Special Issue "Phenolic Compounds: Extraction, Optimization, Identification and Applications in Food Industry"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ibrahim M. Abu-Reidah
Website
Guest Editor
1. Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avenida. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2. Industrial Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Arab American University, P.O. Box. 240, 13 Zababdeh-Jenin, Palestine
Interests: phytochemicals; functional foods; natural products; plant biodiversity; medicinal plants; food plants; bioactivity; polyphenols; flavonoids; functional foods; secondary metabolite profiling
Dr. Amani Taamalli
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Hafr Al Batin, P.O. Box 1803, Hafr Al Batin 31991, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Interests: natural products; phytochemicals; functional foods; biodiversity; medicinal plants; food plants; bioactivity; polyphenols; flavonoids; functional foods; secondary metabolite screening

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit original articles to the Special Issue entitled “Phenolic Compounds: Extraction, Optimization, Identification, and Applications in the Food Industry”.

Interest has grown around natural plant extracts in food and beverage applications, their role in food technology, quality, and their therapeutic use in inhibiting several diseases. The protecting effects of healthy diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are due not only to fiber, vitamins, and minerals, but also to a diversity of plant secondary metabolites, in particular, phenolic compounds, which are considered among the most important classes originating in plant-derived secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds are considered among phenolics and are renowned for their possession of a wide array of remarkable biochemical and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, these compounds can be functional in the prevention of many diseases as well as in health maintenance, in addition to phenolics-varied applications in the nutraceutical, food, and pharmaceutical industries, and due to their importance in the pharma- and nutraceutical arenas. This Special Issue aims at gathering together the most recent contributions concerning their chemistry, extraction methods, and analytical techniques, along with their biological activities. The interpretation of phenolic bioactivities in a molecular basis by means of both well-established and advanced bio-analytical techniques is also greatly welcome.

We would like to invite researchers to participate in this Special Issue by submitting a contribution in their field of expertise. Both original research papers and global or specialized critical reviews are welcome.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Advanced analytical methodologies for the isolation, purification, and analysis of phenolics from food, food wastes, and medicinal plants;
  • Phenolic compounds and metabolites in plants, food, and biological samples;
  • Biological activities and mechanisms of action;
  • Health benefits, in vivo evaluation;
  • Development of novel antioxidants and phenolics-based nutraceuticals and functional ingredients.

Dr. Ibrahim M. Abu-Reidah
Dr. Amani Taamalli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phytochemical characterization
  • pharmacological activity
  • fingerprint
  • secondary metabolites
  • liquid and gas chromatographies
  • mass spectrometry
  • analytical methods
  • phenolics
  • bioactive compounds
  • functional ingredients

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Formulation and Stability of Cellulose-Based Delivery Systems of Raspberry Phenolics
Processes 2021, 9(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010090 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Encapsulation of bioactives is a tool to prepare their suitable delivery systems and ensure their stability. For this purpose, cellulose was selected as carrier of raspberry juice phenolics and freeze-dried cellulose/raspberry encapsulates (C/R_Es) were formulated. Influence of cellulose amount (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and [...] Read more.
Encapsulation of bioactives is a tool to prepare their suitable delivery systems and ensure their stability. For this purpose, cellulose was selected as carrier of raspberry juice phenolics and freeze-dried cellulose/raspberry encapsulates (C/R_Es) were formulated. Influence of cellulose amount (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) and time (15 or 60 min) on the complexation of cellulose and raspberry juice was investigated. Obtained C/R_Es were evaluated for total phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, inhibition of α-amylase and color. Additionally, encapsulation was confirmed by FTIR. Stability of C/R_Es was examined after 12 months of storage at room temperature. Increasing the amount of cellulose during formulation of C/R_E from 2.5% to 10%, resulted in the decrease of content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. Additionally, encapsulates formulated by 15 min of complexation had a higher amount of investigated compounds. This tendency was retained after storage. The highest antioxidant activities were determined for C/R_E with 2.5% of cellulose and the lowest for those with 10% of cellulose, regardless of the methods used for its evaluation. After storage of 12 months, antioxidant activity slightly increased. Encapsulates with 2.5% of cellulose had the highest and those with 10% of cellulose the lowest capability for inhibition of α-amylase. The amount of cellulose also had an impact on color of C/R_Es. Results of this study suggest that cellulose could be a good encapsulation polymer for delivering raspberry bioactives, especially when cellulose was used in lower percentages for formulation of encapsulates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Processing Parameters on Phenolic Compounds and Color of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine Concentrates Obtained by Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration
Processes 2021, 9(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010089 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, Cabernet Sauvignon red wine was subjected to reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes at four different pressures (25, 35, 45, and 55 bar) and two temperature regimes (with and without cooling). The aim was to obtain concentrates with a higher content [...] Read more.
In this study, Cabernet Sauvignon red wine was subjected to reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes at four different pressures (25, 35, 45, and 55 bar) and two temperature regimes (with and without cooling). The aim was to obtain concentrates with a higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and to determine the influence of two membrane types (Alfa Laval RO98pHt M20 for reverse osmosis and NF M20 for nanofiltration) and different operating conditions on phenolics retention. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, monomeric anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant activity were determined spectrophotometrically. Flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids were analyzed on a high-performance liquid chromatography system and sample colour was measured by chromometer. The results showed that the increase in applied pressure and decrease in retentate temperature were favorable for higher phenolics retention. Retention of individual compounds depended on their chemical structure, membrane properties, membrane fouling, and operating conditions. Both types of membranes proved to be suitable for Cabernet Sauvignon red wine concentration. In all retentates, phenolic compounds content was higher than in the initial wine, but no visible color change (ΔE* < 1) was observed. The highest concentrations of phenolic compounds were detected in retentates obtained at 45 and 55 bar, especially with cooling. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Direct Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Potato Peels
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121665 - 17 Dec 2020
Abstract
Potato peels (PPs) are generally considered as agriculture waste. The United States alone generates over one million tons of PPs a year. However, PPs contain valuable phenolic compounds with antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction techniques in [...] Read more.
Potato peels (PPs) are generally considered as agriculture waste. The United States alone generates over one million tons of PPs a year. However, PPs contain valuable phenolic compounds with antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction techniques in recovering antioxidants from PPs. These techniques included a direct ultrasound-assisted extraction (DUAE), an indirect ultrasound-assisted extraction (IUAE), and a conventional shaking extraction (CSE). Results of this study showed that DUAE was more effective in extracting phenolic compounds than IUAE and CSE. We also evaluated the factors affecting the yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC) in DUAE, including the temperature, time, acoustic power, ratio of solvent to solids, and size of PPs particles. TPC yield of DUAE was higher, and the extraction rate was faster than IUAE and CSE. Furthermore, TPC yield was strongly correlated to the temperature of the mixture of PPs suspension. SEM images revealed that the irradiation of ultrasound energy from DUAE caused micro-fractures and the opening of PPs cells. The extract obtained from DUAE was found to have antioxidant activity comparable to commercial synthetic antioxidants. Results of this preliminary study suggest that DUAE has the potential to transform PPs from agricultural waste to a valuable ingredient. A future systematic research study is proposed to advance the knowledge of the impact of processing parameters in the kinetics of phenolic compounds extraction from potato peels using various extraction methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolics Dynamics and Infrared Fingerprints during the Storage of Pumpkin Seed Oil and Thereof Oleogel
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111412 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
Cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil is a valuable source of bioactive molecules, including phenolic compounds. Oleogels are designed for trans and saturated fats substitution in foods, but also demonstrate protection and delivery of bioactive compounds. Consequently, the present work aimed to assess individual phenolic [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil is a valuable source of bioactive molecules, including phenolic compounds. Oleogels are designed for trans and saturated fats substitution in foods, but also demonstrate protection and delivery of bioactive compounds. Consequently, the present work aimed to assess individual phenolic compounds dynamics and infrared fingerprints during the ambient storage of pumpkin seed oil and thereof oleogel. For oleogels production, a 5% ternary mixture of waxes, composed by 3% beewax, 1% sunflower wax and 1% rice bran wax, was used. Phenolic compounds were extracted by traditional liquid–liquid extraction, followed by HPLC-MS quantification. FTIR (400–4000 cm−1) was used for characterizing and monitoring the oxidative stability of all samples and for the evaluation of intermolecular forces between oleogelator mixtures and oil. Specific wavenumbers indicated oxidative processes in stored sample sets; storage time and sample clustering patterns were revealed by chemometrics. Isolariciresinol, vanillin, caffeic and syringic acids were quantified. The main changes were determined for isolariciresinol, which decreased in liquid pumpkin seed oil samples from 0.77 (T1) to 0.13 mg/100 g (T4), while for oleogel samples it decreased from 0.64 (T1) to 0.12 mg/100 g (T4). However, during the storage at room temperature, it was concluded that oleogelation technique might show potential protection of specific phenolic compounds such as syringic acid and vanillin after 8 months of storage. For isolariciresinol, higher amounts are registered in the oleogel (0.411 mg/100 g oil) than in the oil (0.37 mg/100 g oil) after 5 months of ambient temperature storage (T3). Oxidation processes occurred after 5 months storage for both oil and oleogel samples. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Polyphenolic Profiling of Forestry Waste by UPLC-HDMSE
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111411 - 04 Nov 2020
Abstract
Polyphenols constitute a diverse array of naturally occurring secondary metabolites found in plants which, when consumed, have been shown to promote human health. Greater consumption may therefore aid in the fight against diseases such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, etc. Tree bark [...] Read more.
Polyphenols constitute a diverse array of naturally occurring secondary metabolites found in plants which, when consumed, have been shown to promote human health. Greater consumption may therefore aid in the fight against diseases such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, etc. Tree bark is polyphenol-rich and has potential to be used in food supplements. However, it is important to gain insight into the polyphenol profile of different barks to select the material with greatest concentration and diversity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was coupled with an ion mobility time-of-flight high-definition/high-resolution mass spectrometer (UPLC-HDMSE) to profile ethanol extracts of three common tree barks (Pinus contorta, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur) alongside a commercial reference (Pycnogenol® extracted from Pinus pinaster). Through the use of Progenesis QI informatics software, 35 high scoring components with reported significance to health were tentatively identified across the three bark extracts following broadly the profile of Pycnogenol®. Scots Pine had generally higher compound abundances than in the other two extracts. Oak bark extract showed the lowest abundances but exhibited higher amounts of naringenin and 3-O-methylrosmarinic acid. We conclude that forestry bark waste provides a rich source of extractable polyphenols suitable for use in food supplements and so can valorise this forestry waste stream. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Echinacea Purpurea Extracts Using Newly Manufactured Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes
Processes 2020, 8(7), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070833 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A sensitive electrochemical method was used for the determination of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea extracts. In this study, 3 glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were used: one unmodified and the other two newly manufactured glassy carbon electrodes modified [...] Read more.
A sensitive electrochemical method was used for the determination of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea extracts. In this study, 3 glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were used: one unmodified and the other two newly manufactured glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chitosan (CS) in different concentrations, having the following composition: 1 mg/mL CNTs/CS 5%/GCE and 20 mg/mL CNTs/CS 0.5%/GCE. The determinations were performed on 3 different pharmaceutical forms (capsules, tablets and tincture), which contain E. pururea extract from the root or aerial part of the plant. Standard chicoric and caftaric polyphenolic acids, as well as food supplements extracts, were characterized using voltammetry, in a Britton-Robinson (B-R) electrolyte buffer. The modified 1 mg/mL CNTs/CS 5%/GCE electrode has superior properties compared to the other two (the unmodified and 20 mg/mL CNTs/CS 0.5%/GCE-modified) electrodes used in the study. Echinacea tincture had the highest antioxidant capacity and the biggest total amount of polyphenols (28.72 mg/equivalent of 500 mg powder). Echinacea capsules had the lowest antioxidant capacity, but also the lowest total amount of polyphenols (19.50 mg/500 mg powder); similarly, tablets had approximately the same values of polyphenols content (19.80 mg/500 mg powder), and also antioxidant capacity. The total polyphenol content was consistent with the one indicated by the manufacturers. Pulse-differential cyclic voltammetry represents a rapid, simple and sensitive technique to establish the entire polyphenolic amount and the antioxidant activity of the E. purpurea extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Moringa oleifera—Storage Stability, In Vitro-Simulated Digestion and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Microencapsulated Extract
Processes 2020, 8(7), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070770 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
Moringa extract was microencapsulated for the first time by spray-drying technique using tragacanth gum (MorTG) to improve its stability under gastrointestinal and storage conditions, assessing total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the microencapsulated components was evaluated after contact with [...] Read more.
Moringa extract was microencapsulated for the first time by spray-drying technique using tragacanth gum (MorTG) to improve its stability under gastrointestinal and storage conditions, assessing total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the microencapsulated components was evaluated after contact with Caco-2 cells. Results showed that TPC was released as follows—oral (9.7%) < gastric (35.2%) < intestinal (57.6%). In addition, the antioxidant activity in in vitro digestion reached up to 16.76 ±0.15 mg GAE g−1, which was 300% higher than the initial value. Furthermore, microencapsulated moringa extract presented a half-life up to 45 days of storage, where the noticeably change was observed at 35 °C and 52.9% relative humidity. Finally, direct treatment with 0.125 mg mL−1 MorTG on Caco-2 cells showed a slight antiproliferative effect, with a cell viability of approx. 87%. Caco-2 cells’ viability demonstrated non-cytotoxicity, supporting the safety of the proposed formulation and potential use within the food field. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Industrial-Scale Study of the Chemical Composition of Olive Oil Process-Derived Matrices
Processes 2020, 8(6), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060701 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
The effect of the industrial process and collecting period on produced olive oil and by-products was evaluated. Obtained results showed significant variations for the majority of quality indices before and after vertical centrifugation between all samples from the three collecting periods. All samples [...] Read more.
The effect of the industrial process and collecting period on produced olive oil and by-products was evaluated. Obtained results showed significant variations for the majority of quality indices before and after vertical centrifugation between all samples from the three collecting periods. All samples were rich in monounsaturated fatty acid: Oleic acid (C18:1) with a maximum of 69.95%. The total polyphenols and individual phenolic compounds varied significantly through the extraction process, with a significant variation between olive oil and by-products. Notably, the percentage of secoiridoids and their derivatives was significant in paste and olive oil, highlighting the activity of many enzymes released during the different extraction steps. Regarding antioxidant capacity, the most remarkable result was detected in olive oil and olive mill wastewater samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Testing of Ultrasound/Microwave-Assisted Extraction (U/M-AE) for the Isolation of Geraniin from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican Variety) Peel
Processes 2020, 8(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050572 - 12 May 2020
Abstract
The rambutan peel (RP) is a relevant source of bioactive molecules, which could be used for application in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical areas. Total soluble polyphenol content was extracted from Mexican variety rambutan peels using an emergent ultrasound/microwave-assisted extraction (U/M-AE) technology. Five extractions [...] Read more.
The rambutan peel (RP) is a relevant source of bioactive molecules, which could be used for application in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical areas. Total soluble polyphenol content was extracted from Mexican variety rambutan peels using an emergent ultrasound/microwave-assisted extraction (U/M-AE) technology. Five extractions were performed using different mass/volume and ethanol/water ratios; 1:16-0; 1:16-70; 1:8-0; 1:8-70; 1:12-30. Condition 1:16-0 was defined as the best extraction condition with 0% ethanol percentage (only water). The content of total soluble polyphenols was 307.57 mg/g. The total bound polyphenol content was 26.53 mg/g. Besides, two separation processes were made with the soluble fraction; the first one was performed using Amberlite XAD-16 (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, USA), and seven polyphenolic compounds were obtained. The second one was performed using a preparative HPLC (Varian, Palo Alto, CA, USA) equipment obtained fraction where three compounds were obtained: geraniin (main compound), ellagic acid, and ellagic acid pentoside. The major compound isolated in the two separations was geraniin, according to HPLC/ESI/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ElectroSpray Ionization/Mass) analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acids, Tocopherols, and Phytosterol Composition of Seed Oil and Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Seeds from Three Dalbergia Species Grown in Vietnam
Processes 2020, 8(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050542 - 05 May 2020
Abstract
This research aimed to investigate the chemical composition of seed oils extracted from three Vietnamese Dalbergia species (D. tonkinensis, D. mammosa, and D. entadoides). The fatty acid profiles and contents of tocopherols and sterols of the seed oils, and total [...] Read more.
This research aimed to investigate the chemical composition of seed oils extracted from three Vietnamese Dalbergia species (D. tonkinensis, D. mammosa, and D. entadoides). The fatty acid profiles and contents of tocopherols and sterols of the seed oils, and total phenolic compounds extracted from the fresh seeds were characterized using different methods. Among the examined samples, D. tonkinensis seed oils showed high contents of linoleic acid (64.7%), whereas in D. mammosa, oleic acid (51.2%) was predominant. In addition, α- and γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were major ingredients in the seed oils, whereas ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid are usually predominant in the seeds of these species. Regarding sterol composition, the D. entadoides seed oil figured for remarkably high content of Δ5,23-stigmastadienol (1735 mg/kg) and Δ7-stigmastenol (1298 mg/kg). In addition, extracts with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) of seeds displayed significant in vitro antioxidant activity which was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Green Grape Juice
Processes 2020, 8(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050507 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Plants, due to their phytochemicals, have long been known for their pharmacological potential and medicinal value. Verjuice, the acidic juice of unripe green grape, is still poorly characterized in terms of its chemical composition and biological activities. (2) In this study, we [...] Read more.
(1) Plants, due to their phytochemicals, have long been known for their pharmacological potential and medicinal value. Verjuice, the acidic juice of unripe green grape, is still poorly characterized in terms of its chemical composition and biological activities. (2) In this study, we characterized the chemical composition, antioxidant and antitumor potential of verjuice extract. Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride reagents were used to identify the total phenol and total flavonoid composition. Various conventional methods were used to quantify the alkaloids and tannins. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and Neutral Red assay were used to assess the antioxidant and antitumor activities, respectively. (3) We showed that the verjuice extract contains alkaloids, tannins, and a high quantity of total flavonoids and total phenols. Besides its antioxidant activity, verjuice significantly repressed human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) cells’ viability in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, verjuice extract significantly enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin. (4) Altogether, these observations suggest a potential use of verjuice as a natural antitumor remedy. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Significance of Natural Product Derivatives and Traditional Medicine for COVID-19
Processes 2020, 8(8), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080937 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, there have been more than 10 million reported cases, more than 517,000 deaths in 215 countries, areas or territories. There is no effective antiviral medicine to prevent [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, there have been more than 10 million reported cases, more than 517,000 deaths in 215 countries, areas or territories. There is no effective antiviral medicine to prevent or treat COVID-19. Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. There is increasing number of publications reporting the effect of natural products and traditional medicine products on COVID-19. In our review, we provide an overview of natural products and their derivatives or mimics, as well as traditional medicine products, which were reported to exhibit potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, and to manage COVID-19 in vivo, or in clinical reports or trials. These natural products and traditional medicine products are categorized in several classes: (1) anti-malaria drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, (2) antivirals including nucleoside analogs (remdesivir, favipiravir, β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine, ribavirin and among others), lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol, (3) antibiotics including azithromycin, ivermectin and teicoplanin, (4) anti-protozoal drug, emetine, anti-cancer drug, homoharringtonine, and others, as well as (5) traditional medicine (Lian Hua Qing Wen Capsule, Shuang Huang Lian Oral Liquid, Qingfei Paidu Decoction and Scutellariae Radix). Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled large clinical trials are needed to provide solid evidence for the potential effective treatment. Currently, drug repurposing is a promising strategy to quickly find an effective treatment for COVID-19. In addition, carefully combined cocktails need to be examined for preventing a COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting global health concerns. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Conventional and Emerging Extraction Processes of Flavonoids
Processes 2020, 8(4), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040434 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
Flavonoids are a group of plant constituents called phenolic compounds and correspond to the nonenergy part of the human diet. Flavonoids are found in vegetables, seeds, fruits, and beverages such as wine and beer. Over 7000 flavonoids have been identified and they have [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are a group of plant constituents called phenolic compounds and correspond to the nonenergy part of the human diet. Flavonoids are found in vegetables, seeds, fruits, and beverages such as wine and beer. Over 7000 flavonoids have been identified and they have been considered substances with a beneficial action on human health, particularly of multiple positive effects because of their antioxidant and free radical scavenging action. Although several studies indicate that some flavonoids have provident actions, they occur only at high doses, confirming in most investigations the existence of anti-inflammatory effects, antiviral or anti-allergic, and their protective role against cardiovascular disease, cancer, and various pathologies. Flavonoids are generally removed by chemical methods using solvents and traditional processes, which besides being expensive, involve long periods of time and affect the bioactivity of such compounds. Recently, efforts to develop biotechnological strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of toxic solvents have been reported, reducing processing time and maintaining the bioactivity of the compounds. In this paper, we review, analyze, and discuss methodologies for biotechnological recovery/extraction of flavonoids from agro-industrial residues, describing the advances and challenges in the topic. Full article
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