Special Issue "Gas Capture Processes"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Tohid N. Borhani

Chemical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: process modeling; chemometric; QSPR/QSAR; CFD
Guest Editor
Dr. Zhien Zhang

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CO2 capture and storage (CCS); membrane; absorption; CFD
Guest Editor
Dr. Muftah H. El-Naas

Chemical Process Engineering Gas Processing Center, Qatar University PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CO2 capture and sequestration; CO2 conversion; membrane separation
Guest Editor
Dr. Salman Masoudi Soltani

Chemical Engineering, Brunel University, London, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: process synthesis and design; separation processes; clean fossil fuel
Guest Editor
Dr. Yunfei Yan

Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pollution control; mass and heat transfer; combustion; multiphase flow

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gas emissions from industries and human activities represent a global threat to the atmosphere and human health. Recently, gas emissions control technologies have been employed widely in a variety of fields, such as CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, NOX, H2, etc. However, in the specific areas, some capturing methods show poor performance not only in term of cost but also in terms of energy consumptions. Thus, the choice of a good gas capture method is very significant to the various industrial processes and the small-scale applications. It is important to conduct the proper analysis of the main factors that influence the process and identify the mechanisms of the different phases of the processes.

This Special Issue on “Gas Capture Processes” aims to identify novel advances in the development and application of experimental and modeling work to address longstanding challenges in gas capture processes. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Gas separation from gas mixture;
  • Optimization and comparison of the gas capture processes;
  • Mechanism and thermodynamics of CO2 and other phases;
  • Multiphase flow during the capturing process; and
  • The development of gas capture applications.

Dr. Tohid N.Borhani
Dr. Zhien Zhang
Dr. Muftah H. El-Naas
Dr. Salman Masoudi Soltani
Dr. Yunfei Yan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1100 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2019 an APC of 1200 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Gas separation
  • Gas capture
  • Process optimization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Reaction Kinetics of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Blends of N-Methyldiethanolamine and L-Arginine Using the Stopped-Flow Technique
Processes 2019, 7(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020081
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
PDF Full-text (758 KB)
Abstract
: Reduction of carbon dioxide emission from natural and industrial flue gases is paramount to help mitigate its effect on global warming. Efforts are continuously deployed worldwide to develop efficient technologies for CO2 capture. The use of environment friendly amino acids as [...] Read more.
: Reduction of carbon dioxide emission from natural and industrial flue gases is paramount to help mitigate its effect on global warming. Efforts are continuously deployed worldwide to develop efficient technologies for CO2 capture. The use of environment friendly amino acids as rate promoters in the present amine systems has attracted the attention of many researchers recently. In this work, the reaction kinetics of carbon dioxide with blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and L-Arginine was investigated using stopped flow technique. The experiments were performed over a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and solution concentration up to one molar of different amino acid/amine ratios. The overall reaction rate constant (kov) was found to increase with increasing temperature and amine concentration as well as with increased proportion of L-Arginine concentration in the mixture. The experimental data were fitted to the zwitterion and termolecular mechanisms using a nonlinear regression technique with an average absolute deviation (AAD) of 7.6% and 8.0%, respectively. A comparative study of the promoting effect of L-Arginine with that of the effect of Glycine and DEA in MDEA blends showed that MDEA-Arginine blend exhibits faster reaction rate with CO2 with respect to MDEA-DEA blend, while the case was converse when compared to the MDEA-Glycine blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Pore-Formers to Modify Extrusion-Spheronized CaO-Based Pellets for CO2 Capture
Processes 2019, 7(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020062
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
The application of circulating fluidized bed technology in calcium looping (CaL) requires that CaO-based sorbents should be manufactured in the form of spherical pellets. However, the pelletization of powdered sorbents is always hampered by the problem that the mechanical strength of sorbents is [...] Read more.
The application of circulating fluidized bed technology in calcium looping (CaL) requires that CaO-based sorbents should be manufactured in the form of spherical pellets. However, the pelletization of powdered sorbents is always hampered by the problem that the mechanical strength of sorbents is improved at the cost of loss in CO2 sorption performance. To promote both the CO2 sorption and anti-attrition performance, in this work, four kinds of pore-forming materials were screened and utilized to prepare sorbent pellets via the extrusion-spheronization process. In addition, impacts of the additional content of pore-forming material and their particle sizes were also investigated comprehensively. It was found that the addition of 5 wt.% polyethylene possesses the highest CO2 capture capacity (0.155 g-CO2/g-sorbent in the 25th cycle) and mechanical performance of 4.0 N after high-temperature calcination, which were about 14% higher and 25% improved, compared to pure calcium hydrate pellets. The smaller particle size of pore-forming material was observed to lead to a better performance in CO2 sorption, while for mechanical performance, there was an optimal size for the pore-former used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Study on the Influence of Gas Mole Fraction and Aqueous Activity under Phase Equilibrium
Processes 2019, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020058
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
This work explored the influence of gas mole fraction and activity in aqueous phase while predicting phase equilibrium conditions. In pure gas systems, such as CH4, CO2, N2 and O2, the gas mole fraction in aqueous [...] Read more.
This work explored the influence of gas mole fraction and activity in aqueous phase while predicting phase equilibrium conditions. In pure gas systems, such as CH4, CO2, N2 and O2, the gas mole fraction in aqueous phase as one of phase equilibrium conditions was proposed, and a simplified correlation of the gas mole fraction was established. The gas mole fraction threshold maintaining three-phase equilibrium was obtained by phase equilibrium data regression. The UNIFAC model, the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation and the Chen-Guo model were used to calculate aqueous phase activity, the fugacity of gas and hydrate phase, respectively. It showed that the predicted phase equilibrium pressures are in good agreement with published phase equilibrium experiment data, and the percentage of Absolute Average Deviation Pressures are given. The water activity, gas mole fraction in aqueous phase and the fugacity coefficient in vapor phase are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Methodology of a High-Flux Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Combustion System
Processes 2018, 6(12), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6120251
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
This study, as an extension of our previous experimental tests, presented a mechanism analysis of air reactor (AR) coupling in a high-flux coal-direct chemical looping combustion (CDCLC) system and provided a theoretical methodology to the system optimal design with favorable operation stability and [...] Read more.
This study, as an extension of our previous experimental tests, presented a mechanism analysis of air reactor (AR) coupling in a high-flux coal-direct chemical looping combustion (CDCLC) system and provided a theoretical methodology to the system optimal design with favorable operation stability and low gas leakages. Firstly, it exhibited the dipleg flow diagrams of the CDCLC system and concluded the feasible gas–solid flow states for solid circulation and gas leakage control. On this basis, the semi-theoretical formulas of gas leakages were proposed to predict the optimal regions of the pressure gradients of the AR. Meanwhile, an empirical formula of critical sealing was also developed to identify the advent of circulation collapse so as to ensure the operation stability of the whole system. Furthermore, the theoretical methodology was applied in the condition design of the cold system. The favorable gas–solid flow behaviors together with the good control of gas leakages demonstrated the feasibility of the theoretical methodology. Finally, the theoretical methodology was adopted to carry out a capability assessment of the high-flux CDCLC system under a hot state in terms of the restraint of gas leakages and the stability of solid circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Consumption and Economic Analyses of a Supercritical Water Oxidation System with Oxygen Recovery
Processes 2018, 6(11), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110224
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Oxygen consumption is one of the factors that contributes to the high treatment cost of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) system. In this work, we proposed an oxygen recovery (OR) process for an SCWO system based on the solubility difference between oxygen and [...] Read more.
Oxygen consumption is one of the factors that contributes to the high treatment cost of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) system. In this work, we proposed an oxygen recovery (OR) process for an SCWO system based on the solubility difference between oxygen and CO2 in high-pressure water. A two-stage gas–liquid separation process was established using Aspen Plus software to obtain the optimized separation parameters. Accordingly, energy consumption and economic analyses were conducted for the SCWO process with and without OR. Electricity, depreciation, and oxygen costs contribute to the major cost of the SCWO system without OR, accounting for 46.18, 30.24, and 18.01 $·t−1, respectively. When OR was introduced, the total treatment cost decreased from 56.80 $·t−1 to 46.17 $·t−1, with a reduction of 18.82%. Operating cost can be significantly reduced at higher values of the stoichiometric oxygen excess for the SCWO system with OR. Moreover, the treatment cost for the SCWO system with OR decreases with increasing feed concentration for more reaction heat and oxygen recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Calculation Model and Rapid Estimation Method for Coal Seam Gas Content
Processes 2018, 6(11), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110223
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Coalbed gas content is the most important parameter for forecasting and preventing the occurrence of coal and gas outburst. However, existing methods have difficulty obtaining the coalbed gas content accurately. In this study, a numerical calculation model for the rapid estimation of coal [...] Read more.
Coalbed gas content is the most important parameter for forecasting and preventing the occurrence of coal and gas outburst. However, existing methods have difficulty obtaining the coalbed gas content accurately. In this study, a numerical calculation model for the rapid estimation of coal seam gas content was established based on the characteristic values of gas desorption at specific exposure times. Combined with technical verification, a new method which avoids the calculation of gas loss for the rapid estimation of gas content in the coal seam was investigated. Study results show that the balanced adsorption gas pressure and coal gas desorption characteristic coefficient (Kt) satisfy the exponential equation, and the gas content and Kt are linear equations. The correlation coefficient of the fitting equation gradually decreases as the exposure time of the coal sample increases. Using the new method to measure and calculate the gas content of coal samples at two different working faces of the Lubanshan North mine (LBS), the deviation of the calculated coal sample gas content ranged from 0.32% to 8.84%, with an average of only 4.49%. Therefore, the new method meets the needs of field engineering technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Regeneration of Sodium Hydroxide from a Biogas Upgrading Unit through the Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate: An Experimental Influence Study of Reaction Parameters
Processes 2018, 6(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110205
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (15219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a regeneration method of a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution from a biogas upgrading unit through calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation as a valuable by-product, as an alternative to the elevated energy consumption employed via the physical regeneration process. The [...] Read more.
This article presents a regeneration method of a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution from a biogas upgrading unit through calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation as a valuable by-product, as an alternative to the elevated energy consumption employed via the physical regeneration process. The purpose of this work was to study the main parameters that may affect NaOH regeneration using an aqueous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) as reactive agent for regeneration and carbonate slurry production, in order to outperform the regeneration efficiencies reported in earlier works. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the solid obtained. The studied parameters were reaction time, reaction temperature, and molar ratio between Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3. In addition, the influence of small quantities of NaOH at the beginning of the precipitation process was studied. The results indicate that regeneration efficiencies between 53%–97% can be obtained varying the main parameters mentioned above, and also both Raman spectroscopy and SEM images reveal the formation of a carbonate phase in the obtained solid. These results confirmed the technical feasibility of this biogas upgrading process through CaCO3 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamic Study of AR Coupling Effects on Solid Circulation and Gas Leakages in a High-Flux In Situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion System
Processes 2018, 6(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6100196
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In situ gasification chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) is a novel and promising coal combustion technology with inherent separation of CO2. Our previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing iG-CLC with a high-flux circulating fluidized bed (HFCFB) riser as the fuel reactor [...] Read more.
In situ gasification chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) is a novel and promising coal combustion technology with inherent separation of CO2. Our previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing iG-CLC with a high-flux circulating fluidized bed (HFCFB) riser as the fuel reactor (FR) and a counter-flow moving bed (CFMB) as the air reactor (AR). As an extension of that work, this study aims to further investigate the fundamental effects of the AR coupling on the oxygen carrier (OC) circulation and gas leakages with a cold-state experimental device of the proposed iG-CLC system. The system exhibited favorable pressure distribution characteristics and good adaptability of solid circulation flux, demonstrating the positive role of the direct coupling method of the AR in the stabilization and controllability of the whole system. The OC circulation and the gas leakages were mainly determined by the upper and lower pressure gradients of the AR. With the increase in the upper pressure gradient, the OC circulation flux increased initially and later decreased until the circulation collapsed. Besides, the upper pressure gradient exhibited a positive effect on the restraint of gas leakage from the FR to the AR, but a negative effect on the suppression of gas leakage from the AR to the FR. Moreover, the gas leakage of the J-valve to the AR, which is directly related to the solid circulation stability, was exacerbated with the increase of the lower pressure gradient of the AR. In real iG-CLC applications, the pressure gradients should be adjusted flexibly and optimally to guarantee a balanced OC circulation together with an ideal balance of all the gas leakages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Dr. Qiwei Zhan <>
Affiliation: School of Materials Science and Engineering Southeast University

Author: Dr. Juan Pablo Gutierrez <[email protected]>

Author: Dr. Salman Masoudi Soltani <[email protected]>
Affiliation:
Chemical Engineering, Brunel University, London, UK

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