Special Issue "Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ewa Kaczorek
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: biological degradation; cell surface modification; microbial and plant surfactants; impact of surfactants and biosurfactants on hydrocarbon biodegradation; toxicity; environmental chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Wojciech Smułek
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Interests: bioremediation; enzymatic activity; toxicity; analytical chemistry; wastewater treatment; chemical engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of the economy and the growing standard of living of societies is unfortunately associated with an increasing risk of environmental contamination with products of the chemical industry. Despite a number of regulations and a great care for storage and transport safety, there is still the possibility of uncontrolled release of petroleum products, substrates in chemical synthesis, etc. Moreover, the currently used methods of solid waste and sewage water management do not allow for effective removal of both persistent contaminants and pharmaceuticals. Ecological disasters, occurring frequently in large sizes, as well as regular waste management, show how important it is to have some appropriate techniques that are helpful in rapid remediation of the environment. Biodegradation of pollutants depends on various factors, such as their chemical structure, physicochemical properties, or bioavailability for microorganisms. Therefore, there is a need to develop new effective bioremediation processes as well as extensive and deep studies on biodegradation processes conducted by microorganisms. What is more, a comprehensive and multifaceted look at the phenomena accompanying biological degradation is very important.

We hope that the Special Issue will become a platform for the exchange of experiences and valuable observations of researchers in various fields and will also open up new perspectives in the field of combating environmental pollution.

This Special Issue will concentrate on highlighting timely research studies addressing the persistent pollutants and xenobiotics’ biodegradation. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Pollutant and xenobiotic biodegradation;
  • The influence of surfactants and biosurfactants on hydrocarbon biodegradation;
  • Role of adsorption in biodegradation process;
  • Enzyme and bacterial immobilization and their use in different compounds’ degradation;
  • Impact of pollutants on the microorganism cells;
  • Physical or electrochemical methods as the support of biodegradation process.

Authors are invited and welcome to submit original research papers, reviews, and short communications.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Ewa Kaczorek
Dr. Wojciech Smułek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biodegradation and bioremediation
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Surfactants and biosurfactants
  • Persistent pollutants and xenobiotics
  • Enzymatic activity
  • Immobilization
  • Cell surface properties

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Novel Approach in Crude Enzyme Laccase Production and Application in Emerging Contaminant Bioremediation
Processes 2020, 8(6), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060648 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Abstract
Laccase enzyme from white-rot fungi is a potential biocatalyst for the oxidation of emerging contaminants (ECs), such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones. This study aims to develop a three-step platform to treat ECs: (i) enzyme production, (ii) enzyme concentration and (iii) enzyme [...] Read more.
Laccase enzyme from white-rot fungi is a potential biocatalyst for the oxidation of emerging contaminants (ECs), such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones. This study aims to develop a three-step platform to treat ECs: (i) enzyme production, (ii) enzyme concentration and (iii) enzyme application. In the first step, solid culture and liquid culture were compared. The solid culture produced significantly more laccase than the liquid culture (447 vs. 74 µM/min after eight days), demonstrating that white rot fungi thrived on a solid medium. In the second step, the enzyme was concentrated 6.6 times using an ultrafiltration (UF) process, resulting in laccase activity of 2980 µM/min. No enzymatic loss due to filtration and membrane adsorption was observed, suggesting the feasibility of the UF membrane for enzyme concentration. In the third step, concentrated crude enzyme was applied in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) to remove a diverse set of ECs (31 compounds in six groups). The EMR effectively removed of steroid hormones, phytoestrogen, ultraviolet (UV) filters and industrial chemical (above 90%). However, it had low removal of pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Toxicity on Ctenopharyngodon idella Due to Tannery Effluent Remediated by Constructed Wetland Technology
Processes 2020, 8(5), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050612 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
Aquatic pollution caused by industrial effluents is an environmental issue, imposing deleterious impacts on the overall environment, specifically, on humans, by disrupting the balance of the ecosystem. Among all the industries, tanneries are considered some of the most polluting due to heavy use [...] Read more.
Aquatic pollution caused by industrial effluents is an environmental issue, imposing deleterious impacts on the overall environment, specifically, on humans, by disrupting the balance of the ecosystem. Among all the industries, tanneries are considered some of the most polluting due to heavy use of toxic organic and inorganic compounds during leather processing, most of which find their way into rivers, lakes, and streams, thus exerting adverse effects on aquatic life, particularly on fish. Considering the huge concentrations of pollutants present in tannery effluents, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance. Therefore, bioassays are usually employed to assess the acute toxicity of industrial effluents and efficiency of effluent clean-up technologies as they provide a thorough response of test species to the substances present in the tested media. In the present study, the toxic effects of tannery effluent on common grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were studied for 96 h in laboratory conditions. The effluent was added at different concentrations, before and after treatment by constructed wetlands (CWs). During this period, mortality data was collected to calculate the 96 h-LC50 (lethal concentration inducing 50% mortality) and acute toxicity of C. idella. In addition to this, observations on change in morphological, physiological, and behavioural patterns were also made every 24 h. The present toxicity assay revealed that the raw tannery effluent changed the morphology, physiology, and behavioural response of fish. Moreover, fish exposure to raw/untreated effluent caused high acute toxicity and 100% mortality, due to the presence of high concentrations of salts and chromium (Cr) metal. While treatment of tannery effluent by CWs vegetated with different plants (B. mutica, L. fusca, and T. domingensis) significantly reduced its toxicity and fish mortality as well, and inoculation of salt and Cr-tolerant endophytic bacteria (Enterobacter sp. HU38, Microbacterium arborescens HU33, and Pantoea stewartii ASI11) further reduced (up to 90%) its toxicity level. Hence, the use of CWs for tannery effluent treatment can be recommended to favour public health and promote the overall safety of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ability of Trichoderma hamatum Isolated from Plastics-Polluted Environments to Attack Petroleum-Based, Synthetic Polymer Films
Processes 2020, 8(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040467 - 16 Apr 2020
Abstract
Microorganisms colonizing plastic waste material collected in composting-, landfill-, and anaerobic digestion plants were isolated to obtain novel strains maximally adapted to the degradation of plastics due to long-term contact with plastic polymers. Twenty-six bacterial strains were isolated and identified by the 16 [...] Read more.
Microorganisms colonizing plastic waste material collected in composting-, landfill-, and anaerobic digestion plants were isolated to obtain novel strains maximally adapted to the degradation of plastics due to long-term contact with plastic polymers. Twenty-six bacterial strains were isolated and identified by the 16 S rRNA method, and eighteen strains of yeasts and fungi using 18 S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer ITS sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene. In selected strains, the ability to degrade linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was tested in aerobic liquid-medium cultures. An oxidative, two-step pretreatment of LLDPE and LDPE using γ- or UV-irradiation followed by a high-temperature treatment was carried out, and the pretreated plastics were also included in the degradation experiments. The respective weight losses after biodegradation by Trichoderma hamatum were: virgin and γ/T90-pretreated LLDPE (2.2 ± 1.2 and 3.9 ± 0.5%), virgin and UV/T60-pretreated LDPE (0.5 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4%), and virgin PS (0.9 ± 0.4%). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that during the treatment of pretreated LLDPE, T. hamatum attacked low molecular weight LLDPE oligomers, reducing the functional groups (carbonyl C = O), which was paralleled by a slight increase of the molar mass of pretreated LLDPE and a decrease of the dispersity index, as demonstrated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) highlighted the formation of functional groups on LLDPE due to polymer pretreatment that favored fungal attack at the polymer surface. The results provide insight into microbial consortia that spontaneously colonize the surface of plastics in various environments and their capability to attack plastic polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modification of the Bacterial Cell Wall—Is the Bioavailability Important in Creosote Biodegradation?
Processes 2020, 8(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020147 - 23 Jan 2020
Abstract
Creosote oil, widely used as a wood preservative, is a complex mixture of different polycyclic aromatic compounds. The soil contamination result in the presence of a specific microcosm. The presented study focuses on the most active strains involved in bioremediation of long-term creosote-contaminated [...] Read more.
Creosote oil, widely used as a wood preservative, is a complex mixture of different polycyclic aromatic compounds. The soil contamination result in the presence of a specific microcosm. The presented study focuses on the most active strains involved in bioremediation of long-term creosote-contaminated soil. In three soil samples from different boreholes, two Sphingomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) and one Paenibacillus ulginis (P. ulginis) strain were isolated. The conducted experiments showed the differences and similarities between the bacteria strains capable of degrading creosote from the same contaminated area. Both S. maltophilia strains exhibit higher biodegradation efficiency (over 50% after 28 days) and greater increase in glutathione S-transferase activity than P. ulginis ODW 5.9. However, S. maltophilia ODW 3.7 and P. ulginis ODW 5.9 were different from the third of the tested strains. The growth of the former two on creosote resulted in an increase in cell adhesion to Congo red and in the total membrane permeability. Nevertheless, all three strains have shown a decrease in the permeability of the inner cell membrane. That suggests the complex relationship between the cell surface modifications and bioavailability of the creosote to microorganisms. The conducted research allowed us to broaden the current knowledge about the creosote bioremediation and the properties of microorganisms involved in the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preparation of KOH and H3PO4 Modified Biochar and Its Application in Methylene Blue Removal from Aqueous Solution
Processes 2019, 7(12), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120891 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Improperly treated or directly discharged into the environment, wastewater containing dyes can destroy the quality of water bodies and pollute the ecological environment. The removal of dye wastewater is urgent and essential. In this study, corn stalk was pyrolyzed to pristine biochar (CSBC) [...] Read more.
Improperly treated or directly discharged into the environment, wastewater containing dyes can destroy the quality of water bodies and pollute the ecological environment. The removal of dye wastewater is urgent and essential. In this study, corn stalk was pyrolyzed to pristine biochar (CSBC) in a limited oxygen atmosphere and modified using KOH and H3PO4 (KOH-CSBC, H3PO4-CSBC, respectively). The biochars were characterized by surface area and pore size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as their behavior in adsorbing methylene blue (MB). Results indicated that the pore structure of CSBC became more developed after modification by KOH. Meanwhile, H3PO4-CSBC contained more functional groups after activation treatment. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm represented the adsorption process well. The maximum MB adsorption capacity of CSBC, KOH-CSBC, and H3PO4-CSBC was 43.14 mg g−1, 406.43 mg g−1 and 230.39 mg g−1, respectively. Chemical modification significantly enhanced the adsorption of MB onto biochar, especially for KOH-CSBC. The adsorption mechanism between MB and biochar involved physical interaction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction. Hence, modified CSBC (especially KOH-CSBC) has the potential for use as an adsorbent to remove dye from textile wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop