hydrogen concentration in the syngas was adjusted, which substituted the water–gas-shift reactor and improved the performance of hydrotreater on both conversion and hydrogen consumption. A simulation framework for unit operations was developed for process designs through which the dissipated flow in the packed-bed reactor, along with membrane gas separation unit were modeled and calculated in the commercial process simulator. The evaluation results showed that, the proposed process could achieve 63.7% conversion with 2.0 wt% hydrogen consumption; the evaluations of economics showed that the proposed process could achieve 70% higher net profit compared to the conventional plant, indicating the potentials of the integrated pyrolytic oil upgrading process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Production and Subsequent Adsorption/Desorption Process within a Modified Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell
Processes 2019, 7(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040238 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
For sustainable and incremental growth, mankind is adopting renewable sources of energy along with storage systems. Storing surplus renewable energy in the form of hydrogen is a viable solution to meet continuous energy demands. In this paper the concept of electrochemical hydrogen storage [...] Read more.
For sustainable and incremental growth, mankind is adopting renewable sources of energy along with storage systems. Storing surplus renewable energy in the form of hydrogen is a viable solution to meet continuous energy demands. In this paper the concept of electrochemical hydrogen storage in a solid multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrode integrated in a modified unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is investigated. The method of solid electrode fabrication from MWCNT powder and egg white as an organic binder is disclosed. The electrochemical testing of a modified URFC with an integrated MWCNT-based hydrogen storage electrode is performed and reported. Galvanostatic charging and discharging was carried out and results analyzed to ascertain the electrochemical hydrogen storage capacity of the fabricated electrode. The electrochemical hydrogen storage capacity of the porous MWCNT electrode is found to be 2.47 wt%, which is comparable with commercially available AB5-based hydrogen storage canisters. The obtained results prove the technical feasibility of a modified URFC with an integrated MWCNT-based hydrogen storage electrode, which is the first of its kind. This is surelya step forward towards building a sustainable energy economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Lifetime Cathode for Alkaline Electrolysis Using Standard Commercial Titanium Nitride Coatings
Processes 2019, 7(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020112 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to [...] Read more.
The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating’s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multi-Tubular Reactor for Hydrogen Production: CFD Thermal Design and Experimental Testing
Processes 2019, 7(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7010031 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) thermal design and experimental tests results for a multi-tubular solar reactor for hydrogen production based on the ferrite thermochemical cycle in a pilot plant in the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). The methodology followed for [...] Read more.
This study presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) thermal design and experimental tests results for a multi-tubular solar reactor for hydrogen production based on the ferrite thermochemical cycle in a pilot plant in the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). The methodology followed for the solar reactor design is described, as well as the experimental tests carried out during the testing campaign and characterization of the reactor. The CFD model developed for the thermal design of the solar reactor has been validated against the experimental measurements, with a temperature error ranging from 1% to around 10% depending on the location within the reactor. The thermal balance in the reactor (cavity and tubes) has been also solved by the CFD model, showing a 7.9% thermal efficiency of the reactor. CFD results also show the percentage of reacting media inside the tubes which achieve the required temperature for the endothermic reaction process, with 90% of the ferrite pellets inside the tubes above the required temperature of 900 °C. The multi-tubular solar reactor designed with aid of CFD modelling and simulations has been built and operated successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Microwave Pretreatment with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Enhanced Biogas and Hydrogen Yield from Green Algae
Processes 2019, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7010024 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The available energy can be effectively upgraded by adopting smart energy conversion measures. The biodegradability of biomass can be improved by employing pretreatment techniques; however, such methods result in reduced energy efficiency. In this study, microwave (MW) irradiation is used for green algae [...] Read more.
The available energy can be effectively upgraded by adopting smart energy conversion measures. The biodegradability of biomass can be improved by employing pretreatment techniques; however, such methods result in reduced energy efficiency. In this study, microwave (MW) irradiation is used for green algae (Enteromorpha) pretreatment in combination with iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) which act as a heterogeneous catalyst during anaerobic digestion process for biogas enhancement. Batch-wise anaerobic digestion was carried out. The results showed that MW pretreatment and its combination with Fe3O4 NPs produced highest yields of biogas and hydrogen as compared to the individual ones and control. The biogas amount and hydrogen % v/v achieved by MW pretreatment + Fe3O4 NPs group were 328 mL and 51.5%, respectively. The energy analysis indicated that synergistic application of MW pretreatment with Fe3O4 NPs produced added energy while consuming less input energy than MW pretreatment alone. The kinetic parameters of the reaction were scientifically evaluated by using modified Gompertz and Logistic function model for each experimental case. MW pretreatment + Fe3O4 NPs group improved biogas production potential and maximum biogas production rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production Technologies)
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