Special Issue "Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elsayed Elbeshbishy
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 2K3
Interests: anaerobic digestion; co-digestion; biohydrogen and biomethane production; pretreatment of municipal solid wastes; volatile fatty acid production from waste
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Bipro R. Dhar
Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Engineering Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta 9211-116 Street NW, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 1H9
Interests: Anaerobic biotechnologies; anaerobic digestion; microbial electrochemical technologies; microbial fermentation; waste and wastewater treatment; bioenergy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We’d like to take this opportunity to invite you to participate in a Special Issue on “Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste”, to be published in Processes.  Processes (ISSN 2227-9717; CODEN: PROCCO, 2017 Impact Factor: 1.279) is an international peer-reviewed open access journal on processes in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, materials, and related process/systems engineering research fields.

The increasing quantity of waste generation and the requirements governing their ultimate disposal are of serious economic and environmental concern. Our existing waste management facilities continue to experience the challenge of balancing population growth and sustainable waste management practices that meet regulatory limits. As many countries across the world set goals to reduce landfilling of waste, there has been growing attention to the development of reliable technologies for conversion of waste to biofuels and other value-added bioproducts and thereby building sustainable waste infrastructures. This Special Issue on “Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste” seeks high-quality works and topics focusing on the existing and emerging processes for bioenergy and value-added resources recovery from various biowaste streams.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:   

  • Anaerobic digestion of organic waste  
  • Bio-electrochemical conversion of biowaste
  • Microbial fermentation for liquid and gaseous biofuels production
  • Production of bioplastics from organic waste
  • Algal systems for waste management
  • Waste-to-bioenergy
  • Thermochemical conversion of waste
  • Enzymatic conversion of waste

Dr. Elsayed Elbeshbishy
Dr. Bipro R. Dhar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Waste management
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Microbial fermentation
  • Bio-electrochemical processes
  • Thermochemical conversion
  • Enzymatic conversion
  • Algal systems

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion Followed by Ultrasonication of Digestate and Wet-Type Anaerobic Digestion for Enhancing Methane Yield from OFMSW
Processes 2020, 8(5), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050555 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
High-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste often shows inefficient biomethane recovery due to mass transfer limitations. Consequently, this study presents a two-stage anaerobic digestion process combining high-solids anaerobic digestion followed by ultrasonication of digestate and wet-type anaerobic digestion for [...] Read more.
High-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste often shows inefficient biomethane recovery due to mass transfer limitations. Consequently, this study presents a two-stage anaerobic digestion process combining high-solids anaerobic digestion followed by ultrasonication of digestate and wet-type anaerobic digestion for effective biomethane recovery from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The high-solids anaerobic digestion yielded methane production of 210 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS). The digestate from the high-solids anaerobic digestion process was ultrasonicated at three different specific energy inputs (1000, 2500, and 5000 kJ/kg total solids (TS)). The increases in the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) concentrations (8%–32%) and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies (3.5%–10%) at different specific energy inputs were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9356). Thus, ultrasonication led to the solubilization of particulate organics and released soluble organic matters. All ultrasonicated digestate samples showed significantly higher biomethane yields than that observed for the untreated digestate samples. The highest methane yield of 132 L CH4/kg VS was observed for a specific energy input of 5000 kJ/kg TS, which was 1.94 times higher than the control (68 L CH4/kg VS). Although specific energy inputs of 1000 kJ/kg TS and 2500 kJ/kg TS showed comparable methane yields (113–114 L CH4/kg VS), they were ~1.67 times higher than the control. Overall, our results suggest that an integrated system of high-solids and wet-type anaerobic digestion with pre-ultrasonication of digestate has the potential to provide a technically viable solution to enhance biomethane recovery from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Methane Emission Reduction Enhanced by Hydrophobic Biochar-Modified Soil Cover
Processes 2020, 8(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020162 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The microbial oxidation of CH4 in biochar-modified soil cover is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes full of low CH4 generation rates. The mechanism of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) can be [...] Read more.
The microbial oxidation of CH4 in biochar-modified soil cover is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes full of low CH4 generation rates. The mechanism of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with biochar, which is recalcitrant to biological degradation and can adsorb CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within its porous structure. However, the increase in the permeability coefficient and water content of the cover due to the addition of biochar also affects the methane removal efficiency. A hydrophobic biochar modified by KH-570 was employed to reduce the water content and to promote the diffusion and oxidation of CH4 in the cover. Several series of small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 oxidation properties of the landfill cover soil amended with biochar and hydrophobic biochar under different levels of exposed CH4 concentrations (5% and 15%), heights (10–66 cm), and temperatures (15–40 °C). After 30 days of domestication, the removal rate of the hydrophobic biochar-modified soil cover reached 98.8%. The water holding capacity of the cover and the CH4 oxidation efficiency under different moisture contents were investigated in different columns. The hydrophobic biochar-modified soil cover has a weak water holding capacity, low saturated water content, and optimal CH4 oxidation efficiency at this time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Low-Temperature Polyvinyl Chloride Carbonization by Catalytic CuAl Layered Double Hydroxide
Processes 2020, 8(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010120 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
A good way to make carbon materials was presented in low-temperature polyvinyl chloride (PVC) carbonization by catalysis. The process of low-temperature PVC carbonization by CuAl-layered double hydroxide (CuAl-LDH) was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tubular furnace. The results show that CuAl-LDH accounting [...] Read more.
A good way to make carbon materials was presented in low-temperature polyvinyl chloride (PVC) carbonization by catalysis. The process of low-temperature PVC carbonization by CuAl-layered double hydroxide (CuAl-LDH) was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tubular furnace. The results show that CuAl-LDH accounting for 5% of PVC mass enabled acceleration of the dehydrochlorination in PVC as soon as possible and maximized the yield of the PVC carbonized product. The vacuum with 0.08 MPa, 20 °C/min heating rate and 90 min carbonized maintenance time were optimal for PVC carbonization. Moreover, the best morphology and yield of the carbonized product was provided at a carbonization temperature of 300 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Analyses for Synthesis Gas from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification under Medium Temperatures
Processes 2020, 8(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010084 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification could be a novel method that shows the various advantages over traditional MSW treatments in China. Other research concluded that MSW gasification was operating by the assistant heat, and the gasification may occur under medium temperature. So, this [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification could be a novel method that shows the various advantages over traditional MSW treatments in China. Other research concluded that MSW gasification was operating by the assistant heat, and the gasification may occur under medium temperature. So, this study is aimed to investigate MSW gasification and pyrolysis behavior and analyze the syngas evolution and reaction mechanism. The MSW samples were collected in daily life and the experiments were carried out in a fixed tubular reactor below 650 °C. The effects of medium temperature and oxygen content on syngas quality were elucidated in depth. The results have shown that temperature can promote the syngas quality in the range of 550–650 °C, because the increasing temperature strengthens the reaction rate. The oxygen content should be controlled in a certain range, or oxidation reactions will be more prominent during gasification. The optimal gasification condition in this study was obtained at 650 °C and an oxygen concentration of 1.25%, the combustible gas yield and the lower heating value (LHV) of syngas of this condition were 0.296 L/g and 10.98 kJ/L, respectively. This study provides insights for MSW gasification under medium temperature, and a practical gasification system can be designed under a certain condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effect on the Non-Oxygenated Fraction of Bio-Oil in Thermal Co-Pyrolysis of Biomass and Polypropylene at Low Heating Rate
Processes 2020, 8(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010057 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
Biomass pyrolysis and polypropylene (PP) pyrolysis in a stirred tank reactor exhibited different heat transfer phenomena whereby heat transfer in biomass pyrolysis was driven predominantly by heat radiation and PP pyrolysis by heat convection. Therefore, co-pyrolysis could exhibit be expected to display various [...] Read more.
Biomass pyrolysis and polypropylene (PP) pyrolysis in a stirred tank reactor exhibited different heat transfer phenomena whereby heat transfer in biomass pyrolysis was driven predominantly by heat radiation and PP pyrolysis by heat convection. Therefore, co-pyrolysis could exhibit be expected to display various heat transfer phenomena depending on the feed composition. The objective of the present work was to determine how heat transfer, which was affected by feed composition, affected the yield and composition of the non-polar fraction. Analysis of heat transfer phenomena was based on the existence of two regimes in the previous research in which in regime 1 (the range of PP composition in the feeds is 0–40%), mass ejection from biomass particles occurred without biomass particle swelling, while in regime 2 (the range of PP composition in the feeds is 40–100%), mass ejection was preceded by biomass particle swelling. The co-pyrolysis was carried out in a stirred tank reactor with heating rate of 5 °C/min until 500 °C and using N2 gas as carrier gas. Temperature measurement was applied to pyrolysis fluid at the lower part of the reactor and small biomass spheres of 6 mm diameter to simulate heat transfer to biomass particles. The results indicate that in regime 1 convective and radiative heat transfers sparingly occurred and synergistic effect on the yield of non-oxygenated phase increased with increasing convective heat transfer at increasing %PP in feed. On the other hand, in regime 2, convective heat transfer was predominant with decreasing synergistic effect at increasing %PP in feed. The optimum PP composition in feed to reach maximum synergistic effect was 50%. Non-oxygenated phase portion in the reactor leading to the wax formation acted as donor of methyl and hydrogen radicals in the removal of oxygen to improve synergistic effect. Non-oxygenated fraction of bio-oil contained mostly methyl comprising about 53% by mole fraction, while commercial diesel contained mostly methylene comprising about 59% by mole fraction Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
CFD Study of Gas Holdup and Frictional Pressure Drop of Vertical Riser Inside IC Reactor
Processes 2019, 7(12), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120936 - 09 Dec 2019
Abstract
The internal circulation system in Internal Circulation (IC) reactor plays an important role in increasing volumetric loading rate and promoting the mixing between sludge and wastewater. In order to design the internal circulation system, the flow behaviors of gas-liquid inside vertical riser should [...] Read more.
The internal circulation system in Internal Circulation (IC) reactor plays an important role in increasing volumetric loading rate and promoting the mixing between sludge and wastewater. In order to design the internal circulation system, the flow behaviors of gas-liquid inside vertical riser should be studied in detail. In the present study, the Multiple Flow Regimes model is adopted to capture the phase interface for different flow conditions. The flow patterns, internal circulation flow rate, gas holdup, and frictional pressure drop of vertical riser are investigated. The results show that the bubble flow inside a vertical riser is in a stable flow condition. There exists a maximum value for internal circulation flow rate with the increasing superficial gas velocity. The parameters of Martinelli models for gas holdup and frictional pressure drop are improved based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. The deviations between the calculated gas holdup and frictional pressure drop by improved model and experimental value are reduced to 14% and 13.2%, respectively. The improved gas holdup and frictional pressure drop model can be used for the optimal design of internal circulation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
CFD Simulation on Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Anaerobic Granule Swarms
Processes 2019, 7(12), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120880 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
An internal circulation (IC) anaerobic reactor is widely used in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater with high volumetric loading rates. The performance of an IC reactor is closely related with hydrodynamic behaviors of anaerobic granules. Typically, anaerobic granules work in swarms [...] Read more.
An internal circulation (IC) anaerobic reactor is widely used in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater with high volumetric loading rates. The performance of an IC reactor is closely related with hydrodynamic behaviors of anaerobic granules. Typically, anaerobic granules work in swarms and the settling behavior of a granule is disturbed by other granules. However, the research on anaerobic granule swarms is insufficient. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was employed to study the hydrodynamic behaviors of anaerobic granule swarms with various voidages. The simulated results showed that the average velocity inside granules increased significantly as the voidage of granule swarm decreased and as the Reynolds number increased. The maximum shear stress on the granule’s surface increased with decreasing voidage and increasing Reynolds number. Based on the hydrodynamic behaviors of anaerobic granule swarms, an improved model of drag force coefficient for granule swarms was developed. The predicted expanded height, using the improved model, gives better consistency with experimental results. The improved model can embed in CFD code to improve the precision of the description of the IC reactor model and provide valuable information for designing and operating an IC reactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Source-Separated Organics
Processes 2019, 7(9), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090576 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The current study investigates the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) on acidification of source-separated organics (SSO) in terms of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and solubilization. Temperature and retention time for HTP of SSO ranged from 150 to 240 °C and 5 to [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) on acidification of source-separated organics (SSO) in terms of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and solubilization. Temperature and retention time for HTP of SSO ranged from 150 to 240 °C and 5 to 30 min, respectively. The soluble substance after hydrothermal pretreatment initially increased, reaching its peak at 210 °C and then declined gradually. The highest overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization of 63% was observed at “210 °C-20 min” compared to 17% for raw SSO. The highest VFAs yield of 1536 mg VFAs/g VSS added was observed at “210 °C-20 min” compared to 768 mg VFAs/g VSS for raw SSO. Intensification of hydrothermal pretreatment temperature beyond 210 °C resulted in the mineralization of the organics and adversely affected the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Anaerobic Mixed Culture Fermentation with Anion-Exchange Resin for Caproate Production
Processes 2019, 7(7), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070404 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
The bioproduction of caproate from organic waste by anaerobic mixed culture is a very attractive technology for upgrading low-grade biomass to a high-value resource. However, the caproate production process is markedly restricted by the feedback inhibition of caproate. In this study, four types [...] Read more.
The bioproduction of caproate from organic waste by anaerobic mixed culture is a very attractive technology for upgrading low-grade biomass to a high-value resource. However, the caproate production process is markedly restricted by the feedback inhibition of caproate. In this study, four types of anion-exchange resin were investigated for their enhancing capability in caproate fermentation of anaerobic mixed culture. The strong base anion-exchange resin D201 showed the highest adsorption capacity (62 mg/g), selectivity (7.50), and desorption efficiency (88.2%) for caproate among the test resins. Subsequently, the optimal desorption temperature and NaOH concentration of eluent for D201 were determined. The adsorption and desorption efficiency of D201 remained stable during eight rounds of the adsorption–desorption cycle, indicating a satisfactory reusability of D201. Finally, performances of caproate fermentation with and without resin adsorption for carboxylate were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the final concentration of caproate was improved from 12.43 ± 0.29 g/L (without adsorption) to 17.30 ± 0.13 g/L (with adsorption) and the maximum caproate production rate was improved from 0.60 ± 0.01 g/L/d to 2.03 ± 0.02 g/L/d. In the group with adsorption, the cumulative caproate production was increased to 29.10 ± 0.33 g/L broth, which was 134% higher than that of the control group. Therefore, this study provides effective approaches to enhance caproate production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Anaerobic Performances of Kitchen Wastes in a Semi-Continuous Reactor by EDTA Improving the Water-Soluble Fraction of Fe
Processes 2019, 7(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060351 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
The addition of Fe2+ is considered an effective method for increasing methane production, but the added Fe2+ may not be absorbed by anaerobic microorganisms due to complex chemical reactions. In this study, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a ligand of [...] Read more.
The addition of Fe2+ is considered an effective method for increasing methane production, but the added Fe2+ may not be absorbed by anaerobic microorganisms due to complex chemical reactions. In this study, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a ligand of Fe2+ (EDTA-Fe) to promote the dissolution of Fe, and the anaerobic performances of kitchen wastes (KWs) in a semi-continuous reactor were studied. The results indicated that the biogas yields and methane contents were enhanced to 594–613 mL·g−1VSadd·d−1 and 63.6–64.4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 gVSadd·L−1·d−1 due to EDTA-Fe addition. Simultaneously, the EDTA-Fe was more effective than Fe2+ in preventing the acidification of KWs with a high OLR (5.0 gVSadd·L−1·d−1). In addition, the sequential extraction results showed that the water-soluble fraction of Fe in the R3 (EDTA-Fe addition) was 1.49-fold of that in the R2 with Fe2+ addition. The contents of coenzymes F420 and F430 were also improved 1.09 and 1.11 times, respectively. Mechanism analysis confirmed that the EDTA enhanced methane production and operational stability by promoting the dissolution of Fe and maintaining a high content of water-soluble Fe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Chemistry of Anaerobic Digestion: Methods of Accelerating and Optimizing Process Efficiency
Processes 2019, 7(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080504 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The anaerobic digestion technology has been in existence for centuries and its underlying theory established for decades. It is considered a useful technology for the generation of renewable energy, and provides means to alleviate problems associated with low access to energy. However, a [...] Read more.
The anaerobic digestion technology has been in existence for centuries and its underlying theory established for decades. It is considered a useful technology for the generation of renewable energy, and provides means to alleviate problems associated with low access to energy. However, a great deal of current research is targeted towards the optimization of this technology under diverse digestion process conditions. This review presents an in-depth analysis of the chemistry of anaerobic digestion and discusses how process chemistry can be used to optimize system performance through identification of methods that can accelerate syntrophic interactions of different microorganisms for improved methanogenic reactions. Recent advances in addition to old research are discussed in order to offer a general but comprehensive synopsis of accumulated knowledge in the theory of anaerobic digestion, as well as an overview of previous research and future directions and opportunities of the AD technology. Achieving a sustainable energy system requires comprehensive reforms in not just economic, social and policy aspects, but also in all technical aspects, which represents one of the most crucial future investments for anaerobic digestion systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste)
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