Special Issue "Biogas Production Processes from Biomass"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maciej Kubon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Production Engineering, Logistics and Applied Computer Science, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Interests: optimization of biogas production processes; logistics and transport of components supply to biogas plants; biogas plant waste management; digestate management
Prof. Dr. Jakub Sikora
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Power Engineering and Automation, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Interests: optimization of the biogas production process from waste biomass mixed with agricultural biomass; the bidder’s development for fertilizer and energy purposes; biogas production from the organic fraction of municipal waste
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marcin Niemiec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Interests: optimization of biomass transformation processes for energy and fertilizer purposes; quality management systems in production processes; non-waste technologies; development of fertilizer formulas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anaerobic digestion is a technology that has been used by man for centuries. The production of biogas during anaerobic digestion is considered a useful tool that can generate renewable energy, and there has recently been great interest regarding research in this field. The basic theory of anaerobic digestion has been described and developed for decades, but much ongoing research concerns the optimization of the anaerobic digestion process under various process conditions as well as the optimization of feed (selection of mass for fermentation) and the use of this process for biowaste management. To optimize the anaerobic digestion process and utilize biodegradable waste in the process, many factors associated with the design and operation of the anaerobic digestion process must be taken into account to ensure maximum efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Current biowaste management practices have led to the significant methane emissions observed around the world. Landfills, animal waste treatment, and wastewater treatment are respectively the third, fourth, and seventh largest sources of methane emissions, which together account for around 45% of methane emissions as carbon dioxide equivalents. Appropriate biogas installations are not only able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also to generate renewable energy and reduce waste stored in landfills. There are a number of biogas installations operating worldwide. However, anaerobic digestion still faces a number of technological, social, and economic obstacles that prevent its full potential being exploited, although market conditions are becoming increasingly favorable for anaerobic digestion.

For most modern biogases, the input material is primarily mixtures of manure and plants specially grown for this purpose. Maize silage constitutes the largest share. The production of energy plants is, however, associated with the need to use large amounts of energy for agrotechnical operations, the production and use of fertilizers and plant protection products, and the processes of harvesting and preparing the substrate. Therefore, the use of intentionally cultivated energy crops may have low energy efficiency and significant greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy obtained. Therefore, the energy use of biowaste has been recently been receiving increasing attention. To date, the most common method of neutralizing such waste has been composting and thermal conversion. However, this process is not very efficient from both an energy and environmental point of view. This aspect of production optimization in terms of energy efficiency and environmental impact is an integral element of all modern quality management systems in primary production. In addition to obtaining energy from waste, it is a strategic element of sustainable waste management. The ecological aspect of the transformation of waste biomass using methane fermentation processes not only relates to obtaining energy from renewable sources but also involves the rational utilization of this waste as well as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that are a consequence of the storage of this waste and the production of energy from conventional sources. The byproduct of methane fermentation is post-fermentation mass, which can be a valuable source of elements for plants if it is introduced into the soil. The use of digestate for fertilizing purposes is an action increasing the level of carbon sequestration in soil resources, and is a factor supporting the effective management of soil fertility. Structural and organizational changes in agriculture lead to a reduction in the use of organic materials in fertilization. In research related to the use of waste from the food industry for fertilizing purposes, special attention is paid to phosphorus, whose global resources will be exhausted by the end of the 21st century. The use of this waste for biogas production, followed by the use of the digestate obtained for fertilization, may constitute an important link in the circulation of elements in agroecosystems as part of the implementation of rational agricultural production methods.

This Special Issue entitled “Biogas Production Processes from Biomass” aims to present innovative achievements in the development and use of methane fermentation for the treatment of biowaste. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Development of new fermentation media using waste biomass and optimization of biogas yield;
  • Diagnosis of the impact of using biodegradable waste for methane fermentation considering social, ecological, and economic aspects;
  • Utilization of digestate for energy and fertilizing purposes;
  • Development of models specific for biogas production in co-fermentation of agricultural biomass with biowaste.

Prof. Dr. Maciej Kubon
Prof. Dr. Jakub Sikora
Prof. Dr. Marcin Niemiec
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biogas
  • biogas yield
  • process optimization
  • biogas quality
  • digestate
  • digestate management
  • agricultural biogas plants
  • utilization biogas plants

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Article
Biomass Energy Technologies from Innovative Dairy Farming Systems
Processes 2021, 9(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020335 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Modern and innovative dairy cattle breeding technologies are highly dependent on the level of mechanization. This article presents modern solutions for dairy cattle breeding, in particular, for livestock buildings, in which longitudinal development is possible in accordance with the farm’s needs as well [...] Read more.
Modern and innovative dairy cattle breeding technologies are highly dependent on the level of mechanization. This article presents modern solutions for dairy cattle breeding, in particular, for livestock buildings, in which longitudinal development is possible in accordance with the farm’s needs as well as with obtaining additional energy from biogas and post-ferment for granulated organic fertilizer. In the analysed technology for milk production, methane fermentation, biogas yield, and the possibility of fertilizer production in the form of granules are considered. The presented modular cattle breeding technology includes sustainable production, which is economic; environmentally friendly, with preconditions in the facility including animal welfare; and socially acceptable, resulting from a high level of mechanization, which ensures both comfortable working conditions and high milk quality. The presented production line is an integral part of the milk production process with the possibility of organic fertilizer being used in the production of healthy food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogas Production Processes from Biomass)
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Article
Forecasting Quantitative Risk Indicators of Investors in Projects of Biohydrogen Production from Agricultural Raw Materials
Processes 2021, 9(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020258 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
Hydrogen is increasingly considered as an environmentally friendly energy source as it stores a large amount of chemical energy per unit mass (142 MJ·kg−1) that can be released without the emission of combustion by-products. The presented research is based on simulation [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is increasingly considered as an environmentally friendly energy source as it stores a large amount of chemical energy per unit mass (142 MJ·kg−1) that can be released without the emission of combustion by-products. The presented research is based on simulation modeling of biohydrogen production projects from agricultural waste. Based on the probability theory and mathematical statistics, the models of the variable market value of biohydrogen and natural gas are substantiated. The results of the research indicate that in 2019, projects regarding the production of biohydrogen from agricultural raw materials were mostly unprofitable for the investors. However, starting in 2030, the forecasted return on investment in biohydrogen production projects from agricultural raw materials indicates that such projects will be profitable for investors, and the number and scale of such projects will significantly increase worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogas Production Processes from Biomass)
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Article
Risk Assessment of Investments in Projects of Production of Raw Materials for Bioethanol
Processes 2021, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010012 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 517
Abstract
The proposed approach to quantitative assessment of the risk of investor’s profit in projects for the production of raw materials for bioethanol involves the implementation of eight stages. It systematically takes into account the stochastic nature of many factors that determine the amount [...] Read more.
The proposed approach to quantitative assessment of the risk of investor’s profit in projects for the production of raw materials for bioethanol involves the implementation of eight stages. It systematically takes into account the stochastic nature of many factors that determine the amount of investments in the project, as well as the stochastic nature of the market value of raw materials. The use of the proposed approach makes it possible to obtain an accurate assessment of the level of risk of investors in projects for the production of raw materials for bioethanol, taking into account the requirements of investors. Based on the use of the developed application software, stochastic models of profit of investors in projects for the production of raw materials for wheat bioethanol and patterns of changes in their risk for the Western region of Ukraine are obtained. It is established that with the growth of the minimum expected profit of investors of projects from 10 to 70$/ton, the probability of its receipt varies from 0.89 to 0.34. According to a reasonable scale, the level of risk of making a profit by investors in projects for the production of raw materials for bioethanol from wheat varies from acceptable to high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogas Production Processes from Biomass)
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Article
Influence of Aerobic Pretreatment of Poultry Manure on the Biogas Production Process
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091109 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure is a potentially-sustainable means of stabilizing this waste while generating biogas. However, technical, and environmental protection challenges remain, including high concentrations of ammonia, low C/N ratios, limited digestibility of bedding, and questions about transformation of nutrients during digestion. [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure is a potentially-sustainable means of stabilizing this waste while generating biogas. However, technical, and environmental protection challenges remain, including high concentrations of ammonia, low C/N ratios, limited digestibility of bedding, and questions about transformation of nutrients during digestion. This study evaluated the effect of primary biological treatment of poultry manure on the biogas production process and reduction of ammonia emissions. Biogas yield from organic matter content in the aerobic pretreatment groups was 13.96% higher than that of the control group. Biogas production analysis showed that aerobic pretreatment of poultry manure has a positive effect on biogas composition; methane concentration increases by 6.94–7.97% after pretreatment. In comparison with the control group, NH3 emissions after aerobic pretreatment decreased from 3.37% (aerobic pretreatment without biological additives) to 33.89% (aerobic pretreatment with biological additives), depending on treatment method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogas Production Processes from Biomass)
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Case Report
Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin
Processes 2021, 9(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020199 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Energy plays an essential role in the modern society and can serve as one of the vital parameters of socio-economic development. Despite developments in technology, over three billion persons living in rural parts of the low- and middle-income countries continue to cover their [...] Read more.
Energy plays an essential role in the modern society and can serve as one of the vital parameters of socio-economic development. Despite developments in technology, over three billion persons living in rural parts of the low- and middle-income countries continue to cover their energy needs for cooking through traditional ways by burning biomass resources. This paper as a case study focuses on the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, possessing a well-developed agricultural production with high livestock numbers and intensive crop production. The manure of the livestock farms is not used efficiently and the energy supply of the farms depends primarily on centrally produced gas and electricity. Some areas are not yet connected to the gas grid. Agriculture causes huge environmental damages in its current form. The benefit of biogas production would therefore be fivefold: (1) local energy source, (2) mitigation of environmental impacts, (3) reducing CH4-emissions, (4) producing organic fertilizer as a side product and (5) additional earnings for farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogas Production Processes from Biomass)
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